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EN
Pelargonium graveolens belongs to Geraniaceae family. It is an aromatic and hairy herbaceous shrub that can reach up to 1.2 m height and a spread of 1 m. Its leaves are deeply incised, soft to the touch and strongly scented, while flowers are small and usually pink. P. graveolens is native to South Africa, but it is now widely cultivated in many countries, e.g. Reunion Island, Egypt, Russia, China, and Morocco, mainly for the production of essential oil. It is used in many different industries, e.g. perfumery, cosmetic, food and beverages industry as well as in veterinary drugs and medicine. Literature data shows that chloroplasts content in leaves reflects a whole plant condition, as they are able to produce chemical energy from the solar energy. Most important of all pigments are chlorophylls that can be found in almost every green part of a plant. However, during plant senescence, photosynthetic pigments are degraded. This research was carried out to determine a chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and also total chlorophylls content in Pelargonium graveolens at different age: one year old, two years old and three years old plants. To prepare samples, fresh leaves from each cultivation have been harvested, than homogenized in a chilled mortar with organic solvent 80% (v/v) acetone and then centrifuged. The absorbance of supernatants was immediately measured at 647 and 663 nm in a spectrophotometer. The outcome shows that in a first stage (first year) of plant growth, when it absorbs nutrients and synthesizes proteins to achieve efficient photosynthesis and undergo rapid expansion, chlorophyll a and b content is the lowest from all studied plants. The best quality pelargoniums are these at the age of two in which there is the biggest amount of green photosynthetic pigments.
PL
Pelargonium graveolens należy do rodziny Geraniaceae. Roślina ta jest aromatycznym, owłosionym krzewem, sięgającym 1,2 metra wysokości i osiągającym 1 m szerokości. Jej liście są mocno powcinane, miękkie w dotyku i wydzielają intensywny zapach, natomiast kwiaty są małe, zwykle różowe, zebrane w baldachy. Ojczyzną P. graveolens jest Afryka Południowa, ale uprawia się ją obecnie w wielu krajach świata, np. wyspie Reunion, Egipcie, Rosji, Chinach czy Maroko, głównie z przeznaczeniem na produkcję olejku eterycznego. Wykorzystywany jest on w wielu gałęziach przemysłu, m.in. perfumiarstwie, kosmetyce, przemyśle spożywczym czy medycynie. Dane literaturowe pokazują, że o kondycji całej rośliny świadczy zawartość chloroplastów w jej liściach, ponieważ te produkują niezbędną do wzrostu i rozwoju energię chemiczną z dostarczanej przez słońce energii cieplnej. To właśnie w chloroplastach znajdują się chlorofile, które są najważniejszymi pigmentami fotosyntetyzującymi. Jednakże podczas starzenia rośliny pigmenty te ulegają degradacji. Obecne badanie zostało przeprowadzone w celu ustalenia zawartości chlorofilu a i chlorofilu b w jedno-, dwu- i trzyletnich roślinach z gatunku Pelargonium graveolens. Zebrane zostały świeże liście z każdej ww. upraw, następnie zhomogenizowane w schłodzonym moździerzu w obecności 80% acetonu, a później odwirowane. Absorbancja uzyskanych supernatantów została niezwłocznie zmierzona w spektrofotometrze przy dł. fal 647 i 663 nm. Uzyskane dane pokazały, że w pierwszym stadium (pierwszym roku) wzrostu rośliny, kiedy pobiera ona składniki odżywcze i syntetyzuje białka, aby osiągnąć wydajną fotosyntezę i kiedy przechodzi gwałtowny rozwój, zawartość chlorofilu a i chlorofilu b była najmniejsza w porównaniu z pozostałymi roślinami. Najlepszą jakością wykazały się pelargonie dwuletnie, w których ilość chlorofilu była największa.
PL
Przedstawiono możliwość wykorzystania metody spektrofotometrycznej do monitorowania stężenia chlorofilu a w próbkach wód ze zbiorników antropogenicznych. Na podstawie wyników badań określono wartości podstawowych cech jakościowych i ilościowych zastosowanejmetody, takich jak: granica wykrywalności (0,366 mg/m3), granica oznaczalności (1 mg/m3), precyzja (CV<15% wyrażona jako wartość współczynnika zmienności) i poprawność (błąd względny <10% na podstawie wyników z badania biegłości Aquacheck).
EN
Spectrophotometric method was used for determination of chlorophyll a in waters from anthropogenic reservoir to establish the applicability limits of the method. The detection limit reached 0.366 mg/m3, the quantification limit is 1 mg/m3, the precision <15% and accuracy <10%.
EN
The laboratory experiments have been found that soaking seeds Galega orientalis L. (Fodder galega) in nanoaquacitrates solutions of Mn (10 and 20 mg/dm3), Mo (4 mg/dm3) and Mg (2 and 4 mg/dm3), has been lead to germination energy rise, while Mn (10 and 20 mg/dm3) and Mo (4 mg/dm3) concentrations has been influenced germinating ability. At the same time, the soaking seeds in solution of nanoaquacitrates Mn (20 mg/dm3) had the biggest stimulatory effect on the accumulation 7 daily sprouts mass (on 18%). It has been shown that soaking seeds in nanoparticles Mn and Mo solutions leads to the increase of catalase activities (especially under the influence of manganese) and peroxidase activities (under molybdenum influence). Applying the method of chlorophyll a fluorescence in the field and greenhouse experiments with Galega orientalis L. plants, artificial infected with phytoplasma Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum st. 118 the following changes in the photosynthetic apparatus has been indicated: reduction in the length of the light-antenna, blocking transport of electrons in plastoquinone pool PSII with reducing the pool of electron acceptors. It has also been indicated that photochemical activity resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus decreases while its stability increases, as result of described above effects the concentration of chlorophyll a and b in plants leaves decreases. The above-mentioned negative effects have been deactivated through foliar treatment of infected Galega orientalis L. plants with nanoaquacitrates solution Mo (4 mg/dm3) that allow increasing of photochemical resistance of photosynthetic apparatus as well as chlorophyll content in leaves. The foliar treatment with Mn (20 mg/dm3) solution of the infected plants, in compared with infected plants without treatment, resulted in more significant increase of Ki value (which correlate to the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity), which is explaining anti-mycoplasma effect of this solution.
EN
The experiments testing the toxicity of glyphosate Roundup® formulation were conducted on the natural microphytobenthic communities collected from the Gulf of Gdansk. The toxic effect of glyphosate was assessed by changes in the biomass of microphytobenthos cells [mm3 ∙ ml-1], chlorophyll a concentration and reduction of efficiency of photosystem II. Negative impact of glyphosate on microphytobenthic communities, both at the cellular and population scale, was determined. Hence it can be concluded that certain concentrations of the herbicide Roundup (glyphosate – active substance), in the marine environment may adversely impact natural microphytobenthic communities, and in consequence also other elements of the ecosystem.
EN
The comparison of the latest and previous data on the structure of phytoplankton and chlorophyll a concentration in Lake Charzykowskie indicated long-term changes and fluctuations. The main objective of this study was to assess the phytoplankton communities in the lake with reference to hydrochemical conditions. Detailed hydrobiological studies were carried out in 2014-2015 to explain the improvement in the trophic status of the lake observed in 2008-2009. The research has shown that the phytoplankton community structure does not change significantly during the limnological cycle. The spring/ autumn season is characterized by the highest contribution of diatoms and cryptophytes. Massive development of dinoflagellates was observed during the summer. Relative abundance of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum and Microcystis) was significantly lower compared to the previous years. In August 2014, cyanobacteria accounted for 100% of the total phytoplankton at site 2. In the following year, cyanobacteria represented only 13% in the summer phytoplankton. The current research has confirmed the favorable trophic changes in the phytoplankton of the lake. Unfortunately, very poor oxygen conditions will continue to affect the trophic status of the lake through mobilization of the internal nutrient supply. The current conditions of the lake require further monitoring of changes in the ecosystem.
6
Content available remote Diurnal and seasonal DOC and POC variability in the land-locked sea
EN
Organic matter is a minor yet important component of the marine environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal changes in dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively). Thus, DOC and POC as well as chlorophyll a (Chl a), δ13C, NO3−, NO2−, NH4+, PO43-, salinity, pH, and temperature were regularly measured in samples collected for 24 h (2-h resolution) in the Gdańsk Deep (54°44.730′N, 19°08.531′E) at three water depths (1, 10, and 40 m) during sampling campaigns in 2011 (May), 2014 (May), and 2015 (January, March, May, July, September, November). Seasonal variations in DOC and POC followed the seasonality of Chl a (proportional trend) and nutrients (reverse trend) concentrations. Diurnal oscillations were detected in six out of the eight measurement series. The strongest diurnal variability in both POC and DOC occurred in May 2011 and March 2015, when phytoplankton activity was highest (high Chl a). The surprisingly low δ13C values (range: −28‰ to −24‰) measured over the course of the study revealed the gaps in our knowledge of the isotopic characteristics of terrestrial- vs. marine-derived particulate organic matter.
EN
The present study focused on the determination of the baseline data and correlations between biological and physicochemical variables, including the assessment of trophic conditions in Lake Qarun. The concentrations of nutrients were high, with the maxima usually in the east subarea (total nitrogen 6.40 mg dm-3, mineral nitrogen 2.34 mg dm-3, orthophosphates 0.22 mg dm-3). A total of 134 phytoplankton species were recorded. Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae co-dominated spatially and seasonally in phytoplankton assemblages. The highest phytoplankton density (935 × 104 cells dm-3) and chlorophyll a content (69.3 μg dm-3) were recorded in the east subarea of the lake, whereas the largest total and dominant fish (Mugil cephalus and Solea spp.) were in the west. Tilapia zillii and Engraulis encrasicolus were most abundant in the east and in the middle part, respectively. When phytoplankton density decreased from the east toward the west subarea, the Secchi disk depth increased. The TLI-based assessment indicated hypereutrophic waters at most sites of Lake Qarun. Statistically significant positive or negative correlations were found between the dominant fish species: T. zillii and Solea spp., and the phytoplankton density, Dinophyceae density, concentrations of TP, chlorophyll a, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. Such correlations may be helpful to better understand how to enhance the sustainable fish production.
EN
This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.
PL
Proces eutrofizacji zbiorników zaporowych jest bardzo istotnym problemem środowiskowym i ze względu na ich ważne funkcje gospodarcze musi być stale monitorowany. Trudności prognozowania stanu trofii wód oraz ograniczona możliwość sterowania procesem powodują potrzebę systematycznej kontroli przebiegu eutrofizacji w celu wczesnego reagowania. Wiarygodnej oceny dostarczają wskaźniki wieloparametrowe, odznaczające się wieloaspektowym podejściem do problemu. W badaniach przedstawionych w artykule do oceny stanu trofii wód zbiorników Jeziorsko i Sulejowskiego zastosowano integralny wskaźnik troficzności (ang. Index of Trophic State - ITS), który odzwierciedla bilans procesów produkcji i rozkładu substancji organicznej produkowanej przez glony oraz bazuje na wartościach pH i nasycenia wody tlenem, a więc standardowych pomiarach monitoringowych. Pozwala on dzięki temu w szybki i tani sposób ocenić stan trofii. W celu weryfikacji wyników uzyskanych z zastosowaniem integralnego wskaźnika troficzności (ITS) przeprowadzono również ocenę według wartości granicznych koncentracji fosforu całkowitego i chlorofilu „a” ustalonych przez Vollenweidera i OECD. Ocena stanu troficznego wód obu zbiorników dokonana na podstawie różnych metod charakteryzuje się bardzo zbliżonymi wynikami, co potwierdziło zasadność zastosowania wskaźnika ITS do oceny stanu troficznego wód.
EN
The natural eutrophication process can be accelerated as the result of anthropogenic activity. The intensification of eutrophication process leads to destroying of the balance between synthesis and destruction of organic compounds that in turn results in the disturbance of ecological equilibrium of whole aquatic ecosystem. Taking into account the high dynamics of eutrophication process and its negative consequence, the continuous monitoring of water trophic state is necessary for early detecting the changes and taking appropriate action. The aim of the paper was the assessment of water trophic state of two dam reservoirs: Jeziorsko and Sulejowski on the base of long-term monitoring within analyzed period 2010-2014. The localization of the reservoirs is borderland between the Małopolska Upland and Środkowopolska Lowland, administrative localization is Łódź Province and they are managed by Regional Water Management Authority in Poznań and by Regional Water Management Authority in Warszawa. The monitoring of Jeziorsko Reservoir was carried out in one measurement-control point above the dam. The monitoring of Sulejowski Reservoir was carried out in three measurement-control points: near to the Pilica river inflow, in the middle of reservoir and above the dam. The database includes monitoring measurements realized in 2011 and 2014 on Jeziorsko Reservoir and in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014 on Sulejowski Reservoir. The values of reservoirs’ water quality parameters were obtained from Province Environmental Protection Inspectorate in Łódź, which realizes the surface water monitoring including artificial lakes, as a part of the State Environment Monitoring Program. The assessment of water trophic state was carried out using the Index of Trophic State (ITS) which is based on the existing of linear relationship between pH and oxygen content in water, the parameters indirectly expressing the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in water. Eutrophication is a consequence of the disturbance of the balance between synthesis and destruction of organic compounds produced by water vegetation, which leads to the changes in content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in water. The results of water trophic state assessment obtained on the base of ITS index indicated the eutrophic and mesoeutrophic level in both reservoirs. The results obtained with the help of ITS were verified by the results obtained on the base of total phosphorus and chlorophyll “a” threshold values determined by Vollenweider and OECD. The assessment of water trophic state on the base of multiparametric Index of Trophic State (ITS) was confirmed by assessment based on threshold values of single parameters. This proves that ITS index is useful and justified. High trophic state of both reservoirs within whole research period showed that this trend is enduring for multi-year period.
EN
Chlorophyll (chl a) concentration in coastal seas exhibits variability on various spatial and temporal scales. Resuspension of particulate matter can somewhat limit algal growth, but can also enhance productivity because of the intrusion of nutrient-rich pore water from sediments or bottom water layers into the whole water column. This study investigates whether characteristic changes in net phytoplankton growth can be directly linked to resuspension events within the German Bight. Satellite-derived chl a were used to derive spatial patterns of net rates of chl a increase/decrease (NR) in 2003 and 2004. Spatial correlations between NR and mean water column irradiance were analysed. High correlations in space and time were found in most areas of the German Bight (R2 > 0.4), suggesting a tight coupling between light availability and algal growth during spring. These correlations were reduced within a distinct zone in the transition between shallow coastal areas and deeper offshore waters. In summer and autumn, a mismatch was found between phytoplankton blooms (chl a > 6 mg m−3) and spring-tidal induced resuspension events as indicated by bottom velocity, suggesting that there is no phytoplankton resuspension during spring tides. It is instead proposed here that frequent and recurrent spring-tidal resuspension events enhance algal growth by supplying remineralized nutrients. This hypothesis is corroborated by a lag correlation analysis between resuspension events and in-situ measured nutrient concentrations. This study outlines seasonally different patterns in phytoplankton productivity in response to variations in resuspension, which can serve as a reference for modelling coastal ecosystem dynamics.
EN
Large numbers of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (max. 10,490 ind.), Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (max. 3,430 ind.) and Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (max. 1,449 ind.) were recorded on the Goczałkowice Reservoir, Poland (2,754 ha). Most of the waterbirds occurred in the backwater of this reservoir. The amount of phosphorus and nitrogen loaded by the most numerous waterbirds into Goczałkowice Reservoir was estimated at 958 kg and 2,621 kg, respectively in 2011 and 1,043 kg and 2,793 kg, respectively in 2012. In 2011 and 2012, the waterbirds introduced a considerable amount of phosphorus, nitrogen and a large number of coliforms into the backwater of the reservoir. The concentration of different forms of phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll-a and bacteria coli in the water was not greater at the site of birds’ concentration (except dissolved organic nitrogen). The concentration of nitrates in the water at the site near the breeding colony of gulls in comparison with the reference site was not different. The amounts of P-tot and N-tot in the sediment were similar at the site affected by waterbirds and at the reference site. The dynamics of water masses was not the reason for the lack of differences between the studied sites.
EN
According to the general classification of shallow eutrophic lakes, two alternative types are distinguished: phytoplankton-dominated and macrophyte-dominated lakes. The latter type is rare and currently endangered by human activity. In order to determine the effect of reduced inflow of surface water by an earth dyke on the lake trophic state, certain biological and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated. This work focuses on two lakes of similar morphometric characteristics situated in the agricultural landscape. The effect of the earth dyke on the trophic state was positively verified. The lake situated in the catchment basin, in which the inflow of surface water was reduced, was defined as meso-eutrophic, with a small amount of phytoplankton and high water transparency. The reference lake was highly eutrophic, with low water transparency and a large amount of phytoplankton. The water body surrounded by the earth dyke was macrophytes dominated (65% of the lake area), whereas the reference lake was a phytoplankton-macrophyte type (42% of the lake area). The trophic evaluation of a lake can be underestimated because of a significant amount of biogenic compounds accumulated in plant tissues. Thus, the values of Carlson’s indices in macrophyte-dominated lakes may not account for the total amount of nutrients in the water body.
PL
W ogólnej klasyfi kacji płytkich jezior eutrofi cznych można wyróżnić dwa alternatywne typy zbiorników: zdominowane przez fitoplankton i zdominowane przez makrofity. Ten drugi typ jezior jest rzadki i obecnie zagrożony działalnością człowieka. W celu określenia wpływu zredukowanego dopływu wód powierzchniowych przez ziemną groblę na stan troficzny jeziora, poddano ocenie wybrane parametry biologiczne i fizyczno-chemiczne dwóch zbiorników o podobnej morfometrii, położonych w krajobrazie rolniczym. Efekt oddziaływania grobli na jakość ekosystemu jeziornego oceniono jako znaczący. Jezioro położone w zlewni, w której dopływ wód powierzchniowych był ograniczony, zostało zaklasyfikowane jako mezo-eutroficzne, z małą ilością fitoplanktonu i o dużej przezroczystości wody. Jezioro porównawcze było silnie eutroficzne, z dużą ilością fitoplanktonu i o niskiej przezroczystości wody. Zbiornik otoczony przez groblę reprezentował typ makrofitowy (65% powierzchni jeziora pokryta przez roślinność), a stan jeziora porównawczego, w którym roślinność zajmowała 42% misy jeziornej, mieścił się między typem fitoplanktonowym i makrofitowym. Ocena trofii jezior może być jednak niedoszacowana, ponieważ znaczna część nutrientów może być zakumulowana w tkankach roślin. Stąd, wartości wskaźników Carlsona w przypadku jezior makrofitowych mogą nie uwzględniać ogólnej ilości nutrientów w jeziorze.
EN
Most scenarios of the predicted climate change in Europe imply that the increasing temperature trend will be maintained in winter seasons. The presence or absence of the ice cover in winter can impact on the functioning of lake ecosystems. The research was carried out in two mesotrophic and dimictic lakes in winter with and without ice cover. The biomass and phytoplankton and its composition was analysed with reference to physical factors (PAR and temperature). The research proved that poor thermal-light conditions under the ice/snow cover favoured the development of nanoplanktonic species from the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyta) or Stephanodiscus (Bacillariophyceae), whereas microplanktonic species of dinoflagellates, diatoms or green algae prevailed during the ice-free winter. The highest phytoplankton biomass and species richness were recorded during ice-free winter, which affected a higher Shannon-Wiener diversity index and evenness. It has been shown that the mild winter creates good conditions for the development of phytoplankton species characteristic for the mixing periods. The lack of inverse thermal stratification during winter can lead to disturbance in the functioning of the water ecosystems throughout the year.
EN
The phytoplankton standing crop was assessed in detail along the South Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the different phases of coastal upwelling in 2009. During phase 1 intense upwelling was observed along the southern transects (8°N and 8.5°N). The maximum chlorophyll a concentration (22.7 mg m-3) was observed in the coastal waters off Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N). Further north there was no signature of upwelling, with extensive Trichodesmium erythraeum blooms. Diatoms dominated in these upwelling regions with the centric diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus being the dominant species along the 8°N transect. Along the 8.5°N transect pennate diatoms like Nitzschia seriata and Pseudo-nitzschia sp. dominated. During phase 2, upwelling of varying intensity was observed throughout the study area with maximum chlorophyll a concentrations along the 9°N transect (25 mg m-3) with Chaetoceros curvisetus as the dominant phytoplankton. Along the 8.5°N transect pennate diatoms during phase 1 were replaced by centric diatoms like Chaetoceros sp. The presence of solitary pennate diatoms Amphora sp. and Navicula sp. were significant in the waters off Kochi. Upwelling was waning during phase 3 and was confined to the coastal waters of the southern transects with the highest chlorophyll a concentration of 11.2 mg m-3. Along with diatoms, dinoflagellate cell densities increased in phases 2 and 3. In the northern transects (9°N and 10°N) the proportion of dinoflagellates was comparatively higher and was represented mainly by Protoperidinium spp., Ceratium spp. and Dinophysis spp.
15
EN
The paper describes the ecohydrodynamic predictive model - the ecosystem module - for assessing the state of the Baltic marine environment and the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea model 3D CEMBS (the Coupled Ecosystem Model of the Baltic Sea) is based on the Community Earth System Model, which was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice-ecosystem model. The 3D CEMBS model uses: (i) hydrodynamic equations describing water movement, (ii) thermodynamic equations, (iii) equations describing the concentration distribution of chemical variables in the sea, and (iv) equations describing the exchange of matter between individual groups of organisms and their environment that make allowance for the kinetics of biochemical processes. The ecosystem model consists of 11 main components: three classes of phytoplankton (small phytoplankton, large phytoplankton represented mainly by diatoms and summer species, mostly cyanobacteria) expressed in units of carbon and chlorophyll a as separate variables, zooplankton, pelagic detritus, dissolved oxygen and nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate). In operational mode, 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM) are used. All model forecasts are available on the website http://deep.iopan.gda.pl/CEMBaltic/new_lay/index.php. The results presented in this paper show that the 3D CEMBS model is operating correctly.
EN
In this publication the chosen methods of estimation of the eutrophication were presented. These methods were used for the evaluation of the trophic status of the Poraj Reservoir water. In this research the Integral trophic state index was used. In addition the loading reservoir with total phosphorus was estimated, as well as the permissible and the critical loads of phosphorus according to Vollenweider were also defined. Furthermore, the trophic classification of reservoir water was achieved on the grounds of: the concentrations of biogenic substances in reservoir water, the concentrations of the chlorophyll a, the biomass of phytoplankton and the species composition of phytoplankton. The every chosen methods indicated on the advanced eutrophication processes occurring in this reservoir.
PL
W artykule zostały zaprezentowane wybrane metody oszacowania poziomu eutrofizacji. Metody te użyto do oceny statusu troficznego wód zbiornika zaporowego Poraj. W badaniach został zastosowany Integralny wskaźnik stanu troficznego. Dodatkowo oszacowano obciążenie zbiornika ładunkiem fosforu ogólnego oraz obliczono ładunki dopuszczalne i niebezpieczne fosforu ogólnego według Vollenweidera. Ponadto, klasyfikacji troficznej wód zbiornika dokonano na podstawie koncentracji związków biogennych oraz chlorofilu a, a także biomasy fitoplanktonu oraz składu gatunkowego fitoplanktonu. Wszystkie wybrane metody wskazały na postępujące procesy eutrofizacyjne w wodach tego zbiornika.
EN
The spatio-temporal variability of chlorophyl a (Chl a) caused by a sequence of upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland in July-August 2006 was studied using remote sensing data and field measurements. Spatial distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) and Chl a concentration were examined using MODIS and MERIS data respectively. The MERIS data were processed with an algorithm developed by the Free University of Berlin (FUB) for case 2 waters. Evaluation of MERIS Chl a versus in situ Chl a showed good correlation (r2 = 0.67), but the concentration was underestimated. The linear regression for a 2 h window was applied to calibrate MERIS Chl a. The spatio-temporal variability exhibited the clear influence of upwelling events and related filaments on Chl a distribution in the western and central Gulf. The lowest Chl a concentrations were recorded in the upwelled water, especially at the upwelling centres, and the highest concentrations (13 mg m-3) were observed about two weeks after the upwelling peak along the northern coast. The areas along the northern coast of upwelled water (4879 km2) on the SST map, and increased Chl a (5526 km2) two weeks later, were roughly coincident. The effect of upwelling events was weak in the eastern part of the Gulf, where Chl a concentration was relatively consistent throughout this period.
18
Content available remote Black box : what do we know about Humic lakes?
EN
The classic description of a coloured lake implies low productivity (Nauman 1921; cited in Jones 1922). Wetzel (1975) initially classified dystrophic lakes as oligotrophic, but later stated that dystrophy represents a subset of trophic continuum, from oligotrophy to eutrophy, rather than a parallel concept (Wetzel 2001). Other more recent studies have demonstrated that many dystrophic lakes are mesotrophic or even eutrophic (Jones 1992, Keskitalo and Eloranta 1999). Furthermore, the pH of their water can range between 4.1 and 8.0 (Keskitalo and Eloranta 1999), and it is clear that this property should be treated as an additional factor affecting their trophic state. Our own findings from humic acidic lakes of different trophic states and from one posthumic lake (originally humic, now eutrophic with pH = 7), together with data from the literature describing about 40 brown-water lakes, can be used to verify general statements concerning microbial ecology paradigms for humic waters: 1) the bacterial to phytoplankton biomass ratio is generally high and increases with lake water colour; 2) there is a positive relationship between bacterial biomass and the concentration of organic matter expressed in dissolved organic carbon units and as water colour; 3) bacterial production is generally higher than primary production; 4) there is a good correlation between bacterial production and humic matter content; 5) the pH of the water/sediments can modify these relationships by accelerating the rates between the variables mentioned above in neutral pH and/or limiting them in low pH. In this review we show that these statements are not always confirmed by detailed analyses of the available data, suggesting that in addition to the concentration of humic matter, the lake productivity, expressed as chlorophyll a and primary production, also influences the ratios between the compared variables. We also demonstrate that despite being weaker, the relationships between phytoplankton-related variables and bacterial abundance and production in low pH lakes are similar to those in circum-neutral humic waters. In addition, we show that the conversion factors and the proportion of active bacterial cells greatly influence all of the aforementioned relationships.
PL
Kraków jest zaopatrywany w wodę m.in. z Rudawy, której jakość, szczególnie podczas wezbrań, powoduje znaczne utrudnienia w eksploatacji zakładu oczyszczania wody. W celu ograniczenia tych trudności w 1998 r. wybudowano na ujęciu wody dwa zbiorniki retencyjne o powierzchni 36,7 ha i objętości całkowitej 981 tys. m3. W pracy dokonano oceny wpływu tych zbiorników na zmiany wartości wybranych wskaźników jakości wody ujmowanej z Rudawy na skutek jej retencjonowania. W tym celu wykorzystano wyniki badań jakości wody (mętność, barwa, azot amonowy, fosforany oraz chlorofil a) z pięciolecia 2006-2010 w pięciu punktach poboru na trasie jej przepływu od ujęcia poprzez osadniki, zbiorniki retencyjne (na ich dopływie i odpływie), do w studni zbiorczej na terenie zakładu oczyszczania wody "Rudawa". Wykazano, że wprowadzenie zbiorników do eksploatacji spowodowało poprawę jakości wody dostarczanej do układu oczyszczania. Średnia mętność i barwa oraz zawartości azotu amonowego i fosforanów w wodzie uległy zmniejszeniu. Szczególnie korzystny okazał się wpływ zbiorników na zmniejszenie mętności wody. Podkreślono, że woda zgromadzona w zbiornikach retencyjnych spełnia rolę zapasu w czasie pogorszenia jakości wody w rzece podczas wezbrań i incydentalnych zanieczyszczeń.
EN
One of the sources of municipal water for the city of Krakow is the Rudawa river. The quality of its water, however, raised operating problems in the treatment plant, specifically during floods or over periods of incidental contamination. To reduce water quality deterioration which is concomitant with those recurrent events, two storage reservoirs (of an area of 36.7 ha and a total volume of 981,000 m3) were constructed at the riverine water intake. Both have been in service since 1998. The aim of the study reported on in this paper was to assess the contribution of the storage reservoirs to the changes in some of the parameters describing the quality of the taken-in riverine water. This was achieved by scrutinizing the results of water quality analyses (turbidity, color, ammonia nitrogen, phosphates and chlorophyll a) performed in the time span of 2006 to 2010 at five sampling points along the pathway of the water from the intake, through the settling tanks and the two storage reservoirs (at their inflow and outflow), to the raw water well within the premises of the Rudawa Water Treatment Plant. The results of the study make it clear that the storage reservoirs have upgraded the quality of the water entering the treatment plant: the average values of turbidity and color, as well as those of ammonia nitrogen and phosphate concentrations, have been reduced. The favorable influence of the storage reservoirs is particularly distinct in the case of turbidity removal. Moreover, the water stored in the reservoirs is kept in reserve, to enable safe municipal supply during floods or incidental deterioration.
EN
Total organic carbon (TOC) can be one of the parameters used to determine trophic state in lakes, as shown by the statistically significant correlation between TOC and chlorophyll, total phosphorus and Secchi disk transparency. Calculation of the TSI index based on TOC according to the formula TSI(TOC) = 20.59 + 15.71 ln(TOC) and its introduction as an additional index to the classification by Carlson may optimize the comparative analysis of lakes and allow a measurable assessment of lakes with respect to the trophic gradient.
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