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EN
In Special Olympics, athletes’ foot deformities, abnormal postural patterns and overweight and obesity were observed to be more common than in the general population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between body composition and foot posture index. Additionally, the effect of gender and other factors on the body composition and foot posture index in athletes with intellectual disability (ID) were analyzed. Methods: 131 athletes with ID participated in this study: 36 table tennis players, 66 cross country skiers and 29 downhill skiers. Their body composition was assessed using the bioimpedance analysis InBody 230 (Biospace, Korea). The foot screening included the assessment of foot posture index, which evaluates the degree of pronated, supinated and neutral position of the foot, gait speed and the last part of the procedure consisted of a short questionnaire, providing the information about the type of housing, age, and the usage of orthotics. Results: A low correlation between body composition and some of the foot posture index criteria was observed. The mean foot posture index score in athletes with ID was observed to be slightly pronated, as also described in the general population, with no statistically significant difference between female and male athletes. The gender differences were observed only in body composition. Conclusions: The high body weight and body fat percentage observed in this study highlight the need for healthy lifestyle education in athletes with ID.
EN
In team sports, the varied levels of physical demand associated with different field positions are reflected in the morphofunctional features of the players. The aim of this work was to recognize how the playing position in the team depends on the anthropometric profiles and the strength level of professional handball players. Methods: A body mass, stature, lower and upper extremity length, circumferences and skinfolds were measured in the male professional athletes. The body composition was analysed using a bioelectrical impedance method. Additionally, hand grip and back strength were measured. A statistical analysis was carried out using routinely statistic methods and principal component analysis. Results: Pivot players usually have the most athletic figure in terms of size and weight and relatively short legs. The backs are characterized by the android body type and low subcutaneous fat content, and a large mass of body cells. The backs and pivots have the same strength of back and hand grip. Goalkeepers have relatively long upper and lower limbs and high back and hand grip strength. The wingers are usually slender, have medium length limbs, low body fat percentage, significant extracellular mass and the lowest muscle strength. Conclusions: The results of the multivariate analysis were a notable and valuable addition to the study of morphological and strength differences in a group quite homogeneous like a handball team. The principal component analysis allowed for a reduction of the multidimensional structure to three variables describing body massiveness, strength, and the length and height aspect of the body.
EN
Purpose: Development of strength is one of essential elements of motor preparation of judo athletes. The aim this study was to examine the influence of body composition and the joint torques on successful performance of various judo techniques. Methods: Twentyfive judo athletes participated in 175 judo bouts, which were video-recorded during the All-Polish competitions. Biomechanical classification of technical actions was used. The age and athletic experience of the subjects were 18 and 8.8 years, respectively. Their body height was 179.4 cm (Martin’s type anthropometer) and body mass was 80.3 kg (Sartorius F 1505 – DZA scales). Percentage of fat (10.6%) was estimated using skinfold result measurements. BMI (24.9 kgm–2), fat-free mass index (21.9 kgm–2) and fat mass index (3.0 kgm–2) were calculated. Maximum torques measured under static conditions were evaluated 2–3 days after the tournament. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were conducted ( p  0.05). Results: Balancing of maximum torques in the muscles of the pelvic and illiac regions caused more frequent performance of physical lever-type throwing techniques, compared to couple of force-type throwing techniques. A negative correlation was found between body fat and value of force recorded for knee flexors and between the frequency of using techniques during groundwork and torques measured in hip extensors. High correlation of fat-free mass index and relative elbow flexor torque was found. Conclusions: The relationship between body composition and frequency of techniques used in a tournament, and joint torques developed by athletes were found.
EN
Identification of factors that affect postural stability may help to improve diagnostic accuracy and enhance the quality of treatment and rehabilitation. This study sought to assess the relationship between postural stability parameters and anthropometric factors of persons with hearing impairment (HI). Methods: The study included 128 individuals – 42 subjects with HI and 86 without HI (healthy controls). Research methodology included an interview and a medical examination, anthropometric measurements and stabilometric tests on platforms with stable and unstable surfaces. Results: In the group of female study participants with HI, significant correlations were only noted between body height and the Fall Risk Index (FRI). In the group of male subjects with HI, the study revealed significant correlations between FRI and body mass, BMI, % MM (muscle mass percentage) and % FAT (fat percentage). Moreover, moderate correlation was found between COP path with eyes open and body mass, while high correlation was observed between COP path with eyes open and BMI, % MM and % FAT. No significant correlation was noted between FRI and body height in men with HI. Conclusions: The examination of correlations between postural stability and body build of persons with HI did not confirm the effects of body height on postural stability in the examined group of individuals with HI, but revealed a greater influence of somatic parameters (body mass, BMI, % MM, % FAT) on postural stability in hearing-impaired men.
EN
The aim of this study was to examine the differences in body composition, strength and power of lower limbs, height of jump measured for the akimbo counter movement jumps, counter movement jump and spike jumps between deaf and hearing elite female soccer players. Methods: Twenty deaf (age: 23.7 ± 5.0 years, hearing loss: 96 ± 13.9 dB) and 25 hearing (age: 20.3 ± 3.8 years) participated in the study. Their WHR and BMI were calculated. Body fat was measured using the BIA method. The maximal power and height of jump were measured by force plate. Biodex dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic isometric strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps. Results: Significant differences between hearing and deaf soccer players in anthropometric values were for the waist and calf circumferences and the WHR index ( p < 0.01, effect size 0.24–0.79). Statistically significant differences were observed for flexion of the lower limb in the knee joint for the relative joint torque and relative power obtained for the angular velocity of 300 degˑs–1 for both lower limbs (p < 0.01, effect size 0.19–0.48) and for 180 degˑs–1 during flexion of the left limb (p = 0.02, effect size 0.13). The hearing female football players developed significantly greater MVC in all the cases. Statistically significant differences between deaf and hearing athletes were found for spike jump for maximal power (1828.6 ± 509.4 W and 2215.2 ± 464.5 W, respectively; p = 0.02, effect size 0.14). Conclusions: Hearing impairment does not limit the opportunities for development of physical fitness in the population of deaf women.
PL
Początki badań składu ciała sięgają drugiej połowy XIX wieku. Od tego czasu obserwuje się intensywny i wielokierunkowy rozwój metod pomiarów umożliwiających zrozumienie procesów fizjologicznych i biochemicznych oraz wspomagających leczenie chorób, takich jak otyłość lub anoreksja. Jedną z bardziej popularnych jest nieinwazyjna analiza bioimpedancji elektrycznej (BIA – Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis). Materiał i metoda. W artykule wykorzystano wyniki badań longitudinalnych dziewcząt (N = 91) i chłopców (N = 89) w wieku 13–15 lat. Zmierzono wysokość, masę ciała oraz skład ciała za pomocą aparatu BIA 101S. Określono: procentową zawartość tłuszczu, masy komórkowej i masy pozakomórkowej. Wyznaczono wskaźnik masy ciała (BMI – Body Mass Index) i obliczono stosunek masy ciała szczupłego do masy tłuszczu oraz masy komórkowej do masy pozakomórkowej. Statystyczną analizę wyników przeprowadzono za pomocą programu Statistica 9.0. Wyniki. W analizowanym przedziale wieku większe tempo rozwoju masy ciała w odniesieniu do jego wysokości wpływa na kształtowanie masywniejszej sylwetki u badanej młodzieży. Powiększenie masywności budowy płci męskiej dotyczy przede wszystkim rozwoju masy ciała szczupłego, zwłaszcza masy komórkowej. U dziewcząt w analizowanym okresie ontogenezy wzrost masywności ciała wynika z większych przyrostów masy tłuszczu.
EN
The examinations of the body components is known since 19th century. Such analysis is important e.g. for the treatment of anorexia and obesity. One of the most popular methods is the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) – non-invasive and effective way to determine the human body composition. Material and method. In this paper, the results of longitudinal measurements of girls (N = 91) and boys (N = 89), aged 13 to 15, were analyzed. The body height, mass and tissue composition were measured by means of BIA 101S Apparatus (% fat, % body cell mass, % extracellular mass). Body Mass Index (BMI) and the ratio of the lean body mass to fat mass, as well as the body cell mass to extracellular mass, were calculated. The statistical analysis was performed by means Statistica 9.0. Results. Within the analysed age range, the higher pace of the body mass development, in relation to the body height, causes more massive posture of examined youths. The increase of body massiveness in boys is connected mainly with the development of lean body mass, in particular, the cell mass. In girls in the analysed ontogenetic period, the increase of body massiveness results from the greater increase of fat mass.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena wpływu ćwiczeń mięśni brzucha realizowanych metodą gigant-serii na lokalne i ogólnoustrojowe zmiany zawartości tłuszczu. Badaniu poddano zawodników Muay Thai (boks tajski) i kulturystyki (n = 20). Wiek badanych wynosił od 18 do 33 lat, staż zawodniczy od 1 do 8 lat. Badania wykonano przed rozpoczęciem programu treningowego i po 30 dniach treningu. Do pomiaru całkowitej procentowej zawartości tkanki tłuszczowej w organizmie oraz lokalnej tkanki tłuszczowej zastosowano analizator składu ciała FUTREX-5500A/ZL. Pomiary grubości fałdów skórno-tłuszczowych wykonano za pomocą tkankomierza. W wyniku badań stwierdzono, że seria ćwiczeń mięśni brzucha przy wysokim poziomie otłuszczenia trzewnego, realizowanych metodą gigant serii nie obniży go, a jedynie spowoduje wzrost siły i wytrzymałości mięśni brzucha.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of abdominal giant set workout on local and systemic changes of fat content. The study group consisted of 20 male athletes training Muay Thai and body building. The age of the subjects was 18-33 years, the training experience was 1-8 years. The measurements were taken before the beginning of the abdominal giant set workout and after 30 days. The FUTREX-5500A/ZL analyzer was used to measure the body fat and the local adipose tissue composition. The measurement of skinfolds thickness was done by means of skinfold calipers HARPENDEN C-136. As a result of examinations it was affirmed that abdominal giant set workout, by high level of visceral fat content, shall not decrease it, but only influent the increase of the strength and endurance od abdominal muscles.
PL
Od 1989 r. prowadzone są w ośrodku wrocławskim badania nad zastosowaniem temperatur kriogenicznych w rehabilitacji i odnowie biologicznej. W obecnej pracy analizowano zmiany zachodzące w różnych obszarach ciała w czasie 10-dniowej kuracji. Grupę badawczą stanowiły kobiety w wieku ok. 55 lat, skierowane na zabiegi krioterapii (kriostymulacji) ogólnoustrojowej. Na podstawie badań antropometrycznych określono dwie grupy badanych; grupę A o normalnej masie ciała oraz grupę B z nadwagą (BMI – body mass index) i otyłością (WHR – waist to hip ratio). Termowizyjna analiza temperatury poszczególnych obszarów ciała przed i bezpośrednio po zabiegu wykazała zależność pomiędzy składem ciała a zmianami temperatur w kolejnych dniach zabiegowych. Przedstawione wyniki są badaniami wstępnymi i stanowią fragment badań dotyczących dynamiki zmian rozkładu temperatury w zabiegach krioterapeutycznych.
EN
The cryogenic temperatures are used in the Wroclaw centre from 1989. In this work, changes of temperature distribution in various body areas during a 10-day treatment, were analyzed. Women in age of about 55 were exposed to the systemic cryotherapy (cryostimulation). On the basis of anthropometric measurements two sub-groups were defined; group A – with normal body mass and group B comprising of overweight subjects (BMI – body mass index) and subjects with obesity (WHR – waist to hip ratio). Thermo-visual analysis of chosen body areas before and directly after the treatment revealed correlation between body composition and temperature changes after cryotherapy. Presented results of the preliminary study are the fragment of more extended examination of the dynamics of temperature changes in course of cryotherapeutic treatment.
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