Hydrobionts are considered as highly potential source for bioproduction (including energy carriers and fertilizers) and many biotechnological processes that include hydrobionts, particularly their biomass as a substrate are used in different fields of energy, cosmetology, medicine, pharmaceutics, aquaculture, agriculture, forestry etc. Latest developments prove efficiency in applying anaerobic digestion for purifying wastewaters from organic pollutants with the help of macrophytes and microphytes in conducting biomethanogenesis. Many studies have established that it is possible to reach high level of lipid extraction from algae (to 95%) with the help of organic solvents (methanol, acetone, hexane, diethyl ether etc). Blue – green algae biomass has been scientifically proved to be a good source for methane, methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, biodiesel and other biofuel types production. Macroalgae and microalgae contain β- carotene, biotin, folic acid, fucoidans, lectins, phenolics, sulphated polysaccharides and other derived biologically active compounds that can be used in producing vitamins, have anti-ulcer, antioxidant, antibiotic, antifouling, immune modulatory and other properties. Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, O. tauri, Micromonas pusilla have shown high potential for hydrogen production while Rhizoclonium sp. has been experimentally used as a bounding material in briquetting miscanthus granules, resulting in 20 % higher dynamic strength. The article is a literature review and the purpose of this work is to classify and systemize hydrobionts, reveal regularity of their growth, conduct critical analysis on existing biotechnologies on using separate representatives of aquatic biomes as a raw material and also to review ways of intensification for these biotechnologies.