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EN
The adsorption of Eurozol Navy Blue (ENB) reactive dye was examined using banana peel and sugarcane bagasse powders. Several parameters such as pH, contact time, agitation speed, temperature, initial dye concentration, and adsorbent dosage were considered and their impact on dye adsorption efficiency was evaluated. The removal percentages of ENB dye due to adsorption on banana peel and sugarcane bagasse were 72% and 70%, respectively. Simultaneous dosing of both biosorbents resulted in 68% dye removal. The Langmuir isotherm model was found to fit the adsorption of ENB dye on banana peel and sugarcane bagasse powders. The corresponding maximum adsorption capacities were equal to 24.09, 32.46, and 27.54 mg/g for banana peel powder, sugarcane bagasse powder, and the mixture of adsorbents, respectively.
EN
The adsorption of three reactive dyes (Reactive Bezactiv Yellow (RBY), Reactive Bezactiv Blue (RBB) and Reactive Bezactiv (RBR)) on a commercially available activated carbon (CAC) has been evaluated. It was shown that CAC is capable to effectively remove these dyes from a solution. The adsorption increased with higher contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial dye concentration. The data indicated that the adsorption kinetics of dyes on CAC followed a pseudo-second order model. The adsorption isotherms followed the Langmuir isotherm model. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process is endothermic for all dyes and spontaneous in a single system and became spontaneous in mixture systems at high temperature, expect RBY and RBB in the ternary mixture. Adsorption was higher for RBY, followed by RBB, and was lowest for RBR. The total adsorption efficiency was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements.
EN
Placket Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were employed to study the adsorption of Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) on sesame stalk. In the study conducted with the PBD, a total of seven parameters (initial dye concentration, initial pH of solution, temperature, amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time, and shaking speed) were studied, and four of these were found to influence the adsorption of dye. A mathematical model equation was developed by using the CCD. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.93). The initial dye concentration, amount of sesame stalk, contact time, and initial pH were shown to be very significant (p < 0.05) for RO4 adsorption. The data for the adsorption of RO4 at equilibrium on sesame stalk were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin models. Temperature increase from 20 to 60 degrees C enhanced the adsorption capacity of the monolayer from 84.75 to 178.57 mg/g. The rate constants were calculated for various initial concentrations of the dye by using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic and particle diffusion adsorption models. The kinetic evaluations showed that the experimental data were in accordance with the pseudo-second order model.
EN
The aim of this research work was to evaluate the one bath dyeing of polyester/cotton blend and to compare the results with those of two bath dyeing. Polyester/cotton (50:50) blend fabrics were studied using dichlorotriazine based reactive dye and compatible disperse dye. The one bath one step method was used to shorten the dyeing process, increase yield and reduce the utility and chemical cost. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was used to provide an acidic and basic medium with a change in temperature. A TCAA/sodium carbonate buffer was also used to obtain the best colour yield. In two bath dyeing disperse dye was fixed on polyester fibre in an acidic medium, whereas reactive dye was fixed on cellulosic fibre in an alkaline medium. In the final stage, the dyed fabric was evaluated by testing the light, washing and rubbing fastness and colour yield strength properties of the dye. The results clearly show that polyester/cotton fabric presents good fastness and colour strength values when the one bath one step dyeing method is used.
PL
Celem badania było opracowanie barwienia jednostopniowego w jednej kąpieli materiałów z mieszanek poliestrów i bawełny, oraz porównanie wyników z wynikami z procesu barwienia w dwóch kąpielach. Badano materiały z mieszanki 50:50 poliester/bawełna. Stosowano barwniki reaktywne oparte na dichlorotriazine i odpowiednie barwniki dyspersyjne. Metoda barwienia jednostopniowego w jednej kąpieli była używana dla skrócenia procesu barwienia, wzrostu wybarwialności i zmniejszenia kosztów. Kwas trójchlorooctowy (TCAA) stosowano dla uzyskania kwaśnego i zasadowego medium zmieniającego swoją kwasowość ze zmianą temperatury. Bufor TCAA/węglan sodu był również stosowany dla uzyskania najlepszego wybarwienia. W barwieniu dwu-kąpielowym barwnik dyspersyjny był utrwalany na włóknach poliestrowych w kwaśnym medium podczas gdy reaktywny barwnik był utrwalany na włóknach celulozowych w medium alkalicznym. W końcowym stadium barwiony materiał był poddany badaniom na odporność na światło, pranie i tarcie. Badano również wybarwienie. Wyniki jasno wskazują, że materiały poliestrowo-bawełniane mają dobrą odporność oraz jakość koloru przy barwieniu metodą jednostopniową w jednej kąpieli.
EN
We investigated the cytotoxicity of reactive dyes and dyed fabrics using an in vitro hepa-1 cytotoxicity test. Hepa-1-mouse cells were exposed to three monochlortriazinyl dyes: yellow, red and blue with different concentrations. The hepa-1-mouse cells were also exposed to water extracts of dyed fabrics. After 72 hours exposure, the viability of the cells was detected by measuring the protein content of the cells. The mean inhibitory concentration IC50, which shows the sample concentration when the protein content is 50%, was compared to the total protein content of the non-exposed cells. The inhibitory concentration IC20 value, which shows the sample concentration when the protein content is 80%, was also measured. The IC20 value shows the limiting value of low toxicity. The values measured showed high toxic effects of the dyes. The blue dye was shown to be the most toxic, although the red dye showed toxicity at the lowest concentrations. Wheras the pure dyes showed toxicity under low concentrations, the dyed fabrics showed no toxicity. The hepa-1 cytotoxicity test and the spermatozoa motility inhibition test supported each other, giving similar results. Both tests can be used when studying the toxicity of textile substances.
EN
We investigated the cytotoxicity of reactive dyes and dyed fabrics using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells in vitro. The HaCaT cells were exposed to three monochlortriazinyl dyes: yellow, red and blue with different concentrations. The HaCaT cells were also exposed to water extracts of dyed fabrics. After 72 hours exposure, the protein contents of the samples compared to the protein contents of non-exposed cells were measured. The level of protein content indicates the viability of the cells. The mean inhibitory concentration values (IC50) showed the dye concentration when the protein content of the sample was 50% of the protein content of the non-exposed cells. The mean inhibitory concentration values (IC20) when the protein content of the samples was 80% were also measured. The IC20 values show the limiting value of toxicity. The IC50 values show whether samples are clearly toxic. The IC50 value for the yellow dye was 237µg/ml and the IC20 value was 78µg/ml. The IC50 for the red dye was 155µg/ml: the red dye caused adverse effects under the lowest dye concentration (28µg/ml). The IC50 value for the blue dye was 278µg/ml and the IC20 value was 112µg/ml. Cotton fabrics dyed using these same three reactive dyes were extracted with water and the extracts were analysed using the HaCaT cell line. The viability of the cells was good, the protein content of the samples being over 80% compared to the non-exposed cells. The HaCaT cell test indicated the toxicity of pure dyes; the dyed fabrics had no adverse effect. The human keratinocyte HaCaT cells seem to be a useful tool for the study of the purity/toxicity of dyes and other substances applied to textiles.
EN
In this study, the toxicity of reactive dyes and dyed fabrics was investigated using spermatozoa cells in vitro. Boar semen was exposed to different concentrations of monochlorotriazinyl dyes: yellow, red and blue. The spermatozoa cells were also exposed to extracts of dyed fabrics. After 24 and 72 hours respectively, the viability of the cells was evaluated by microscopy. The mean inhibitor concentrations IC50, showing the concentration of the dye when half of the cells are dead compared to the control sample, were calculated from the viability values. After 24 hours' exposure, the IC50 value calculated for the yellow dye was 135µg/ml, and after 72 hours 60µg/ml. The IC50 value for the red dye was 124µg/ml after 24 hours, and 46µg/ml after 72 hours. The IC50 value for the blue dye after 24 hours was 127µg/ml. After 72 hours, the blue dye caused high toxicity: more than half the cells were dead. Cotton fabrics dyed using these three reactive dyestuffs were extracted by water and analysed by the spermatozoa motility inhibition test. The viability of the cells when exposed to fabric extracts was good. However, after 72 hours' exposure, the standard deviation and coefficient of variation values for cell viability of fabric extracts were large. The spermatozoa inhibition test indicated the toxicity of pure dyes, the dyed fabrics having no adverse effects. The spermatozoa test seems to be useful when screening different substances and when used in addition to other tests. The spermatozoa motility inhibition test can be used for textile material studies.
PL
Praca dotyczy badań wpływu rodzaju diaminy podwajającej cząsteczką barwnika szeregu dwu- i czterofunkcyjnych czerwieni reaktywnych, pochodnych kwasu 1-amino-8-hydroksynaftaleno-3,6-disulfonowego (kwas H), na ich właściwości fizyko-chemiczne oraz aplikacyjno-użytkowe.
EN
Dissertation concerns researches on influences of diamine doubled the dye molecule of several di- and tetrafunctional reactive red dyes based on 1-amine-8-hydroxynephthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid (H acid) on their physic-chemistry and application characteristic. The investigations showed that substantivity of the dyes resulted from structure of whole dye molecule has significant influences on the degree of dye exhaustion and the fixation yield. The presence in the dye molecule four reactive groups increases the fixation ratio. The presence of the reactive groups differed from reactivity widens range of optimal temperatures and pH of the dyebath.
9
Content available remote Novel reactive red dyes
EN
Dyes with two monochlorotriazine or with two monochlorotriazine and two vinylsulphone reactive groups have been investigated for establishing an enhancement of the dyeability of cotton fabrics. The effect of the diamine bridge linking two chromophore systems on the degree of dye exhaustion from the dyebath and dye bonding with the cellulose fibre was examined. The excellent water solubility of these dyes make them useful in the exhaustion method of dyeing. The kind of diamine used as a bridging group has a significant influence on exhaustion and fixation values. The application of diamine, which assures the chemically linear structure of the dye, affects the increase in the amount of the dye fixed on the fibres. Apart from the derivatives of ethylene-1,2-diamine and phenylene-1,2-diamine, the remaining dyes are characterised by a very high degree of dye exhaustion from the dyebath. The dyes examined can be successfully used for dyeing cellulose fibres by the exhaustion process.
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