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Twin structural traps that lie within the Miocene strata of the Carpathian Foredeep that are localized above Cierpisz and Mrowla-Bratkowice highs exhibit identical bright-spot seismic anomalies, but only those associated with the Cierpisz high are profitable gas reservoirs. Bright spots can be a result of weak gas or water saturation, but also seismic interference known as tuning effect. For these reasons, it is crucial to differentiate between seismic anomalies. In this article, we present the possibilities of verification of seismic anomalies that occur within the siliciclastic Miocene sediments of the Carpathian Foredeep with the application of AVO analysis and spectral decomposition. AVO methodology enabled to limit the number of anomalies that are present in the post-stack seismic data. These anomalies, however, may also be a result of tuning which is common for the heterolithic sequences in the Miocene sediments of the Carpathian Foredeep. For classification of anomalies in the view of the above, spectral decomposition based on the Basis Pursuit algorithm was applied. Spectral decomposition enabled to divide AVO anomalies in those that are the result of gas saturation and the tuning effect. Gas-saturated zones are characterized by higher spectral amplitudes of the lower frequency range, whereas tuning effect yields higher spectral amplitudes for the higher frequency content. This relation is visible for the data set and enables qualitative differentiation for the set of seismic anomalies.
Amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis is a conventional seismic exploration technique in geophysical and lithological interpretation and has been widely used in onshore and offshore exploration. Its use in marine gas hydrate research, however, is still in initial stages. In this study, AVO analysis is applied to seismic profiles at drilling sites where hydrate samples have been recovered. The AVO responses of free gas, bottom simulating reflector (BSRs), and gas hydrates are discussed, and the AVO attributes in relation to gas hydrates are summarized. The results show that changes in intercept, gradient, fluid factor and Poisson’s ratio clearly reflect: (i) location of free gas and the BSR, and (ii) spatial relations between blank zone, BSR, gas hydrate, and free gas.
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