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EN
In dynamic positioning systems, nonlinear cost functions, as well as nonlinear equality and inequality constraints within optimal thrust allocation procedures cannot be handled directly by means of the solvers like industry-standardized quadratic programing (QP), at least not without appropriate linearization technique applied, which can be computationally very expensive. Thus, if optimization requirements are strict, and problem should be solved for nonlinear objective function with nonlinear equality and inequality constraints, than one should use some appropriate nonlinear optimization technique. The current state-of-the-art in nonlinear optimization for gradient-based algorithms is surely the sequential quadratic programing (SQP), both for general applications and specific thrust allocation problems. On the other hand, in recent time, one can also notice the increased applications of gradient-free optimization methods in various engineering problems. In this context, the implementation of selected derivative free direct search algorithms in optimal thrust allocation is proposed and discussed in this paper, and avenues for future research are provided.
2
EN
In this paper the results of the development of voltage and reactive power regulation algorithm based on the particle swarm method, optimizing the electric power system mode by the level of losses, are presented. To provide an integration of this algorithm into a real system of an automated dispatching control system, the algorithm is implemented using programs, which are used in the System Operator of the Unified Power System of Russia, as well as standard communication protocols and a software platform. The analysis and comparison of the optimization results obtained by the particle swarm method and standard optimization method (gradient descent method), realized in RastrWin, confirm the correctness and reliability of the obtained results and the developed algorithm. At the same time, the algorithm does not depend on the initial conditions (setpoints), set on the control objects, which allows it to be used to optimize the modes of complex power network, finding the balance in which is a time-consuming task. In the future, it is planned to develop an algorithm for optimizing the mode, taking into account the increased stability of the electric power system.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę sterowania napięciem I moca bierną bazującą na algorytmach rojowych. Algorytm zaadaptowano do rzeczywistych warunków sieci dystrybucyjnej w Rosji. Sprawdzono praće algorytmu badając stabilność I niezawodność systemu. W dalszym etapie planuje się zastosowanie metody do optymalizacji sieci zasilania.
EN
The load factor is the determining factor for airlines in economic terms and the prediction of the future development of the flight route. The combination of load factor and break-even point provides the airline with a comprehensive picture of the business of the flight route and the optimization of pricing for the flight route. The purpose of the article is to propose and adapt the development of air transport prices on a given line using maximally recalculated values and maximize profit. The optimized calculation algorithm then facilitates the understanding of the individual steps of the load factor calculation and the monitoring of price development by means of the chi-square mathematical method by which we observed the interconnection of the ticket price and the load factor. To describe the problem, we chose the Bratislava – Larnaca route.
4
Content available remote An efficient algorithm for 2-dimensional pattern matching problem
EN
Pattern matching is the area of computer science which deals with security and analysis of data. This work proposes two 2D pattern matching algorithms based on two different input domains. The first algorithm is for the case when the given pattern contains only two symbols, that is, binary symbols 0 and 1. The second algorithm is in the case when the given pattern contains decimal numbers, that is, the collection of symbols between 0 and 9. The algorithms proposed in this manuscript convert the given pattern into an equivalent binary or decimal number, correspondingly find the cofactors of the same dimension and convert these cofactors into numbers if a particular cofactor numer matches indicate the matching of the pattern. Furthermore, the algorithm is enhanced for decimal numbers. In the case of decimal numbers, each row of the pattern is changed to its decimal equivalent, and then, modulo with a suitable prime number changes the decimal equivalent into a number less than the prime number. If the number mismatched pattern does not exist, the complexity of the proposed algorithm is very low as compared to other traditional algorithms.
EN
Topological base plays a foundational role in topology theory. However, few works have been done to find the minimal base, which would make us difficult to interpret the internal structure of topological spaces. To address this issue, we provide a method to convert the finite topological space into Boolean matrix and some properties of minimal base are investigated. According to the properties, an algorithm(URMB) is proposed. Subsequently, the relationship between topological space and its sub-space with respect to the base is concentrated on by Boolean matrix. Then, a fast algorithm(MMB) is presented, which can avoid a mass of redundant computations. Finally, some numerical experiments are given to show the advantage and the effectiveness of MMB compared with URMB.
EN
Hamming codes are of primary concern in information theory and its applications. Despite a number of researches that have been conducted on such codes and their characterizations, dealing with the properties of previously introduced codes in a BCK-algebraic framework has not been considered in earlier works. This paper investigates a code constructed based on BCK-algebraic models and proposes an algorithm corresponding to the presented code. It is noticeable that the suggested rendered algorithm is also established on the basis of the elements of a BCK-algebra. In fact, both the Hamming distance and dimension, associated with the presented code, can be estimated through a BCK-algebra structure due to the mechanism of its algorithm which is heavily dependent on the parity check matrix. In addition, the way in which the codes are designed contributes substantially to classification of them and to extract greater number of their attributes compared to the previous works. The highlight of the proposed method is that the number of atoms of the BCK-algebra plays a key role in calculation of the Hamming distance and dimension of these codes. Moreover, the obtained codes possess specified and recognizable Hamming distance which are essential in performing error-correcting, error-detecting and decoding tasks.
EN
In this paper an adaptive median filtering denoising algorithm is proposed to measure yarn diameter and its unevenness. Images of nine different yarn samples were captured using one set of a self-developed yarn image acquisition system. Image separation of the background and yarn sections was conducted using a combination of adaptive median filtering, adaptive threshold segmentation and morphological processing. The noise-free yarn image was used for diameter detection of the subsequent yarn image and the discrimination of the yarn unevenness. Experimental results show that the testing data of yarn unevenness detection based on the adaptive median filter denoising algorithm is very consistent with the data using the traditional method. It is proved that the yarn detection method proposed, based on an adaptive median filter denoising algorithm, is feasible. It can be used to calculate yarn diameter accurately and measure yarn unevenness efficiently, so as to determine the quality of yarn appearance objectively.
PL
W artykule zaproponowano algorytm odszumiania z adaptacyjnym filtrem medianowym (AMF) do pomiaru średnicy przędzy i jej nierówności. Obrazy dziewięciu różnych próbek przędzy zostały przechwycone przy użyciu jednego zestawu samodzielnie opracowanego systemu akwizycji obrazów przędzy. Rozdzielenie obrazu tła i odcinków przędzy przeprowadzono przy użyciu kombinacji AMF, adaptacyjnej segmentacji progowej i przetwarzania morfologicznego. Bezszumowy obraz przędzy wykorzystano do wykrywania średnicy przędzy i rozróżnienia nierówności przędzy. Wyniki eksperymentalne pokazały, że dane testowe dotyczące wykrywania nierówności przędzy w oparciu o zaproponowany algorytm miały wysoką zgodność z danymi uzyskanymi przy użyciu tradycyjnej metody. Algorytmu tego można użyć do dokładnego obliczenia średnicy przędzy i skutecznego pomiaru nierówności przędzy, aby obiektywnie określić jakość wyglądu przędzy.
EN
The built environment is considered responsible for at least 20-40% of greenhouse gases emission. The way we design may exert an impact on this percentage. A new paradigm, namely artificial intelligence, is arriving. More and more tasks are becoming automated via algorithms. How could this power be applied in order to strengthen our knowledge about the ways we design buildings? The author of the following paper presents a study in which carbon footprint yielded by a multifamily building is analysed. ML has been used to generate an extensive overview of the possible design solutions. This, in turn, made it possible to observe correlations between various parameters that resulted in a reduced carbon footprint.
PL
Środowisko zabudowane odpowiada za co najmniej 20 do 40% emisji gazów cieplarnianych, a sposób, w jaki projektujemy, może wpłynąć na tę wartość. Coraz więcej zadań zostaje zautomatyzowanych za pomocą algorytmów. Jak możemy wykorzystać to narzędzie, aby wspomóc naszą wiedzę na temat sposobów projektowania budynków? Autor przedstawia badanie analizujące ślad węglowy budynku wielorodzinnego. Algorytm uczenia maszynowego został wykorzystany do wygenerowania obszernego przeglądu możliwych rozwiązań projektowych. Umożliwiło to zaobserwowanie korelacji między różnymi parametrami, co pozwoliło na wybór kombinacji parametrów o najniższym śladzie węglowym.
EN
A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of descriptor linear discrete‐time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations for descriptor discrete‐time linear systems is proposed and illustrated by examples.
EN
We discuss a less known but surprising fact: a very old algorithm for computing square root known as the Bhaskara-Brouncker algorithm contains another and faster algorithms. A similar approach was obtained earlier by A.K. Yeyios [8] in 1992. By the way, we shall present a few useful facts as an essential completion of [8]. In particular, we present a direct proof that k – th Yeyios iterative algorithm is of order k. We also observe that Chebyshev polynomials Tn and Un are a special case of a more general construction. The most valuable idea followed this paper is contained in applications of a simple rational function Φ(w; z) = z-w/z+w.
EN
The paper presents a model of potential application of technology and blockchain environment for the implementation of the electric car charging process. The described model gives the possibility of establishing direct relations between the energy market parties, and most importantly, thanks to its users and relationships between them, it allows creating new charging points, thus developing a network of chargers. The model describes relationships, flows, gives the opportunity to model market behaviour. It uses blockchain technology to account for the charging process of electric cars.
PL
W pracy prezentowany jest model potencjalnego zastosowaniem technologii i środowiska blockchain do realizacji procesu ładowania samochodu elektrycznego. Opisywany model daje możliwość bezpośredniego nawiązywania relacji pomiędzy stronami rynku energii, oraz co najważniejsze, za sprawą swoich użytkowników i zależności między nimi pozwala na tworzeniu nowych punków ładowania, rozwijając tym samym sieć ładowarek. Model opisuje relacje, przepływy, daje możliwość modelowania zachować rynkowych. Wykorzystuje technologię bloków (blockchain) do rozliczania procesu ładowania samochodów elektrycznych.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problem badawczy rozważany w kontekście analizy i doboru algorytmów optymalizujących stosowanych do rozwiązania zadań przydziału pojazdów do zleceń transportowych oraz pomiaru ich efektywności ekonomicznej. Do analizy wykorzystano dwa zestawione i porównywane ze sobą algorytmy optymalizacyjne. Pierwszy - algorytm węgierski, będący klasycznym algorytmem transportowym wykorzystywanym w większości systemów TMS (ang. Transportation Management System), drugi zaś, autorski, bazujący na metodach heurystycznych i zaimplementowany w wybranych firmach transportowych pod nazwą: algorytm poprawy.
EN
The article presents the research problem was considered in the context of the analysis and selection of the optimisation algorithms used, in order to solve the task of assigning vehicles to transport orders and also in the context of their economic efficiency. Two optimisation algorithms were compared and used for the present analysis. The first is the Hungarian Algorithm, which is a classic transport algorithm used in most TMS systems, that is, Transportation Management Systems. The second was developed proprietary, based on heuristic methods and implemented in selected transport companies under the name: improvement algorithm.
13
Content available Formation of a conceptual model for new services
EN
The purpose of this paper is to formulate the conceptual model of new service development and provide an algorithm for its implementation. The performance of the model, selection of individual elements and the interaction with the external environment are based on the methods of abstracting, logical analysis, synthesis, analogy, and generalization of a complex. The results show that some new service development models are not detailed enough. Usually, the meaning of the elements attributed to the model and the specificity, frequency, and importance of the tasks performing in particular steps are unclear.
PL
Celem tego artykułu jest sformułowanie koncepcyjnego modelu rozwoju nowych usług i dostarczenie algorytmu do jego implementacji. Wykonanie modelu, wybór poszczególnych elementów i interakcja ze środowiskiem zewnętrznym opierają się na metodach abstrakcji, analizie logicznej, syntezie, analogii i uogólnieniu kompleksu. Wyniki pokazują, że niektóre nowe modele rozwoju usług nie są wystarczająco szczegółowe. Zazwyczaj znaczenie elementów przypisanych do modelu oraz specyfika, częstotliwość i znaczenie zadań wykonywanych w poszczególnych krokach są niejasne.
14
Content available remote Mechanical optimization with artificial immune system
EN
The article shows implementation of artificial immune system in the mechanical optimization. Optimization process is mainly used during new product introduction phase and ensures that new design is well balanced and includes all critical to quality items. Artificial immune system algorithm in the mechanical optimization assumes optimal solution as a pathogen and geometric configurations as a lymphocyte which are matching with optimal design.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia zastosowanie sztucznego systemu immunologicznego w procesie optymalizacji konstrukcji mechanicznych. Proces optymalizacji jest stosowany zwłaszcza w trakcie projektowania nowej konstrukcji bądź systemu i pozwala dostarczyć produkt zbalansowany i uwzględniający wszystkie niezbędne kryteria. Algorytm działający na podstawie sztucznego systemu immunologicznego w optymalizacji mechanicznej traktuje optimum jako patogen, a konfiguracje geometryczne jako limfocyty, które adresują optymalną konstrukcje.
EN
The presented paper comes as a summary of a theoretical work presenting an original algorithm describing International Multimodal Transport (IMT) mechanisms and processes. Since containers appeared in early 1960s on the regional, and later on, on global scale in logistic operations, the IMT has become the fastest growing combination of an international through-transport. With use of various modes of transport IMT has significant influence on global trade development. Due to its characteristic the IMT process is exposed on the global unitization, standardization, safety, security and economization (optimization) challenges. Thus, there is a need for scientific approach in building a standardized conceptual model of IMT referred in this paper to CAIMT. CAIMT is an original, deterministic algorithm, presented in the block notation, identifying typical procedures as a logical continuation of the programmed sequence of the basic IMT operations. The suggested CAIMT has a potential in further standardization of IMT procedures and can be scientifically developed through the modeling of the IMT processes and safety/security procedures. In addition, in terms of empirical aspects, algorithmization of the main IMT processes can lead to their application in the various expert systems. Summing up, this method (CAIMT) comes as an optimal instrument that can be utilized in order to build further pillars for IMT development, standardization and optimization.
EN
It is a well-known problem of milling machines, that waste heat from motors, friction effects on guides, environmental variations and the milling process itself greatly affect positioning accuracy and thus production quality. An economic and energy-efficient method of correcting this thermo-elastic positioning error is to gather sensor data (temperatures, axis positions, etc.) from the machine tool and the process and to use that information to predict and correct the resulting tool center point displacement using high dimensional characteristic diagrams. The computation of these characteristic diagrams leads to very large sparse linear systems of equations which require a vast memory and computation time to solve. This is particularly problematic for complex machines and varying production conditions which require characteristic diagrams with many input variables. To solve this issue, a new multigrid based method for the computation of characteristic diagrams will be presented, tested and compared to the previously used smoothed grid regression method.
PL
W planowaniu rozkładu dawki w radioterapii stosowane są różne algorytmy obliczające. Najprostsze z nich, stosowane od wielu lat, dają dobrą zgodność: obliczenia – pomiar, ale tylko w przypadku najprostszych modeli, np. w ośrodku o jednorodnej gęstości. Wraz z rozwojem technik obliczeniowych pojawiły się algorytmy, które uwzględniały coraz więcej zjawisk fizycznych oddziaływania promieniowania z materią. Różnice pomiędzy dawkami obliczonymi i zmierzonymi, dla bardzo wyrafinowanych sytuacji klinicznych, są coraz mniejsze, mieszczą się granicach niepewności metody. Czy zatem dokładność obliczeń może mieć wpływ na wyniki radioterapii? Aby odpowiedzieć na to pytanie, należy rozkłady dawek fizycznych połączyć z dawkami biologicznie równoważnymi i obliczyć prawdopodobieństwo miejscowego wyleczenia. Skorzystano z modelu liniowo-kwadratowego oraz modelu Poissona. Wykonane obliczenia wskazują, że istnieje wpływ algorytmu obliczającego na prawdopodobieństwo miejscowego wyleczenia. Jednak jest on uzależniony od lokalizacji guza nowotworowego. W sytuacji, kiedy różnice gęstości w napromienianej objętości nie są zbyt duże – najprostsze i najbardziej zaawansowane modele wyliczają podobne dawki, czyli nie wykazują wpływu na prawdopodobieństwo miejscowego wyleczenia. Jednak w sytuacji dużych różnic w gęstościach, prostsze modele mogą znacznie zafałszować rozkłady dawek, co przekłada się na TCP.
EN
In the radiotherapy treatment planning, different calculation algorithms are used. Can the accuracy of calculations affect the results of radiotherapy? Physical dose distributions should be combined with biologically equivalent doses and calculated the local control probability. The Linear-Quadratic model and the Poisson model were used. The dose calculations indicates that there is an effect of a computing algorithm on the local control probability. However, it depends on the location of the tumor. In the case of large differences in densities, more simple models can significantly distort dose distribution, which affects the TCP.
EN
The paper analyzes the prospects for the formation and implementation of digital data transmission technologies on railways of Kazakhstan, taking into account the potential for the development of high-speed railway transport (HSRWT), as well as new approaches for solving the development problems of advanced automated dispatch control systems (ADCS). It was shown that the solution of these problems is possible by automatization of the train traffic coordination based on the use of the potential of the GPRS data transmission technology. The work further developed models and algorithms used in ADCS of the railway transport. There has been carried out the formalization of the tasks of navigation data transmission for ADCS and for the subsystems of the railway rolling stock movement coordination, including HSRWT using GPRS data transmission technology. Also, the article describes a modernized algorithm for simulation of the GPRS channels operation in ADCS. The proposed algorithm differs from the existing ones by the ability to make predictive estimates for determination of the railway rolling stock location. Also, the developed algorithm provides opportunities for coordination of the trains movement, taking into account the optimization of the GPRS resources use.
19
Content available Edge Weight Power and Frequency Assignment Algorithm
EN
In cellular networks, cells are grouped more densely around highly populated areas to provide more capacity. Antennas are pointed in accordance with local terrain and clutter to reduce signal shadows and interference. Hardware parameters are easily set during installation but difficult to change thereafter. In a dynamic environment of population migration, there is need to continuously tune network parameters to adapt the network performance. Modern mobile equipment logs network usage patterns and statistics over time. This information can be used to tune soft parameters of the network. These parameters may include frequency channel assignment or reuse, and transmitter radiation power assignment to provide more capacity on demand. The paper proposes that by combining the frequency and power assignments, further optimisation in resource allocation can be achieved over a traditional frequency assignment. The solution considers the interference, traffic intensity and use of priority flags to bias some edges. An Edge Weight Power and Frequency Assignment Algorithm is presented to solve the resource allocation problem in cellular networks. The paper also analyses the performance improvements obtained over that of the Edge Weight Frequency Assignment Algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm improves the performance of the Edge Weight Frequency Assignment Algorithm depending on the initial structure of the graph.
EN
We present a generalization of a polynomial factorization algorithm that works with ideals in maximal orders of global function fields. The method presented in this paper is intrinsic in the sense that it does not depend on the embedding of the ring of polynomials into the Dedekind domain in question.
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