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EN
At present, monitoring of air pollution near industrial facilities is one of the most urgent tasks. Its implementation is a requirement of Article 42 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the basis for the ecological well-being of the population. This problem is especially critical for the production facilities located within residential areas or in close proximity to them. The scientific article presents the results of a monitoring study of the air pollution in a residential area exposed to the negative impact of the storage of primary oil refining waste. Within the frames of the scientific research, the analysis of the stock materials of the enterprise was conducted; field observation was performed on the territory of the considered enterprise and the construction of ecological cartographic models was carried out, reflecting the level of the air pollution in the territory under consideration. The study also carried out a literary review and presented a list of the main existing technologies for the utilization of oil sludge to improve the quality of the air in the region under consideration.
EN
The Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is home to almost 5,000,000 people and is a major contributor to Saudi Arabia’s economic strength. The area has experienced population growth of about 3.5% per year and rapid urbanization over the past few decades. With this increase in population has come a significant escalation in automobile traffic, which, in turn, has contributed to poor air quality in the province. Two of the major cities in the area were listed on the World Health Organization’s 2016 top 15 cities with the worst air pollution. Local studies have shown that vehicle traffic is a significant contributor to poor air quality and thus, eventually, climate change. Public transportation could alleviate some of the pollution. Unfortunately, overall past perceptions of public transportation and its negative connotations within the Saudi Arabian cultural setting have discouraged previous attempts to develop public transit services. Currently, KSA is progressing with metro works in the capital city of Riyadh and is considering what services to offer in the Eastern Province. This research involved surveying over 800 Eastern Province residents to determine whether they would use public transportation if it was offered, and what type of service they would expect. The response was positive and provided initial indications that public transportation is needed and would be utilized.
PL
Zanieczyszczenia powietrza często są przyczyną występowania chorób dróg oddechowych, ale nie tylko. Równie niekorzystne dla naszego zdrowia jest całkowite wyjałowienie powietrza z zanieczyszczeń, ponieważ życie „pod kloszem” generalnie osłabia organizm. Ważną rolę w zachowaniu odpowiednich warunków higienicznych w środowisku wewnętrznym obsługiwanym przez instalacje klimatyzacji i wentylacji odgrywa prawidłowa ich eksploatacja, w tym okresowa wymiana filtrów powietrza.
EN
Air pollution often causes respiratory diseases, but not only. Equally unfavourable to our health is the complete sterilization of air from pollution, because life “in a bubble” generally weakens the body. An important role in maintaining proper internal hygiene conditions by air conditioning and ventilation plants is played by their proper operation and maintenance, including periodic replacement of air filters.
PL
Omówiono jakość powietrza w Polsce (z zaznaczeniem jego jakości w Europie) oraz przedstawiono przykłady wykorzystania bezzałogowych statków powietrznych do oceny stanu zanieczyszczenia powietrza. Opisano systemy pomiarowe wykorzystujące sensory, które służą do pomiaru parametrów niskiej emisji pyłów oraz gazów zawieszonych w powietrzu. Scharakteryzowano również metody pomiaru pośredniego polegającego na pobieraniu próbek powietrza i dostarczaniu ich do laboratorium.
EN
A review, with 23 refs., of air quality in Poland and use of unmanned aerial vehicles in assessing emissions of dust and gases suspended in the air.
6
Content available remote Ocena jakości powietrza z wykorzystaniem bezzałogowych statków powietrznych
PL
Przedstawiono przykłady obecnych i nowych możliwości wykorzystania bezzałogowych statków powietrznych przez służby ratownicze i inne podmioty oraz możliwości pomiarowe czujników zanieczyszczeń powietrza o różnej budowie. Przywołano najważniejsze regulacje prawne dotyczące jakości powietrza. Przedstawiono wyniki prowadzonych badań w tym zakresie. Zamieszczono rzeczywiste mapy rozkładu zanieczyszczeń zarejestrowane przy wykorzystaniu systemu Atmon FL i oprogramowania QGIS.
EN
The contents of NO2, SO2, H2S, PM2.5 and PM10 air pollutants were detd. in 2 areas of Poland by using unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with an air measurement system. The SO2 content std. was exceeded 20 times.
EN
Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a trace gas with important impact on atmospheric chemistry, human health and a key pollutant in particular cities, measured from space since the mid-1990s by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 instruments. This study present ten years (monthly and yearly averaged) dataset from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) used to investigate tropospheric NO2 characteristics and variations over Iraq during 2005–2014. Annual NO2 shows an elevation from the northern to the southern and highest values was at central parts of Iraq. Monthly distributions revels higher values NO2 in winter and summer than spring and autumn seasons, and rising NO2 throughout study period over industrial and crowded urban zones. The trend analysis over Baghdad shows a linear growth rate 9.8% per year with an annual average (5.6·1015 molecules per 1 cm2). The air mass trajectory analysis as hotspot regions shows seasonal fluctuations between winter and summer seasons depend on weather conditions and topography. The increased NO2 values in winter are due to anthropogenic emissions and subsequent plumes from Europe. In addition, in summer because of hot weather and large paddy fields emissions. The lowest NO2 value was at monsoon period mostly linked to the rains. The OMI data and satellite information are able to observe the troposphere NO2 elevation at different regions.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problem zanieczyszczenia powietrza w polskich miastach na przykładzie Krakowa. Skupiono się na jednym z działań naprawczych podejmowanych przez miasto – bezpłatnych przejazdach autobusami i tramwajami w czasie smogu. Przedstawiono zmiany w podejściu miasta do tej usługi od 2015 roku oraz konsekwencje dla miejskiego budżetu. Następnie rozważono skuteczność bezpłatnego transportu zbiorowego w przyciąganiu nowych pasażerów. Przytoczono przykład Nysy, która wprowadziła takie uprawnienie dla kierowców samochodów osobowych, ale trzy lata później się z niego wycofała. W kolejnym kroku przeanalizowano stężenie zanieczyszczeń powietrza w dniach przed i po wprowadzeniu bezpłatnej komunikacji miejskiej w sezonie grzewczym 2018/2019. Pod uwagę wzięto pył zawieszony PM10, tlenki azotu i tlenek węgla. Nie stwierdzono istnienia stałej zależności zmian wartości stężenia tych zanieczyszczeń w powietrzu względem odpłatności (lub nie) transportu zbiorowego. Nie jest uzasadniona także potrzeba ewentualnej zmiany parametrów od których zależałoby uruchomienie bezpłatnej komunikacji miejskiej. Na zakończenie podkreślono konieczność zarówno dalszych starań władz centralnych i samorządowych na rzecz poprawy jakości powietrza, jak i kolejnych badań nad źródłami zanieczyszczeń oraz efektywnością podejmowanych działań.
EN
The article presents the problem of air pollution in polish cities on the example of Cracow. The focus was on one of the corrective actions taken by the city – free-fare public transport during high air pollution. Changes in the city's approach to this service since 2015 and consequences for the city budget were presented. Then, the efficiency of free-fare public transport in attracting new passengers was considered. The example of the Nysa town was cited, which introduced such permission for car drivers, but withdrew it three years later. In the next step, the concentration of air pollution before and after the activation of free-fare public transport in the heating season 2018/2019 was analyzed. Particulate matter PM10, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide were taken into account. There was no constant relationship between the changes in the level of these pollutants in the air and the full-paid (or free-fare) public transport. There is also no reason for the need to change parameters based on witch the free-fare public transport is activated. Finally, the necessity of further efforts of central and local authorities to improve air quality as well as further research on sources of air pollution and efficiency of undertaken actions was emphasized.
EN
The city of Krakow located in southern Poland ranks among the most polluted urban agglomerations in Europe. There are persisting controversies with respect to impact of different pollution sources operating in Krakow agglomeration on air quality within the city. The presented pilot study was aimed at exploring the possibilities offered by elemental and carbon isotope composition of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) for better characterization of its sources in Krakow atmosphere. The analyses of carbon isotope composition of total carbon in the investigated TSPM samples were supplemented by parallel analyses of radiocarbon content in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This study revealed large seasonal variability of carbon isotope composition in the analysed TSPM samples. This large variability reflects seasonally varying contribution of different sources of fossil and modern carbon to the TSPM pool. The elemental composition of TSPM also reveals distinct seasonal variability of the analysed elements, reflecting varying mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources of those elements. A linear relationship between the fossil carbon load in the TSPM samples and the fossil carbon load in the atmospheric CO2 was found, pointing to the presence of additional source of anthropogenic carbonaceous particles not associated with burning of fossil fuels. Wearing of tyres and asphalt pavement is most probably the main source of such particles.
EN
Road traffic is a common phenomenon in cities, and all urban road users suffer its negative effects. Therefore, the subject of this article is a comparative analysis of the exhaust emissions of toxic compounds and the operating parameters of two-wheeled vehicles measured under real operating conditions. The comparison applies to two drive cycles: in the first, the vehicle was travelling in standard city traffic (without using the bus lanes), while in the second, the vehicle travelled on bus lanes, whenever those were available. Such analysis made it possible to evaluate the ecological usefulness of bus lanes by assessing the exhaust emissions and the travel time of the test vehicle. For this purpose, an analysis of the exhaust emission values in time was performed for gaseous compounds (HC, CO, CO2, NOx) from a scooter equipped with a 125 cm3 displacement engine with a maximum power of 9 kW. The tests were carried out under real operating conditions in the city of Poznań. The route has been chosen so that it consisted of roads with a number of bus lanes. AXIONR/S+ mobile apparatus belonging to the PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) group was used in the research. The device is one of the most modern measuring instruments, where the entire device is a suitcase weighing only 18 kg containing two analyzers for measuring the concentrations of both gaseous and solid exhaust components.
EN
The subject of this article was the analysis of the current state of legislation regarding the exhaust emissions from two-wheeled vehicles. The regulations and emission limits were analyzed and compared for different areas of the world. Moreover, the review of the legal provisions includes an individual approach to specific categories of two-wheeled vehicles. The study also describes the research and exhaust emission measurement methods from mopeds and motorcycles both under laboratory conditions and in actual operation. The methods were evaluated in the aspect of future emission requirements and trends. In addition, the results of emissivity measurements under actual operating conditions obtained in the Poznań agglomeration with the use of motorcycle units were discussed and analyzed. The values of road emissions of all toxic compounds limited by legislators were compared with emission standards.
EN
The article presents a comparison of original methods of air quality measurement with a professional device Air Smart-box v. 1.2. The methodology consisted of laser beam analysis from the device. To enable detailed photo analysis for the research, an Android mobile application was developed. The OpenCV library was used to process the images. In the article, the hypothesis was put forward that the method using a binary threshold with a threshold value of 50 allows to obtain results closest to those of the station. This hypothesis was confirmed by the results of the experiments.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia porównanie autorskich metod pomiaru jakości powietrza z profesjonalnym urządzeniem Air Smartbox v. 1.2. Metody polegają na analizie zdjęć wiązki lasera w zanieczyszczonym powietrzu. W celu przeprowa-dzenia badań została zaimplementowana aplikacja mobilna, dedykowana na system operacyjny Android, która umożliwia wykonanie zdjęć oraz ich późniejszą obróbkę i analizę. Do przetwarzania obrazów zastosowano bibliotekę OpenCV. W artykule postawiono hipotezę, że metoda wykorzystująca progowanie binarne z wartością progowania wynoszącą 50 pozwala uzyskać wyniki najbardziej zbliżone do wyników ze stacji. Hipoteza ta została potwierdzona uzyskanymi wynikami badań.
EN
The paper presents the problem of dust pollution in the atmosphere of a typical urban agglomeration. !e influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on airborne dust concentration is described. !e results of air pollution tests with PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter at five measurement points in the Cracow agglomeration are presented. !e use of statistical methods has shown the relationship between airborne dust concentration and the season of the year. !e highest levels of PM2,5 and PM10 dusts are recorded during the autumn and winter months. During the heating season, the municipal and household sector is mainly responsible for dust emissions. Measures to reduce emissions of air pollution from industrial sources and transportation are proposed.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje problem zanieczyszczenia pyłowego atmosfery typowej aglomeracji miejskiej. Opisano wpływ czynników naturalnych i antropogenicznych na stężenie pyłów w powietrzu. Przedstawiono wyniki badań zapylenia powietrza cząstkami PM2,5 i PM10 w pięciu punktach pomiarowych aglomeracji krakowskiej. Przy zastosowaniu metod statystycznych wykazano zależność między stężeniem pyłu w powietrzu a porą roku. Największe stężenia pyłów PM2,5 i PM10 obserwuje się w miesiącach jesiennych i zimowych. W sezonie grzewczym za emisję pyłów odpowiedzialny jest głownie sektor komunalno-bytowy. Zaproponowano sposoby ograniczenia emisji zanieczyszczeń atmosfery ze źródeł przemysłowych i transportu.
EN
Poland is one of the heaviest users of district heating systems in Europe, and those district heating systems are mainly coal-fired. This study describes the correlation between emission of gaseous air pollutants and the combustion parameters of WR coal-fired water grate boilers (WR-25, WR-10, WR-8M). Air pollution emissions loads were measured during boiler work in conditions other than standard (start-up, extinction, load fluctuations). A negative impact of compounds such as HCl, HF, CO and NH3 in emission standards for various heat sources has been noted.
PL
Polska należy do największych użytkowników systemów ciepłowniczych w Europie, które wciąż w większości opalane są węglem kamiennym. W artykule opisano korelację pomiędzy emisją gazowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza i parametrami spalania węglowych wodnych kotłów rusztowych typu WR (WR-25, WR-10, WR-8M). Wielkości gazowych emisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza były mierzone podczas pracy kotłów w warunkach odbiegających od normalnych (rozruch, wygaszanie, zmiana obciążenia). Zaobserwowano negatywny wpływ związków, takich jak: HCl, HF, CO oraz NH3.
PL
November 2019 marked the 40th anniversary of the adoption in Geneva of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, which aims primarily to reduce the damage to human health and the environment caused by air pollution. Over the years, the Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify measures to control emissions of basic air pollutants. The efforts undertaken under the Convention have been instrumental in bolstering international cooperation to limit the pollution with sulphur and nitrogen oxides as well as to reduce emissions of other pollutants. The European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) has been developed complete with modelling and forecasting air pollution levels and pollutant fluxes. Robust information has been gathered in the EMEP databases. However, much remains to be done, and air pollution is still a challenge in the UN ECE region.
EN
W 2019 r. minęło 40 lat od momentu podpisania w Genewie Konwencji w sprawie transgranicznego zanieczyszczania powietrza na dalekie odległości, której podstawowym celem jest ochrona środowiska i człowieka przed skutkami zanieczyszczenia powietrza. W ciągu tych lat do tekstu konwencji przyjęto 8 protokołów dotyczących kontroli emisji podstawowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza. Dzięki działaniom prowadzonym w ramach konwencji udało się rozwinąć współpracę międzynarodową, która przyczyniła się do zmniejszenia zanieczyszczenia powietrza tlenkami siarki i  azotu, a także ograniczenia emisji innych zanieczyszczeń. Rozwinięto program badawczy EMEP, modelowanie i prognozowanie stanu powietrza i przepływów zanieczyszczeń, zgromadzono ogromne ilości informacji w bazach danych. Nadal jednak pozostaje dużo do zrobienia a zanieczyszczenie powietrza jest w poważnym problemem w regionie EKG ONZ.
16
Content available remote Assessment of meteorological effects and ozone variation in urban area
EN
The paper presents results of the measurements of the tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration and meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, speed and wind direction. The data were collected from January 2016 to December 2016 at station located in locality Centre (Banja Luka), Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants to plants and health and highly reactive secondary pollutant. The present study covers investigation of the relationship between the concentration of ozone and meteorological parameters as well as time variations of ozone concentration (by hours, months, seasons). This topic has not been studied up to now in this region, although the recent research data indicates that there is a correlation between them and previously obtained from the world’s relevant scientific centres, as already cited above. Statistical analysis confirms string of rolls, which shows directional connection between tropospheric ozone and meteorological parameters, specially temperature (r = 0.148), air pressure (r = –0.292) and relative humidity (r = –0.292). These parameters are the most important meteorological factors influencing the variation in ozone levels during the research. The correlation ozone concentrations with speed and direction of wind is not significant, like other parameters.
EN
Currently, air pollution and energy consumption are the main issues in the transportation area in large urban cities. In these cities, most people choose their transportation mode according to corresponding utility including traveller's and trip’s characteristics. Also, there is no effective solution in terms of population growth, urban space, and transportation demands, so it is essential to optimize systematically travel demands in the real network of roads in urban areas, especially in congested areas. Travel Demand Management (TDM) is one of the well-known ways to solve these problems. TDM defined as a strategy that aims to maximize the efficiency of the urban transport system by granting certain privileges for public transportation modes, Enforcement on the private car traffic prohibition in specific places or times, increase in the cost of using certain facilities like parking in congested areas. Network pricing is one of the most effective methods of managing transportation demands for reducing traffic and controlling air pollution especially in the crowded parts of downtown. A little paper may exist that optimize urban transportations in busy parts of cities with combined Markov decision making processes with reward and evolutionary-based algorithms and simultaneously considering customers’ and trip’s characteristics. Therefore, we present a new network traffic management for urban cities that optimizes a multi-objective function that related to the expected value of the Markov decision system’s reward using the Genetic Algorithm. The planned Shiraz city is taken as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of the proposed approach. At first, an analysis is also performed on the impact of the toll levels on the variation of the user and operator cost components, respectively. After choosing suitable values for the network parameters, simulation of the Markov decision process and GA is dynamically performed, then the optimal decision for the Markov decision process in terms of total reward is obtained. The results illustrate that the proposed cordon pricing has significant improvement in performance for all seasons including spring, autumn, and winter.
EN
The article presents a method for assessing emissions of harmful substances and noise from road and air transport, as well as a combined assessment of the emissions of these transport pollutants. The original analytical dependencies reflecting the emissions of harmful substances from road transport, developed as part of the EMITRANSYS project implemented at the Faculty of Transport of the Warsaw University of Technology, were taken into consideration, in which the unit values of the actual road emissions of harmful substances are a function of, among other things, route length or speed of the vehicles. However, the dependencies associated with noise emissions were taken from the applicable international guidelines for assessing environmental pollution by traffic noise. The article also describes a case study in which the impact of Warsaw Chopin Airport on noise along the Warsaw road network and the entire Warsaw agglomeration was assessed. Analyses and discussions were carried out in the scope of the change in transport noise due to air operations carried out in the analysed area. As agreed, the combined impact of road and aircraft noise in the area under study is far more unfavourable than street noise alone. Thus, it can be seen that the assessment of noise levels carried out separately for individual modes of transport (in accordance with applicable regulations) should be supplemented with the assessment of traffic noise from all modes of transport – especially in the case of simulation tests of ecologically friendly changes in the area of transport.
PL
Rośliny to biologiczni sprzymierzeńcy człowieka w walce o czyste powietrze. Ich obecność w mieście warto wykorzystać nie tylko do poprawy estetyki otoczenia, ale też w walce o nasze zdrowie.
20
EN
The aim of the work was to evaluate the possibility of monitoring the work of classical catalytic reactor by its ability to store oxygen. For this purpose, a special research reactor was developed to simulate the loss of its storage capacity of oxygen from 100% to 12.5% in increments of 12.5%. Also a test bench is described. It allows conducting experiments with research reactor, both in terms of his work on the standard, stoichiometric mixture and forced changing rich-poor mixture. In this article the impact of the reactor oxygen storage capacity loss on obtained conversion levels of CO, HC and NOX was described. Also the index of reactor oxygen storage capacity loss was defined and was referred to levels of toxic gases conversion in the catalytic reactor. On the basis of the results of research and its analysis the final conclusions were formulated.
PL
Celem pracy było dokonanie oceny możliwości monitorowania pracy klasycznego reaktora katalitycznego za pomocą oceny jego zdolności do magazynowania tlenu. W tym celu został przygotowany specjalny reaktor badawczy pozwalający symulować utratę jego pojemności magazynowania tlenu od 100% do 12,5% z krokiem co 12,5%. Przygotowano również stanowisko badawcze pozwalające na przeprowadzenie badań eksperymentalnych reaktora zarówno w warunkach jego pracy klasycznie na mieszance stechiometrycznej, jak i na mieszance skokowo zmiennej bogata–uboga. Określono wpływ utraty pojemności magazynowania reaktora na uzyskiwane w nim poziomy konwersji CO, HC oraz NOX, a następnie wyznaczono indeks utraty pojemności magazynowania tlenu, od którego uzależniono spadek konwersji związków toksycznych spalin w reaktorze. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań i analiz sformułowano wnioski końcowe.
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