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EN
The present study addresses an ecofriendly solution to treat automobile service stations effluents with high concentrations of oily substances, surfactants, organic matter and heavy metals. Bioadsorption using sawdust from pine trees, sugar cane bagasse and coconut coir without any chemical modification removed colloidal contamination up to 70%. Polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and polyacrylamide were applied to remove dissolved and colloidal pollutants under saline conditions without change of initial pH. Both bioadsorption and coagulation-flocculation removed up to 97.8% of BOD, COD, surfactants and heavy metals at a saline concentration of 1.5% NaCl. The increase of ionic strength promoted a high sludge index and a representative cost saving in chemicals consumption of almost 70%. High levels of pollution removal with the minimal use of chemicals is herein presented.
EN
Gaseous emissions during thermal animal waste treatment in a meat production plant have been determined. A dry flue gas system with a multisectional bag filter was installed at a meat production plant. Animal waste was incinerated in a rotary kiln, the capacity of the plant was 700 kg/h. The average thirty-minute (1352 samples) emission values of volatile dust, total organic carbon (TOC), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon oxide (CO) were obtained during a study period of 1 month. Specific samples were collected to determine dioxin, furane, heavy metal, mercury, cadmium and thallium concentrations. Histograms of the obtained results were prepared, and the results were compared with the permissible emission levels defined by the European Union. Additionally, justification was provided when the observed values exceeded the levels defined by the European Union.
EN
Effective removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions belongs to the most important issues for many industrialized countries. Removal of copper(II) and zinc(II) ions from leaching solution of industrial waste were studied using hazelnut, almond and walnut shells. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in function of pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption kinetics was investigated using the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order, Elovich equations and intraparticle diffusion models. The results indicate that the second order model best describes adsorption kinetic data and the agricultural by products investigated may be used for removal of copper(II) and zinc(II) ions from leaching solution of industrial waste.
EN
Biomass could be a particularly interesting fuel for heat production in the rural areas of Poland using various agricultural residues such as forest wood, wood waste, and straw of different crops. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of air pollutants emitted from a small retort boiler (15 kW) fuelled by three kinds of pellets composed of wood, wheat and rape straws were performed. The wooden pellet combustion generates the smallest concentration of CO; however, the concentration of highly toxic formaldehyde and benzene are the highest of all fuels. When considering CO and VOCs concentration in flue gas, the most advantageous fuel of those tested are wheat straw pellets.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono istniejący stan wiedzy z zakresu różnych technologii wytwarzania biogazu, w tym z wykorzystaniem biomasy. Przedstawiono także rozwiązania systemowe tworzenia biogazowni, a także scharakteryzowano krajowe możliwości surowcowe w tym zakresie. Omówiono także możliwości wykorzystania biogazu z biomasy, oczyszczonego do celów energetycznych, jako biopaliwa drugiej generacji.
EN
This paper submit current conditions and state of art in the field of biogas production in scope of modern technologies, possibilities of feedstock supply on national level and feasibility of second generation biofuels production.
PL
Omówiono perspektywy rozwoju i zastosowania termicznego przerabiania odpadów organicznych i biomasy na użyteczne surowce chemiczne i energetyczne. Zdecydowanie największy potencjał aplikacyjny przestawia zgazowanie i inwersja otrzymanego gazu, prowadzące do mieszaniny gazów określanych jako gaz syntezowy. Jest to znany surowiec syntezy chemicznej, mogący zastąpić stosowane obecnie surowce petrochemiczne. Procesy termiczne wydzielają energię do zagospodarowania, spalane energetycznie mogą być też odpady omawianych technologii.
EN
Perspectives of application and further development of thermal processing of biomass and organic wastes are described. Among them, the gasification and product gas shift to synthesis gas, represents the very best perspectives. Synthesis gas is a well known raw material for chemical synthesis, which can succesfully replace petrochemical raw materials used at present. Thermal processes yields also excesss of energy which can be exploited and byproducts which can be burned for energy purposes.
PL
Zaprezentowano rozwój technologii przetwarzania odpadów zwierzęcych i roślinnych poprzez beztlenową fermentację do biogazu i nawozu wieloskładnikowego. Opisano budowę oraz uruchamianie klasycznej instalacji tego typu w warunkach polskiego rolnictwa na bazie doświadczeń autora.
EN
Development of animal and plants wastes technology development was presented via oxygen-free fermentation to biogas and multi-component fertiliser. Construction and commencing of classic installation was presented of this type in the conditions of Polish agriculture on the basis of the author's experience.
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