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PL
Przedstawiono projekt rozwiązania technologicznego opartego na pomiarach NDT, w szczególności metodzie emisji akustycznej i badań georadarowych, mający na celu lokalizację i identyfikację potencjalnych uszkodzeń na infrastrukturze gazowej. W propozycji przewidziano wykorzystanie sieci neuronowych oraz hierarchicznych i niehierarchicznych metod statystycznych analizy BIG DATA do stworzenia samorozpoznawalnej bazy sygnałów wzorcowych, identyfikującej generowane sygnały procesów destrukcyjnych. Rezultatem projektu ma być nowa technologia umożliwiająca zarządcy sieci gazowej bezpieczną i ekonomicznie uzasadnioną eksploatację sieci gazowej.
EN
The project aims to create a technological solution based on NDT measurements, in particular the method of acoustic emission and GPR surveys. These methods will enable the location and identification of potential damage to gas infrastructure. For this purpose, neural networks, hierarchical and non-hierarchical statistical methods of BIG DATA analysis will be used to create a self-identifying database of reference signals of destructive processes. The result of the project will be a new technology and service to enable the gas network manager to operate the gas network safety and economically in an optimal way.
EN
The study presented research on the possibility of using acoustic emission to detect and analyze the development of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in cement mortars. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions using mortars with reactive opal aggregate, accelerating the reaction by ensuring high humidity and temperature, in accordance with ASTM C227. The progress of corrosion processes was monitored continuously for 14 days. The tests were complemented with measurements of the expansion of the mortars and observations of microstructures under a scanning electron microscope. The high sensitivity of the acoustic emission method applied to material fracture caused by ASR enabled the detection of corrosion processes already on the first day of the test, much sooner than the first recorded changes in linear elongation of the specimens. Characteristic signal descriptors were analyzed to determine the progress of corrosion processes and indicate the source of the cracks. Analysis of recorded 13 AE parameters (counts total, counts to peak, duration, rise time, energy, signal strength, amplitude, RMS, ASL, relative energy, average frequency, initial frequency and reverberation frequency) indicates that the number of counts, signal strength and average frequency provide most information about the deleterious processes that occur in the reactive aggregate mortars. The values of RA (rise time/amplitude) and AF (average frequency) enabled the classification of detected signals as indicating tensile or shear cracks. The acoustic emission method was found suitable for monitoring the course of alkali-aggregate reaction effects.
EN
It has been shown in acoustic emission literature that the distance between a possible cracking event and a receiver is affecting the signal parameters providing a wrong image of the real fracture characteristics. In this study, lab-scale experimental tests on masonry components are performed in order to determine the disturbance of the acoustic emission wave properties and verify the experimental observations via numerical wave propagation analysis. The investigation is extended to different geometries including “couplets,” “triplets” and masonry walls. The simulations allow to understand, verify and predict the acoustic emission signal properties alterations in many different types of masonry experiments as well as the correct characterization of the fracture mode.
EN
To better understand the mechanical behavior in a jointed rock mass, a series of uniaxial compression tests were conducted on non-persistently jointed rock specimens with double circular holes. Acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques were applied to capture micro-crack events and real-time strain field evolution in the specimens. The results indicate that the existence of non-persistent joints has a significant influence on the strength characteristics of the specimens. Specifically, peak strength decreases at first and reaches a minimum at 30° then increases with increase in the joint dip angle. DIC technology has successfully monitored the development of surface strain fields. The fracture evolution process is comprehensively understood. Every sudden change in a strain field is usually accompanied by apparent AE events and stress–strain curves take the form of oscillations. The crack coalescence modes among joints can be summarized as six types and the crack coalescence patterns around holes and joints can be divided into three categories. These results are helpful to understanding further the mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of openings in non-persistently jointed rock masses.
EN
In this research work, four groups of selective laser melted specimens were built from AlSi10Mg-0403 powder. Each group represents the direction with respect to the bed in which the specimens are built (X, Y, Z and 45° orientation). The mechanical properties of the specimens are characterized in terms of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break. In addition to that, the acoustic emission (AE) during the testing was monitored using wide-band high-accuracy piezoelectric sensors. The AE results were related to the mechanical characteristics of the specimens in terms of the acoustic parameter-based data, the peak amplitude, cumulative energy and count rate. The mechanical results show that the specimens built along the z direction have relatively lower strength and it can be attributed to the borderline porosity formed during the SLM process. The acoustic results can identify the critical points of failure under loading. The AE technique proves to be a powerful tool in characterizing the mechanical property and can unveil the concealed information which cannot be identified directly from the mechanical results.
6
Content available remote The use of acoustic emission signal (AE) in mechanical tests
EN
The article presents the possibilities of using the acoustic emission signal in mechanical tests. A static tensile test of the polyester-glass composite samples was carried out with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emission signal generated in the loaded material by means of a connected piezoelectric sensor (PAC system). The acoustic waves created inside the loaded material were processed by a sensor placed directly on the sample and recorded in the form of a digital signal in the recording device. This signal was subjected to further processing and the RMS values were plotted as a function of time, the obtained graphs were applied to stretching curves. Comparison of RMS and tensile plots allows for very accurate identification of processes occurring in the structure of the tested material subjected to loading.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono możliwości wykorzystania sygnału emisji akustycznej w badaniach mechanicznych. Przeprowadzono statyczną próbę rozciągania próbek z kompozytu poliestrowo-szklanego z jednoczesną rejestracją sygnału emisji akustycznej generowanego w obciążanym materiale za pomocą podłączonego czujnika piezoelektrycznego (system PAC). Fale akustyczne powstałe we wnętrzu obciążanego materiału zostały przetworzone przez czujnik umieszczony bezpośrednio na próbce i zarejestrowane w formie sygnału cyfrowego w urządzeniu rejestrującym. Sygnał ten poddany został dalszej obróbce i na jego podstawie sporządzono wykresy wartości skutecznej sygnału elektrycznego (RMS) w funkcji czasu, uzyskane wykresy naniesiono na krzywe rozciągania. Porównanie wykresów RMS i rozciągania pozwala na bardzo dokładną identyfikację procesów zachodzących w strukturze badanego materiału poddanego obciążeniu.
EN
A computer measurement system, designed and built by authors, dedicated to location and description of partial discharges (PD) in oil power transformers examined by means of the acoustic emission (AE) method is presented. The measurement system is equipped with 8 measurement channels and ensures: monitoring of signals, registration of data in real time within a band of 25-1000 kHz in laboratory and real conditions, basic and advanced analysis of recorded signals. The basic analysis carried out in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains deals with general properties of the AE signals coming from PDs. The advanced analysis, performed in the discrimination threshold domain, results in identification of signals coming from different acoustic sources as well as location of these sources in the examined transformers in terms of defined by authors descriptors and maps of these descriptors on the side walls of the tested transformer tank. Examples of typical results of laboratory tests carried out with the use of the built-in measurement system are presented.
EN
The article deals with the use of acoustic emission to identify the formation of cracks during the mechanical loading in the corrosive attacked weldment S235JR+N. The experiment includes the methodology for continual record of emissive signals, data analysis and monitoring of material response to monitor mechanical stress effect in real time. There is possibility to observe response of corrosive degraded samples in real time during mechanical stress through the suitably designed methodology of detection, process and analysing of acoustic emission signals. It is possible to gain new information about processes rising inside the material by this way of data measurement. The signals of acoustic emission can be used as the way of identification for the micro cracks rising in the inner and also external structure of effortful materials.
EN
Usually machining centres for processing wood-based and composite materials have moving partial machine enclosures in the X-axis direction. Because the workpieces to be machined are often large (e.g. aircraft doors), these partial enclosures have prevailed on the market compared to voluminous complete enclosures. Owing to the general trend towards complete machining through process integration, an increasing number of additional units are integrated into machining centres in addition to the main spindle. This leads to an increase of the mass to be moved as well as a larger and thus heavier partial enclosure. This inevitable increase in mass leads to a deterioration of the dynamic properties of the machine. To counteract this increase in mass, the use of lightweight design materials for machine enclosures becomes in the focus of attention. The lightweight materials to be used must comply with the requirements of modern mechanical engineering and legislation: retention in the event of tool breakage, reduction in the noise exposure of the machine environment and cost-effective solutions compared to the materials used nowadays. The sheet steel used today as material for partial enclosures is therefore to be supplemented or replaced with suitable lightweight design materials. Different lightweight materials are qualified for suitability as machine enclosure. Apart from mass reduction, ecological as well as economic aspects of the used materials play an important role. For this purpose, the safety properties (impact resistance in case of tool breakage / collision) of these weight-reduced materials have to be determined. In addition, an improvement in the acoustic behaviour of the machine is achieved by the new lightweight materials since the machine enclosure shields the distinctive sound sources.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine how the presence of graphene in a lubricant (SN-500) affects the behaviour of a tribosystem. The tribological tests were conducted in lubricated, boundary lubricated, and dry sliding friction conditions using a tribometer with the pin and disc made of 100Cr6 steel. The pin and disc wear was monitored using the acoustic emission method. SpectraPLUS was employed to analyse the sampled signals written in the 16-bit linear pulse-code modulation format. Sound level measurements required applying an A-weighting filter and then 1/1 and 1/3 octave filters. The microstructural observations of the pin and disc that followed the tribological tests were performed using a scanning electron microscope. The surface texture of both specimens was measured with an optical profiler. Identification of the elements before and after tribological tests was performed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS X-ray microanalyser. The experimental data show that the most effective performance of the analysed tribosystem was observed in the presence of the graphene-enhanced lubricant.
PL
Celem badania było porównanie wpływu grafenu w olejach smarowych na działanie systemów tribologicznych. Testy tribologiczne zostały zrealizowane na tribometrze TRB3 w ruchu ślizgowym w warunkach tarcia technicznie suchego, ze smarowaniem olejem SN-500 oraz z dodatkiem grafenem. Węzeł tarcia stanowiła próbka i przeciwpróbka wykonane ze stali 100Cr6. Dźwięk został zarejestrowany w standardzie Linear PCM 16-bit, a następnie poddany analizie w programie SpectraPlus. Dla kolejnych chwil czasu wyznaczono wartości poziomu dźwięku, a także poziomy dźwięku w poszczególnych pasmach oktawowych i 1/3-oktawowych. Obserwacje struktury tarczy i kulki po testach tribologicznych wykonano mikroskopem skaningowym Phenom. Strukturę geometryczną powierzchni obu elementów zbadano za pomocą Profilometru optycznego Leica. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że użycie środka smarowego wpłynęło na zmniejszenie zużycia badanych par tnących w systemach tribologicznych.
EN
This paper presents the methodology and research results of monitoring of compressed air starting system of 3AL25/30 engine placed in Maritime Engineering Faculty of Gdynia Maritime University. Research was carried out using a set of acoustic emission Vallen System. Analysis of recorded parameters revealed leakage in the installation – damage of one of the valves. The test results indicate that the AE method can be useful for monitoring the technical condition of pressure systems of engines and devices in a ship's engine room during normal operation as an on-line system.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodykę oraz wyniki badań monitorowania systemu startowego sprężonego powietrza silnika 3AL25/30, będącego na wyposażeniu Laboratorium Siłowni Okrętowych Wydziału Mechanicznego Uniwersytetu Morskiego w Gdyni. Badania przeprowadzono za pomocą zestawu do rejestracji i analizy emisji akustycznej Vallen System. Analiza zarejestrowanych sygnałów wykazała nieszczelność w instalacji – uszkodzenie jednego z zaworów. Wyniki badań wskazują, że metoda EA może być przydatna do monitorowania stanu technicznego instalacji ciśnieniowych silników i urządzeń w siłowni okrętowej podczas normalnej pracy w czasie rzeczywistym.
EN
A monitoring system for fatigue crack propagation was developed using a non-contact acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system. The AE signals generated during the plane bending fatigue test were first monitored. The AE generation rate increased after approximately 0.5 of the fatigue life ratio. The maximum amplitude of the AE signals increased with a tendency similar to that of the crack propagation. The sensor sensitivities for the flat and arced surfaces were then compared. The sensitivity improved when the specimen surface was flat. The bar specimen with plane surfaces was used for the AE monitoring of the rotary bending fatigue test. From 0.715 of the fatigue life ratio, the AE generation rate increased after crack generation. The AE signals were detected at an earlier stage of the fatigue life in the flat surface specimen compared with the arc surface specimen during the rotary bending fatigue test. The detection of fatigue cracks in the rotary component at an early stage was possible using a non-contact AE monitoring system.
EN
The article discusses complex tests of an actual pressure vessel after its long-lasting operation in a petroleum distillation system. As a result of exposure to extreme conditions, the structural material of the vessel degraded and corroded significantly. The corrosion damage was identified and imaged using a Phased Array technique-based ultrasonic method. The subsequent stage of investigation involved hydraulic tests and the recording of acoustic emission signals. Stress concentration fields in damaged areas were identified using the FEM-based simulation method. The test results will be used to develop the complex methodology enabling the evaluation of the technical condition of pressure vessels used in the petrochemical industry. The above-named objective constitutes the primary goal of Programme LEADER VII, funded by the National Centre for Research and Development.
PL
Wykonano kompleksowe badania stanowiskowe rzeczywistego zbiornika ciśnieniowego poddanego wieloletniej eksploatacji w instalacji destylacji ropy naftowej. Na skutek pracy w warunkach ekstremalnych materiał elementów konstrukcji urządzenia uległ degradacji oraz zawierał liczne uszkodzenia korozyjne, które zostały zidentyfikowane i odwzorowane za pomocą szczegółowych badań metodą ultradźwiękową z wykorzystaniem techniki Phased Array. Na dalszym etapie badań wykonano próby hydrauliczne z rejestracją sygnałów emisji akustycznej. W celu określenia stref o koncentracji pola naprężeń w obszarach uszkodzeń dodatkowo wykonano symulację metodą elementów skończonych. Wyniki wykonanych badań stanowią bazę do opracowania złożonej metodyki oceny stanu technicznego urządzeń ciśnieniowych przemysłu rafineryjnego – głównego celu projektu badawczego Programu LIDER VII sfinansowanego przez Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju.
EN
This paper presents results obtained from a laboratory investigation conducted on material from a pressure vessel after longterm operation in the oil refinery industry. The tested material contained structural defects which arose from improper heat treatment during steel plate manufacturing. Complex tensile tests with acoustic emission signal recording were conducted on both notched and unnotched specimens. The detailed analysis of different acoustic emission criteria allowed as to detect each stage of plastic deformation and microstructural damage processes after a long-term operation, and unused carbon steels during quasi-static axial tension testing. The acoustic emission activity, generated in the typical stages of material deformation, was correlated by microscopy observations during the tensile test. The results are to be used as the basis for new algorithms for the assessment of the structural condition of in-service pressure equipment.
EN
The paper presents results obtained from the destructive laboratory investigation conducted on materials from pressure vessels after long-term operation in the refinery industry. Tested materials contained structural defects, which arose from improper heat treatment during steel plate manufacturing. Detailed metallographic and chemical composition tests and static tensile tests were conducted. Next, complex tensile tests were conducted with simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) monitoring while observing microstructural changes by light microscopy. From the laboratory tests, the correlations between the AE signal parameters and material microstructural damage during the tensile tests were developed. The results will be used as a basis of new algorithms for the structural condition assessment of in-service pressure equipment.
EN
The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
EN
In the paper, the results of investigations on the properties of acoustic emission signals generated in a tested pressure vessel are presented. The investigations were performed by repeating several Times the following procedure: an increase in pressure, maintaining a given pressure level, a further increase in pressure, and then maintaining the pressure at new determined level. During the tests the acoustic emission signals were recorded by the measuring system 8AE-PD with piezoelectric sensors D9241A. The used eight-channel measuring system 8AE-PD enables the monitoring, recording and then basic and advanced analysis of signals. The results of basic analysis carried out in domain of time and the results of advanced analysis carried out in the discrimination threshold domain of the recorded acoustic emission signals are presented in the paper. In the framework of the advanced analysis, results are described by the defined by the author descriptors with acronyms ADC, ADP and ADNC. Such description is based on identifying the properties of amplitude distributions of acoustic emission signals by assigning them the level of advancement. It is shown that for signals including continoues AE or single burst AE signals descriptions of such registered signals by means of ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors and by Upp and Urms descriptors provide identical ordering of registered acoustic emission signals. For complex signals, the description using ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors based on the analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded signals gives the order of signals with more accurate connection with deformational processes being sources of acoustic emission signals.
EN
One of the most important issues that power companies face when trying to reduce time and cost maintenance is condition monitoring. In electricity market worldwide, a significant amount of electrical energy is produced by synchronous machines. One type of these machines is brushless synchronous generators in which the rectifier bridge is mounted on rotating shafts. Since bridge terminals are not accessible in this type of generators, it is difficult to detect the possible faults on the rectifier bridge. Therefore, in this paper, a method is proposed to facilitate the rectifier fault detection. The proposed method is then evaluated by applying two conventional kinds of faults on rectifier bridges including one diode open-circuit and two diode open-circuit (one phase open-circuit of the armature winding in the auxiliary generator in experimental set). To extract suitable features for fault detection, the wavelet transform has been used on recorded audio signals. For classifying faulty and healthy states, K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) supervised classification method was used. The results show a good accuracy of the proposed method.
EN
Q235 steel is widely used in engineering and construction. Therefore, it is important to identify the damage mechanism and the acoustic emission (AE) response of the material to ensure the safety of structures. In this study, an AE monitor system and an in situ tensile test with an optical microscope were used to investigate the AE response and insight into the damage process of Q235 steel. The surface of the specimen was polished and etched before the test in order to improve the quality of micrographs. Two kinds of AE responses, namely a burst and a continuous signal, were recorded by the AE monitor system during the test. Based on the in situ test, it was observed that the damage of Q235 steel was induced by the crystal slip and the inclusion fracture. Since the crystal slip was an ongoing process, continuous AE signals were produced, while burst AE signals were possibly produced by the inclusion fracture which occurred suddenly with released higher energy. In addition, a great number of AE signals with high amplitude were observed during the yielding stage and then the number and amplitude decreased.
EN
Hydraulic fracturing technique has been used to exploit hydrocarbons resources in the past years. To investigate the mechanism of hydrofracturing process, a true triaxial hydraulic fracturing device combined with acoustic emission (AE) system is employed to study the crack initiation and propagation under different injection rates. Furthermore, a 3D scanner is employed to obtain the morphology of the fractured surface when the fracturing test completes. The results show that in hydraulic fracturing, the cracks propagating mostly perpendicular to the direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress. A lower injection rate corresponds to the peak value of the AE count occurring at a later time and a large value of the cumulative AE count, indicating greater damage and a complicated crack propagation path. With the injection rate increased, the earlier the microcracks occur, the shorter the fracturing time of the specimen is, and the fatter the fracture morphology.
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