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1
Content available Halloysite intercalated by potassium acetate
EN
Halloysite was intercalated by the mechanochemical technique from dry components. The process efficiency of 50% was achieved. The obtained intercalate differed from the material acquired using an aqueous solution of potassium acetate. The material was analyzed employing electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and dielectric spectroscopy. It was found that the molecules and/or ions present in the interlayer spaces retain some possibility of movement. This property of the material is promising for potential application as low expensive absorbers of electromagnetic radiation.
EN
ZnO thin layers were deposited on p-type silicon substrates by the sol-gel spin-coating method and, then, annealed at various temperatures in the range of 573-873 K. Photoluminescence was carried out in the temperature range of 20-300 K. All samples showed two dominant peaks that have UV emissions from 300 nm to 400 nm and visible emissions from 400 nm to 800 nm. Influence of temperature on morphology and chemical composition of fabricated thin layers was examined by XRD, SEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. These measurements indicate that ZnO structure is obtained for samples annealed at temperatures above 573 K. It means that below this temperature, the obtained thin films are not pure zinc oxide. Thus, annealing temperature significantly affected crystallinity of the thin films.
EN
Nanoparticles of Li2MnO3 were fabricated by sol-gel method using precursors of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, and citric acid as chelating agent in the stoichiometric ratio. TGA/DTA measurements of the sample in the regions of 30 °C to 176 °C, 176 °C to 422 °C and 422 °C to 462 °C were taken to identify the decomposition temperature and weight loss. The XRD analysis of the sample indicates that the synthesized material is monoclinic crystalline in nature and the calculated lattice parameters are 4.928 Å (a), 8.533 Å (b), and 9.604 Å (c). The surface morphology, particle size and elemental analysis of the samples were observed using SEM and EDAX techniques and the results confirmed the agglomeration of nanoparticles and, as expected, Li2MnO3 composition. Half cells of Li2MnO3 were assembled and tested at C/10 rate and the maximum capacity of 27 mAh/g was obtained. Charging and discharging processes that occurred at 3 V and 4 V were clearly observed from the cyclic voltammetric experiments. Stability of the electrodes was confirmed by the perfect reversibility of the anodic and cathodic peak positions observed in the cyclic voltammogram of the sample. The Li2MnO3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent properties and they are suitable for cathode materials in lithium ion batteries.
EN
Without the use of appropriate recycling technologies, the growing amount of electronic waste in the world can be a threat to the development of new technologies, and in the case of improper waste management, may have a negative impact on the environment. This is due to the fact that this waste contains large amounts of valuable metals and toxic polymers. Therefore, it should be recycled in accordance with the assumptions of the circular economy. The methods of mechanical recovery of metals from electronic waste, including printed circuits, may be widely used in the future by waste management companies as well as metal production and processing companies. That is why, a well-known and easily applicable electrostatic separation (ES) method was used to recover metals from printed circuit boards. The grain class of 0.32 - 0.10 mm, obtained after grinding the boards, was fed to a separator. Feed and separation products were analyzed by means of ICP-AES, SEM/EDS and XRD. The concentrate yield obtained after electrostatic separation amounted to 32.3% of the feed. Its density was 11.1 g/cc. Out of the 91.44% elements identified in the concentrate, over 90% were metals. XRD, SEM observations and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of non-metallic materials in the concentrate. This relatively high content of impurities indicates the need to grind printed circuit board into grain classes smaller than 0.32-0.10 mm.
EN
This study examines the flexural strength and compressive strength of the mortars, which were mixed with the electromagnetic field treated water (EMFTW) and contained fly ash. EMFTW was obtained by passing the tap water through an electromagnetic field. The test variable was the fly ash content in place of cement and the water treated with EMFTW in place of the tap water. The results show that the flexural and compressive strength of the mortar samples mixed with MFTW is 12.56% and 15.8% higher than that prepared with the tap water, respectively. It was also found that the magnetized water improves the resistance to bending and compression by 12.67% and 4.35% to that prepared with the tap water and 10% fly ash instead of cement.
EN
Perovskite is able to sequester simultaneously, in its structure, both actinides and alkaline-earth elements. This study is an attempt to synthesize a complex perovskite Ca0.91-xCe0.09Rb0.04Csx [(Zr0.50Ti0.45)Al0.05]O3 (0.2≤x≤0.4), doped in the same time, with Ce, Cs and Rb. The synthesis is conducted by sintering at 1150°C during 16h. XRX analysis confirms the perovskite formation. SEM observations show a less porous microstructure. FTIR analysis reveals TiO6, Ti-O-Ti, Ti-O and Zr-O vibrations. Raman spectroscopy indicates many orthorhombic perovskite active modes, as: Ti-O6 and Ti-O3 torsions, ZrO7, CaO8 vibrations, the totally symmetric oxygen, and the O-octahedron cage rotation.
PL
Określono wpływ współspalania osadów ściekowych z osadami pokoagulacyjnymi lub dennymi w kotłach fluidalnych FBC (fluidized bed combustion). Spalanie mieszanek osadów ściekowych z 10-proc. i 20-proc. udziałem masowym pozostałych osadów przeprowadzono w temp. 830–990°C. Porównano przebieg procesu fluidyzacji oraz zawartość NOx, SOx w spalinach. Surowce i powstałe popioły charakteryzowano przy użyciu analizy elementarnej, termograwimetrycznej (TG/DTA) i dyfraktometrycznej (XRD). Stwierdzono, że współspalanie osadu ściekowego z osadem pokoagulacyjnym lub dennym nie powoduje stapiania popiołu, ponadto zmniejsza zawartość NOx i SOx w spalinach w porównaniu z samodzielnym spalaniem komunalnych osadów ściekowych.
EN
Sewage sludge and its mixts. with post-coagulation or bottom sediments (10 or 20% by mass) were combusted at 830–990°C to compare compns. of exhaust gases (NOx, SOx). Use of the mixts. and lower temps. of their combustion resulted in a significant redn. of the NOx content in the exhaust gas. Cocombustion of sewage sludge with postcoagulation or bottom sediments did not result in melting of ash at the tested temps.
EN
Nano-sized Y- Ag doped and co-doped TiO2 particles were synthesized using the sol–gel method and Ti(OBu)4 as TiO2 precursor. Their structural and optical properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), FT-IR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was investigated for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) as a model reaction under visible light irradiation. Ground state diffuse reflectance absorption studies reveal that both Y and Ag dopant cause deviations of the band gap to higher energies attesting that co-doping the TiO2 with Y and Ag could enhance the photocatalytic activity by delaying the electron–hole recombination by means of higher energy band gaps. Co-doping TiO2 at a level of 4% (Y, Ag) samples leads to a significant decrease in the crystallite size of photocatalyst and containing both anatase and Ag/AgCl components. However, the high photocatalytic performance is attributed to an efficient electron-hole pairs separation at the photocatalyst interfaces in addition to localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag particles. The development of these visible light- activated nanocatalysts has the potential of providing environmentally benign routes for water treatment.
PL
Austenityczne stale chromowo-niklowe 304 (1.4301) i 304L (1.4306 oraz 1.4307) od wielu lat są wykorzystywane do budowy urządzeń technologicznych instalowanych na oczyszczalniach ścieków, przepompowniach i zakładach uzdatniania wody. Stale te mogą ulegać korozji w środowisku wodnym z dużą zawartością siarkowodoru oraz okresowo podwyższoną zawartością chlorków. Przykładem szybko postępujących zniszczeń jest opisana w pracy korozja sitopiaskownika, który po 2 latach eksploatacji odznaczał się perforacjami na pokrywach oraz w górnej części ponad poziomem ścieków. Przeprowadzone badania mikroskopowe potwierdziły obecność żywych komórek bakterii i grzybów na ściankach sitopiaskownika. Metoda fluorescencyjnej hybrydyzacji in situ (FISH) wykazała obecność bakterii z klasy γ- i δ-proteobacteria oraz bakterii siarkowych (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans) należących do klasy γ-proteobacteria. Badania wskazały, że największa intensywność korozji miała miejsce w częściach sitopiaskownika narażonych na działanie wilgotnego powietrza zanieczyszczonego siarkowodorem.
EN
Austenitic chromium-nickel steels 304 (1.4301) and 304L (1.4306 and 1.4307) have been used for many years to build technological devices in water and sewage treatment plants or pumping stations. These steels can be corrosive in aqueous environments with a high content of hydrogen sulphide and periodically increased chloride concentrations. The paper describes an example of fast-progressing corrosive damage of a screenings and grit separator, which after 2 years of operation perforations on the covers and in the part of wall above the sewage level. Microscopic observations confirmed the presence of living cells of bacteria and fungi on the walls of the screenings and grit separator. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method showed the presence of sulfur bacteria (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans) and bacteriafrom the γ- and δ-proteobacteria class. Studies have shown that the highest intensity of corrosion occurred in the parts of the screenings and grit separator exposed to humid air contaminated with hydrogen sulphide.
EN
Layered magnetic heterostructures are very promising candidates in spintronics in which the influences of interfaces, surfaces and defects play a crucial role. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for studying in detail the chemical state and electronic structure of Co2FeAl (CFA) Heusler alloy interfaced with Si substrates. XPS survey scan spectra have clearly shown the presence of Fe, Co and Al signal along with the signal due to Si. The presence of Co, Fe and Al signal confirms the formation of CFA alloy phase. Our XPS results support our previous study [1] on CFA/Si structure in determining the magnetic and transport properties across the interface.
11
Content available remote Synthesis and characterization of high-efficiency low-cost solar cell thin film
EN
Polycrystalline chalcogenide semiconductors play a vital role in solar cell applications due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Among the chalcogenide semi-conductors, CdZnS is one kind of such important material for applications in various modern solid state devices such as solar cells, light emitting diode, detector etc. Due to their applications in numerous electro-optic devices, group II-VI semiconductors have been studied extensively. In recent years, major attention has been given to the study of electrical and optical properties of CdZnS thin films. In this work, Cd1−xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique. Phase purity and surface morphology properties were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Chemical composition was studied using energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Optical band gap property was investigated using UV-Spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity studies were performed by two probe method and thermoelectric power setup (TEP) to determine the type of the material. This work reports the effect of Zn on structural, electrical, microstructural and optical properties of these films.
12
EN
Structural, morphological, optical and electrical characteristics of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and boron doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:B) films deposited on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method and heated up to 350±5 °C were studied. B doping at various concentrations did not change the crystal structure of the ZnS film and it also did not cause any significant change in the size of crystallites. Maximum transmittance values of the B doped ZnS films increased parallel to doping rate. Transmittance edges showed shifting towards smaller wavelengths due to the effect of B doping. B doping increased optical band gap values. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the film surfaces showed that B doping did not cause any significant change in grain sizes of the films. Presence of all expected elements in the films including Zn, S and B was confirmed through Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) analysis. Significant peaks of foreign phases on the film surfaces were observed through Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The electrical resistivity values of the films were calculated by means of current-voltage characteristics.
EN
In this paper, Cd0.3Zn0.7S thin film has been electrodeposited from aqueous bath containing CdSO4, ZnSO4, Na2S2O3 and EDTA, having pH ~ 14. The structural, optical, morphological, surface wettability and photoluminescence properties of the film were investigated. The XRD pattern showed that the film consisted of mixed phases of CdS and ZnS with polycrystalline structure. The bandgap of the film was evaluated as 2.69 eV. The AFM study revealed that the Cd0.3Zn0.7S thin film contained spherical grains with root mean square roughness of 6.09 nm. The water contact angle measurement showed that the thin film was hydrophilic in nature. Moreover, the PL study revealed that the excitation wavelength was 460 nm.
EN
Present paper reports optical and electrical properties of samarium doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin film which was grown on a glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method (CBD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the deposited films were nanocrystalline with sphalerite cubic structure. The average crystallite size calculated from FWHM of XRD peaks was found to be 10.11 nm. The bandgap of the Sm doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin films was calculated to be 1.91 eV to 2.22 eV. The optical absorption edge of undoped (pure) and Sm doped CdSe films was obtained between 650 nm to 640 nm showing blue shift as compared to bulk CdSe. Sm doping further enhanced the photoconductivity of these films. The I-V characteristic confirmed the suitability of prepared films for photosensor applications.
EN
In this work the authors present the properties of the Fe59Mn27Ni7Cr3Si4 (at. %) shape memory alloy. Two different phases were discovered during the XRD analysis and Fe-Mn phase was identified. The hardness of the investigated material in the as-cast state was 194 HV. The nano hardness was 511 HV and Young modulus was determined as 159 GPa. AFM and LFM tests allowed to observe linear arrangement of one phase formed as multiple irregular separations. Shape memory effect was not observed in the temperature range 22 – 600oC.
EN
The aim of these studies was to obtain single phase cubic modification of Li7La3Zr2O12 by mechanical milling and annealing of La(OH)3, Li2CO3 and ZrO2 powder mixture. Fritsch P5 planetary ball mill, Rigaku MiniFlex II X-ray diffractometer, Setaram TG-DSC 1500 analyser and FEI Titan 80-300 transmission electron microscope were used for sample preparation and investigations. The applied milling and annealing parameters allowed to obtain the significant contribution of c-Li7La3Zr2O12 in the sample structure, reaching 90%. Thermal measurements revealed more complex reactions requiring further studies.
EN
The aim of the paper is the residual stress analysis of AlSi10Mg material fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The SLM technique allows to product of complex geometries based on three-dimensional model, in which stiffness and porosity can be precisely designed for specific uses. As the studied material, there were chosen solid samples built in two different directions: parallel (P-L) and perpendicular (P-R) to the tested surface and cellular lattice built in perpendicular direction, as well. In the paper, for the complex characterization of obtained materials, the phase analysis, residual stress and texture studies were performed. The classical non-destructive sin2ψ method was used to measure the residual stress measurements. The final products, both solid sample and cellular lattice, have a homogeneous phase composition and consist of solid solution Al(Si) (Fm-3m) type, Si (Fd-3m) and Mg2 Si (Pnma). The obtained values of the crystallite size are in a range of 1000 Å for Al(Si), 130-180 Å for Si phase. For Mg2 Si phase, the crystallite sizes depend on sintering process, they are 800 Å for solid samples and 107 Å for cellular lattice. The residual stress results have the compressive character and they are in a range from –5 to –15 MPa.
EN
In this paper, study the preparation of Y-Fe alloy by reduction-diffusion process, which is novel technique for producing an alloy from its ores directly at different temperatures. From this work, investigates the particles size and morphology structure of alloy by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive-X-ray analyzer (EDAX) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. Here study the thermodynamics of property of system such as Gibbs free energy and reaction kinetics of system respectively. The Vibrating Sample magnetometer (VSM) is used to study the magnetic properties of alloy such as cocerviety, saturation magnetization and retentivity.
EN
The paper is concerned with comparing the methods for determining the ferrite content in castings from duplex stainless steels. It uses Schaeffler diagram, empirical formula based calculation, image analysis of metallographic sample, X-ray diffraction and measurement with a feritscope. The influence of wall thickness of the casting on the ferrite content was tested too. The results of the experiments show that the casting thickness of 25 or 60 mm does not have a significant effect on the measured amount of ferrite. The image analysis of metallographic sample and the measurement with the feritscope appear to be the most suitable methods. On the contrary, predictive methods, such as Schaeffler diagram or empirical formula based calculation are only indicative and cannot replace the real measurements. X-ray diffraction seems to be the least suitable measuring method. Values of ferrite content measured in such a way often deviated from the values measured by image analysis and with feritscope.
PL
W artykule zbadano możliwość wykorzystania popiołów lotnych klasy C (otrzymywanych w wyniku spalania węgla brunatnego w kotle pyłowym) i F (otrzymywanych w wyniku spalania węgla kamiennego metodą konwencjonalną) jako substratów do syntezy materiału zeolitowego z grupy filipsytu. W tym celu przeprowadzono szereg syntez hydrotermalnych z wykorzystaniem reagentów takich jak wodorotlenek sodu (NaOH) oraz bromek tetrapropyloamoniowy (TPABr). W wyniku reakcji otrzymano docelowy materiał zeolitowy, zarówno z popiołu klasy C, jak i F. Otrzymane produkty syntezy, jak też popiołowe substraty reakcji, poddano charakterystyce chemicznej i mineralogicznej. Badania wykazały, że popiół lotny powstały z węgla brunatnego i kamiennego może być substratem w reakcjach syntez zeolitu, jakim jest filipsyt. Analiza porównawcza dyfraktogramów rentgenowskich produktów z obu typów popiołów wykazała, że lepszym substratem jest popiół klasy C otrzymywany w wyniku spalania węgla brunatnego w kotle pyłowym (w reakcji syntezy otrzymano lepiej wykształcone formy zeolitowe). W pracy dokonano także analizy literaturowej potencjalnych kierunków zastosowania filipsytu w inżynierii i ochronie środowiska. Na podstawie zweryfikowanych danych stwierdzono, iż dalszym kierunkiem badań będzie analiza możliwości wykorzystania otrzymanych materiałów jako potencjalnych sorbentów amoniaku.
EN
The study examined the possibility of using class C fly ash (obtained as a result of brown coal combustion in a pulverized-fuel boiler) and class F (obtained as a result of conventional coal combustion) as substrates for the synthesis of zeolitic material from the phillipsite group. For this purpose, a series of hydrothermal syntheses were carried out using reagents such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPABr). As a result of the reaction, the target zeolite material was obtained from both class C and F fly ash. The obtained synthesis products as well as the ash reaction substrates were subjected to chemical and mineralogical characterization. The studies have shown that fly ash formed from brown coal and hard coal may be a substrate in zeolite synthesis reactions to obtain phillipsite. A comparative analysis of X-ray diffractograms of products from both types of ash showed that class C ash obtained as a result of brown coal combustion in a pulverized-fuel boiler is a better substrate (in the synthesis reaction better-formed zeolites were obtained). The article also includes a literature analysis on the potential applications of phillipsite in engineering and environmental protection. Based on the verified data, it was found that the further direction of the research will be the analysis of the possibilities of using the obtained materials as potential ammonia sorbents.
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