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PL
Koła zębate przekładni lotniczych cechuje wysoki współczynnik niezawodności, wymagany ze względu na obszar zastosowania, dynamiczny charakter pracy oraz przenoszoną moc. Podczas całego cyklu eksploatacyjnego powierzchnie boczne zębów oraz obszary ich podstaw są narażone na uszkodzenia związane z różnymi stanami naprężeń występującymi w czasie zazębienia oraz okresie, kiedy poszczególne zęby kół współpracujących nie stykają się ze sobą. Koncentracja tych naprężeń, związana m.in. z dokładnością wykonania zębów, może prowadzić do różnego typu defektów, takich jak: „pitting”, zgniot, złom, uszkodzenia interferencyjne, wytarcia, wydarcia, odpryski, zatarcia czy przegrzania. W związku z tym koła zębate są poddawane m.in. badaniom naprężeń własnych metodą dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej, dla której procedura wykonania pomiarów oraz przygotowania materiału badawczego jest problematyczna ze względu na ograniczony lub niemożliwy bezpośredni dostęp do wymaganych obszarów pomiarowych. W niniejszym artykule opisano dwie metody przygotowania próbek do badań naprężeń własnych z zastosowaniem dyfraktometru rentgenowskiego wyposażonego w lampę chromową. Zakresem badań objęto: polerowanie elektrolityczne oraz cięcie elektroerozyjne. Przygotowane próbki kół zębatych, reprezentujące rozważane metody, poddano serii pomiarów na stanowisku badawczym, a otrzymane wartości naprężeń, reprezentujące ich stany w warstwie wierzchniej, poddano analizie. Porównano wpływ obydwu metod przygotowania kół zębatych na wartość naprężeń własnych warstwy wierzchniej zębów koła zębatego oraz wykazano, że rodzaj obróbki stosowanej podczas przygotowania próbek ma wpływ na wartości pomiarów naprężeń własnych.
EN
The purpose of this work was to determine whether the structures of ordered part of novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT : OTf (doped with trifluoromethanesulfonate anions) and PEDOT : HSulf (doped with hydrogensulfate anions) systems could really be simply the layered structure of PEDOT : Tos (doped with tosylate anions) with the counter ion changed to the appropriate one. Insight into this problem could be provided by molecular dynamics simulations but also by swarm intelligence optimization, developed earlier for the purpose of investigating the other structures.
PL
Zbadano zdolność struktury uporządkowanej części nowych układów domieszkowanych poli(3,4-etylenodioksytiofenu) (PEDOT) [PEDOT : OTf (domieszkowane anionami trifluorometanosulfonianowymi) i PEDOT : HSulf (domieszkowane anionami wodorosiarczanowymi)] do powielania znanej z literatury warstwowej struktury PEDOT : Tos (domieszkowane anionami tosylanowymi) z jonem domieszki zmienionym na odpowiedni. Poszukiwania nowych struktur wspomagano symulacjami dynamiki molekularnej, a także z zastosowaniem optymalizacji opartej na algorytmach inteligencji stadnej.
3
Content available Halloysite intercalated by potassium acetate
EN
Halloysite was intercalated by the mechanochemical technique from dry components. The process efficiency of 50% was achieved. The obtained intercalate differed from the material acquired using an aqueous solution of potassium acetate. The material was analyzed employing electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and dielectric spectroscopy. It was found that the molecules and/or ions present in the interlayer spaces retain some possibility of movement. This property of the material is promising for potential application as low expensive absorbers of electromagnetic radiation.
EN
The presented paper deals with the measurement methodologies of the structural properties of porous anodic alumina (PAA) films filled with YalO3:Tb3+ composite using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It shows that the deposited material does not uniformly fill the porous volume of the anodic alumina film and the part of it forms a thick layer on the PAA surface. The aim of this work is to show the differences in the XRD response obtained at different angles of incidence of the excitation beam for the PAA/YalO3:Tb3+ system. Furthermore, this simple approach enables separation of the signal from both regions on the surface and inside the PAA pores, providing more accurate data interpretation. It reveals that the crystallization of the material on the PAA surface and within the pores is different.
EN
Single crystals of L-Valinium Picrate (LVP), 0.1 mol% Ni2+ doped L-Valinium Picrate, and 0.2 mol% Ni 2+ doped L-Valinium Picrate were grown by low temperature solution growth method, especially by solvent evaporation technique at ambient temperature. Function groups and modes of vibration were identified by FT-IR studies. The grown crystals belong to monoclinic system which has been revealed by powder XRD. The estimated band gaps were found to be 3.86 eV for LVP, 3.72 eV for 0.1 mol% Ni2+ doped LVP, and 3.70 eV for 0.2 mol% Ni2+ doped LVP crystals, respectively. The PL excitation wavelength of the grown materials is 370 nm. All the elements (C, N, O, Ni, and Cl) as per molecular formula were present in the EDAX spectrum of the grown materials. The 0.2 mol% Ni2+ ion doped LVP materials had higher thermal stability (208 °C) than LVP and 0.1 mol% Ni2+ doped LVP.
EN
Strontium formate dihydrate single crystals have been grown by the slow solvent evaporation method and subjected to 8 MeV electron beam (EB) irradiation at different doses, viz. 1 kGy, 10 kGy, 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The irradiated crystals have been studied by various techniques such as FT-IR, Raman, and UV-Vis-NIR spectral analyses, powder, and high resolution X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA) and second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements. The morphological features of the non-irradiated and irradiated crystals were analyzed by SEM and optical microscopy studies. It has been noticed that the SHG efficiency increases while the crystalline perfection and thermal stability of the irradiated crystals decrease with the increase of EB irradiation dose. The results indicate a significant overall tuning of physical properties of strontium formate dihydrate crystals due to irradiation.
7
EN
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, monoethanolamine and isopropanol were used as the sources for precursor solution and the resulting gel was used for the preparation of ZnO thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures (100 °C to 500 °C) and the effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used for the analysis of the films. The XRD results indicated the polycrystalline hexagonal structure of the ZnO films with (0 0 2) orientation. The optical properties of the films were studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 190 – 1100 nm. The optical characterization of the ZnO thin films showed the high transmittance of ~90 % for the films annealed at 400 °C. The films showed the absorbance ~360 – 390 nm and bandgap values of 3.40 – 3.10 eV, depending on the annealing temperature of the films.
EN
Novel nonlinear optical semi-organic, potassium phthalate di lithium borate (KPDLiB) single crystals were successfully grown by the slow solvent evaporation technique. Good crystalline nature and an orthorhombic structure were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The functional groups of KPDLiB were identified using FT-IR spectrum recorded in the range of 4000 cm-1 to 450 cm-1. UV-Vis spectrum showed transmitting ability of the crystals in the entire visible region. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited good fluorescence emission in a visible region at 384 nm, 416 nm and 578 nm. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was evaluated from Kurtz powder technique.
EN
This research work discusses both the physical and durability characteristics of newly blended cement containing waste crushed brick. This waste is used as a partial substitution for clinker in cement. Thus, blended cements are obtained by grinding and homogenizing clinker, waste brick, and gypsum. Four compositions containing 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of waste materials were prepared and submitted to various characterization tests. The introduction of brick powder improved the physical characteristics, therefore; it improved the mechanical properties and durability performance of the new cement compared to the reference, prepared with 0% addition. More particularly, it resisted sulfuric acid (H2SO4) attack after fixation of portlandite by pozzolan.
EN
Goal of the present research was to apply a solid state reaction route to fabricate bismuth layer-structured multiferroic ceramics described with the formula Bi5FeTi3O15 and reveal the influence of processing conditions on its crystal structure and phase composition. Simple oxide powders Bi2O3, TiO2 and Fe2O3 were used to fabricate Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics. Pressureless sintering in ambient air was employed and the sintering temperature was TS = 900°C, TS = 1000°C and TS = 1040°C. The phase composition as well as crystal structure of ceramics sintered at various processing conditions was examined with powder X-ray diffraction method at room temperature. The Rietveld refinement method was applied for analysis of X-ray diffraction data. It was found that ceramics adopted orthorhombic structure Cmc21. The unit cell parameters of bismuth layer-structured multiferroic ceramics increased slightly with an increase in sintering temperature.
EN
The perovskite type matrix is considered as solidification material for high-level radioactive waste. In this work the perovskite-rutile-type matrix doped by Co, Cs, Nd and Sr which simulate nuclear waste was prepared by sol-gel route. The material was characterized by several methods such as: X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and particle induced X-ray emission combined with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The analyzes confirmed chemical composition Co-Cs-Nd-Sr-doped perovskite-rutile-type structure. A virtual model of the pellet`s structure was created non-destructively by Roentgen computed micro-tomography. The leaching tests confirmed high chemical resistance of the matrix.
EN
La0,7 Ca0,3 MnO3 polycrystalline were synthesized from La2 O3 , CaO and MnO2 powder mixture using a solid state reaction technique. The compound powders were obtained through the free sintering method at different temperatures and sintering times in order to study the influence of technological conditions on Ca doped La manganites. The most important physical features as structure, microstructure and morphology were described after X-ray diffraction investigation. Photographs of the specimen fractures were taken with SEM (scanning electron microscope) and they revealed high porosity of the tested material and great tendency for its grains to create agglomerates. Influence of doping and technological conditions on lattice parameters were studied by means of Rietvield analysis. The XRD measurements reveal that La0,7 Ca0,3 MnO3 has orthorhombic symmetry with Pnma space group.
EN
Perovskite is able to sequester simultaneously, in its structure, both actinides and alkaline-earth elements. This study is an attempt to synthesize a complex perovskite Ca0.91-xCe0.09Rb0.04Csx [(Zr0.50Ti0.45)Al0.05]O3 (0.2≤x≤0.4), doped in the same time, with Ce, Cs and Rb. The synthesis is conducted by sintering at 1150°C during 16h. XRX analysis confirms the perovskite formation. SEM observations show a less porous microstructure. FTIR analysis reveals TiO6, Ti-O-Ti, Ti-O and Zr-O vibrations. Raman spectroscopy indicates many orthorhombic perovskite active modes, as: Ti-O6 and Ti-O3 torsions, ZrO7, CaO8 vibrations, the totally symmetric oxygen, and the O-octahedron cage rotation.
EN
Gem has long been chased because of its cultural and historical significance and beauty, and the identification and evaluation of its structural features have also been paid attention to. Plum blossom jade and emerald were identified and analyzed by means of the conventional detection method, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The results showed that plum blossom jade with black and brown background and red, white and brown amygdaloid body spots had a diameter of 1–10 mm, a relative density of 2.69–2.75 g/cm3 and a refractive index of 1.52–1.55, and its minerals contained water molecules, quartz, low albite, anorthoclase and andesite. It was observed that emerald was green, greasy, glassy, transparent, with a relative density of 2.66–2.78 g/cm3 and 1.58 refractive index, and its minerals contained water molecules; there were two kinds of arrangement in crystal channels. The main mineral component of emerald was beryl, and its purity was high.
EN
An inorganic coordination complex of single crystal containing sodium and aluminum (SA) was grown at room temperature by slow evaporation technique. The crystal was characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, UV-Vis, SHG, SEM, EDX and TG/DTA analyses. The size of the grown crystal was around 17 mm × 15 mm × 5 mm. Both optical and SEM photographs confirmed that the crystal is transparent with smooth surface. The XRD data showed that the crystal belongs to the BCC crystal structure. The crystal shows excellent transparency in the entire region of visible light (cut-off value is 339 cm−1 ). The dielectric constant as well as dielectric loss of the sample was calculated by varying frequencies at different temperatures and the presence of low dielectric loss proved that this crystal can be used for the NLO application.
16
Content available remote Structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped Sr2SiO4 phosphors
EN
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 13/2 , 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.
EN
Crystallization of γ-glycine in the presence of selected concentration (9 g/mL) of tailor-made additive magnesium sulfate heptahydrate salt (MgSO4·7H2O) has been studied at ambient temperature by adopting slow solvent evaporation procedure. The morphological modifications of glycine crystals grown from pure aqueous solutions of glycine and from glycine solutions containing magnesium species in the amount of 0.1 g/mL to 16 g/mL have been investigated thoroughly. The crystalline nature and phase identification of the crystalline material were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and SXRD studies. NMR studies revealed the information about the molecular conformation in solution, phase changes, functional groups and chemical environment. FT-IR spectra revealed distinct difference between α and γ-glycine polymorphs in the region around 880 cm−1 to 930 cm−1. The grown γ-glycine crystal had a lower cut-off value at 200 nm and the bandgap value evaluated from the Tauc plot was found to be 5.83 eV. The marked differences between α and γ-polymorphs of glycine were also revealed by DSC thermograms. The mechanical strength of the γ-glycine crystal was studied with the help of Vickers microhardness instrument. Kurtz-powder NLO study proved the generation of second harmonics (i.e. green light emission) in the grown γ-glycine crystal and its efficiency was calculated as 1.44 times better than that of the reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
EN
In the present study, nanocrystalline undoped and Fe (5 wt.%) doped ZnO powder has been synthesized by soft chemical route. The structural, nano/microstructural, vibrational and magnetic properties of these samples have been studied as a function of calcination temperature (400 °C to 1100 °C). X-ray diffraction analysis of Fe doped ZnO powder has shown the major nanocrystalline wurtzite (ZnO) phase and the minor cubic spinel-like secondary nanocrystalline phase at 700 °C. At calcination temperature of 700 °C, the magnetization and coercivity have been enhanced in Fe doped ZnO. As the calcination temperature increased to 1100 °C, the major phase of ZnO and minor cubic spinel-like secondary phase turned into bulk in doped ZnO. Interestingly, the reduced magnetization and zero coercivity have been observed in this case. These changes are attributed to the conversion of secondary nanocrystalline ferromagnetic spinel phase to its bulk paramagnetic phase. The degree of inversion i.e. the occupancy of both sites with different symmetry by ferric ions is proposed to be solely responsible for the unusual behavior.
19
Content available remote Preparation and characterization of cobalt and copper oxide nanocrystals
EN
Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, CuO) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared using microwave irradiation. The obtained powders of the nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results confirm the presence of both nanooxides which have been produced during chemical precipitation using microwave irradiation. TEM micrographs have shown that the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The results of X-ray diffraction confirmed those obtained from the transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of the nanocrystals.
EN
The present work reports on the optimization of substrate temperature, molar concentration and volume of the solution of nickel oxide (NiO) thin films prepared by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) technique. NiO films were optimized and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and I-V measurements. Based on XRD analysis, the molar concentration, volume of solution and substrate temperature of the prepared NiO films were optimized as 0.20 M, 5 mL and 450 °C for P-N diode applications. The XRD pattern of the optimized NiO film revealed cubic structure. The surface morphological variations and elemental composition were confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis. The optical properties were studied with UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the minimum band gap value was 3.67 eV for 450 °C substrate temperature. Using J-V characteristics, the diode parameters: ideality factor n and barrier height Фb values of p-NiO/N-Si diode prepared at optimum conditions, i.e. 450 °C, 0.2 M, 5 mL, were evaluated in dark and under illumination.
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