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EN
Based on interpretation of remote sensing and geological feld survey result, three secondary faults are distributed in parallel in Damxung of the southeastern piedmont fault of Nyainqentanglha mountain, which form landform profle across normal faults of graben due to cut platform margin of grade I terrace scarp formation. Through researching the displacements and the collected sediments dates, it is obtained that the horizontal slip rate is about 0.6 mm/a (millimeter per year), and the vertical slip rate is about 1.7 mm/a since 4 ka B.P. (kilo years before present). The northern margin of Damxung basin is a seismic gap, which continuously accumulated strain energy is not released in the M7.5 Damxung earthquake and the M8.0 Yangbajain earthquake. The fracture length of the seismic space can be regarded as the minimum length of potential surface rupture. The maximum moment magnitude of potential earthquakes is at least M6.8.in northern margin of Damxung basin the normal fault magnitude estimation formulas from Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84(4):974–1002, 1994).
EN
Artificial grassland establishment is one of the fastest and most effective ways to restore the productivity of degraded grasslands. Little is known about the effect of different types of artificial grassland establishment (i.e., single- and mixed-sowing grassland establishment with perennial grasses) on soil seed bank in degraded grassland ecosystems. Single-sowing population of a high yield species usually has a great standing biomass causing shading that may inhibit germination of seeds in soil seed bank. Thus, we hypothesized that there is higher species richness and seed density in the soil seed bank of single-sowing than mixed-sowing grasslands. Here, we investigated the soil seed bank in four-year old single-sowing and mixed-sowing and control (degraded) grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We found that the autumn seed bank of mixed-sowing grasslands had lower species richness and seed density than single-sowing grasslands, while the summer soil seed bank (persistent seed bank) showed little differences. There were differences in biomass among the three grasslands (single-sowing > mixed-sowing > control), but there was no differences in species richness of vegetation. In sum, our results of the autumn seed bank support our hypothesis. Greater above-ground biomass in single-sowing grasslands could generally cause low light availability preventing seeds in soil from germinating and support more seed output, which both may indirectly or directly result in the relatively higher species richness and seed density in the soil seed bank. Our results also suggest that artificial grasslands usually returning to native grasslands in terms of production and species composition after several years is likely due to stability of the persistent soil seed bank.
EN
A warming experiment with two magnitudes was performed in an alpine meadow of Northern Tibet since late June, 2013. Open top chambers (OTCs) with two top diameters (0.60 m and 1.00 m) were used to increase soil temperature. Soil respiration (Rs) was measured during the growing season in 2013–2014. The OTCs with top diameters of 1.00 m and 0.60 m increased soil temperature by 1.30 and 3.10oC, respectively, during the whole study period, but decreased soil moisture by 0.02 and 0.05 m3 m-3, respectively. However, the two patters of OTCs did not affect Rs . These results implied that a higher warming did not result in a higher Rs but a greater soil drying. Therefore, a higher warming may not cause a higher soil respiration, which was most likely due to the fact that a higher warming may result in a greater soil drying.
EN
We use GRACE gravity data released by the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Groupe de Recherches en Geodesie Spatiale (GRGS) to detect the water storage changes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A combined filter strategy is put forward to process CSR RL05 data to remove the effect of striping errors. After the correction for GRACE by GLDAS and ICE-5G, we find that TP has been overall experiencing the water storage increase during 2003-2012. During the same time, the glacier over the Himalayas was sharply retreating. Interms of linear trends, CSR’s results derived by the combined filter are close to GRGS RL03 with the Gaussian filter of 300-km window. The water storage increasing rates determined from CSR’s RL05 products in the interior TP, Karakoram Mountain, Qaidam Basin, Hengduan Mountain, and middle Himalayas are 9.7, 6.2, 9.1, –18.6, and –20.2 mm/yr, respectively. These rates from GRGS’s RL03 products are 8.6, 5.8, 10.5, –19.3 and –21.4 mm/yr, respectively.
EN
The effects of the growing season climatic factors (i.e., temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure and relative humidity) on the growing season maximum normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI), which can mirror the aboveground net primary production and the vegetation maximum absorbed ability of photosynthetically active radiation, were examined during the period from 2000 to 2012 on the Tibetan Plateau. The effects of climatic factors on the MNDVI changed with vegetation types, which was probably due to the fact that the changes of climatic factors differed with the type of vegetation. There was a significant increasing trend for the spatially averaged MNDVI of the vegetation area over the entire plateau. Approximately 16 and 3% of the vegetation area demonstrated a significant MNDVI increasing and decreasing trend, respectively. The MNDVI was significantly affected by relative humidity and vapor pressure, but not affected by temperature and precipitation over the entire plateau. Our findings suggested that the environmental humidity played a predominant role in affecting the variation of MNDVI over the entire Tibetan Plateau.
EN
Three sites with both degraded alpine Kobresia meadow (DM) and adjacent mix-seeded perennial grasses pastures (MSP) in the headwater region of the Yellow River, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, were selected to investigate plant and soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and their isotope composition. The SOC and TN in the top soil layer to a depth of 10 cm were significantly affected by ploughing and planting mix-seeded perennial grasses. The SOC content in 0–10 cm soil layer of MSPs was 25.6%, 5.5% and 12.9% lower than those of DMs at the I-III sites, respectively, and the rate of OC density loss was 23.8, 14.5 and 18.2%, respectively. The soil TN content in 0–10 cm soil layer of MSPs was 16.6%, 2.2% and 9.4% lower than those of the DMs at three sites, respectively, and the TN density was 15.6, 10.6 and 15.3% lower than those of DMs, respectively. The plant and soil 13C values (-27.03‰, -25.16‰, respectively) suggest that the vegetation of both DMs and MSPs are C3 plant communities. The 15 N value in the soil (>4‰) was significantly greater than in plants (<2‰). No differences of either 13C or 15N abundance between MSPs and DMs at Site I and II, but were found at Site III, indicating that the effects were site specific. The rehabilitation of a degraded Kobresia meadow has a significant influence on the soil properties, SOC and TN. Caution should be taken in site selection before performing conversion.
EN
Partitioning sources of ecosystem and soil respiration (Reco and Rs) is important for understanding how climate change affects carbon cycling. Plant and microbial biomass analyses and daytime measurements of Reco and Rs were performed for 25 plots in an alpine meadow at elevation 4313 m on the Tibetan Plateau. Plant and microbial biomass were determined by harvesting method and the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, respectively. Respiration fluxes were measured by an automated CO2 flux system (LI-8100, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE, USA). Soil respiration can be estimated by a linear or exponential relationship between Reco and aboveground plant biomass (AGB). Microbial respiration (Rm) can be estimated by a linear or exponential relationship between Rs and belowground plant biomass (BGB) or by a multiple relationship between Reco and AGB and BGB. Soil respiration (or Rm) is respiration flux when AGB (or BGB) is extrapolated to zero for the linear and exponential regression methods. Similarly, Rm is respiration flux when both AGB and BGB are zero for the multiple regression method. Our findings suggest that the exponential regression method to partition sources of Reco and Rs may be more appropriate compared to other methods for this alpine meadow of Tibet.
EN
It has been observed that leaf morphology shift within species is linked to climate change, but there are few studies on the effects of altitude change on leaf morphology of species. We hypothesized that similar to climate change, a morphological shift within species would occur over time under different growing altitudes. In this study, we evaluated three dominant grass species: Elymus nutans Griseb., Kobresia capillifolia Clarke., Carex moorcroftii Boott., taking advantage of the altitudinal variations (3000-4000 a.s.l.) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our study showed that almost all leaf traits of these three species had significant differences (P <0.05) across an altitudinal gradient. Different species responded differently to altitude change. Leaf thickness (LT) of the three species increased with increase in altitude. Leaf area (LA) of E. nutans and C. moorcroftii decreased with increasing altitude, but that of K. capillifolia increased. There was no obvious linear effect on leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) of these three species. LDMC of E. nutans and C. moorcroftii showed a trend of increase, while that of K. capillifolia decreased. SLA of E. nutans and K. capillifolia showed a trend of increase, but that of C. moorcroftii decreased with increase in altitude. In addition, soil pH (pH) and air temperature (AT) decreased with increase in altitude. However, other soil and climate factors increased as altitude increased. The finding of this work is that leaf morphology shift within species happens under altitude change to adapt to specific environment.
EN
The ongoing warming in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau leads to changes in ecosystem processes while the responses of soil and vegetation are not well understand. Thus, we used infrared radiators to carry out experimental warming from July 2010 to August 2011 in an alpine meadow on the Plateau (about 4630 m above sea level) to research the responses of environmental factors and vegetation characteristics to short-term warming (1 year). The experimental design was a block design consisting of five replications and included three treatment levels: control, T1 (130 W m-2) and T2 (150 W m-2). The results showed that air temperature at 20 cm height, surface temperature and soil temperature in the 0–100 cm layers increased with warming. The biggest differences of T1 (1.66°C) and T2 (2.34 °C) appeared on the surface and at 20 cm depth, whereas the biggest amplitudes of T1 (27.15%) and T2 (35.81%) all occurred at 100 cm depth. Soil moisture showed different trends with warming in different soil layers. In the 0–40 cm layers, soil moisture decreased with warming. The biggest differences (–2.97% for T1 and –2.73% for T2) and amplitudes (–18.07% for T1 and –16.64% for T2) all appeared at 10 cm depth. In the 60–100 cm layers, soil moisture increased with warming. The biggest differences (2.53% for T1 and 6.45% for T2) and amplitudes (11.39% for T1 and 29.05% for T2) all occurred at 100 cm depth. Relative to control, vegetation height and aboveground biomass increased significantly in T1 and T2 (P <0.05), while vegetation coverage had not significant differences in T1 and T2 (P> 0.05). In T1 and T2, the amplitudes were 30.67% and 30.19% for vegetation height, and 36.22% and 27.87% for vegetation aboveground biomass, and 12.89% and 4.42% for vegetation coverage, respectively. In the path analysis between environment and vegetation properties, vegetation was directly affected by soil moisture at 40 cm and 60 cm depths, whereas indirectly influenced by relative humidity at 20 cm height and soil temperature at 40 cm depth. This might be related to the downward movement of the soil moisture caused by warming.
EN
Subterranean life style is characterized by limited food resource and energy consuming burrow behavior. Subterranean rodents are usually recognized as dietary generalists. In the current study, we investigated the species composition of winter caches of plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), and the dissimilarity of species composition in caches and in the vicinity of the burrows. We have made our research in Kobresia dominated vegetation at the altitude 3200 m a.s.l. We used the non-parametric method to test the similarities between the relative dry mass of the plant species within caches and their closed vicinity. This method was based on measures of distance between pairs of individual multivariate observations. Our results revealed that although plateau zokors cached most (60) of the plant species found in the vicinity of their burrow systems (66), the cached dry mass was dominated by a few species. Nine plant species accounted for 80% dry mass of plants present in zokors’ caches, Polygonum viviparum (50%) and other perennial poisonous forbs constitute 70% dry mass of the caches. Results showed that the dissimilarity between the relative dry mass of plant species within caches and in their vicinity was extremely significant (for Bray-Curtis distance measure, R = 0.355, P = 0.000; for Euclidean distance measure R =0.319, P =0.000). These results showed that plateau zokors don’t forage randomly when collecting food for winter caches. We suppose that rather than using a non-selective foraging strategy by dealing with high fiber-content plants, plateau zokors have forged another dietary strategy to meet the energy demands in the evolutionary process: to deal with poisonous forbs.
EN
Microbes remain active and play an important role in soil nitrogen (N) cycle during the winter in soil of the alpine zone. A shift from microbial N immobilization process dominant during summer to prevailing microbial mineralization process during the winter is observed. Warmer soil under deep snow cover may increase the microbial activity and rate of organic matter decomposition over the winter. Furthermore, severe shortages of dissolved carbon (C) in the winter may cause microbial mortality and lyses. Thus, C limitation on microbial growth and activity may have an important effect on winter N mineralization and even on soil N pools. However, the combined effects of additional organic C (litter inputs) and snow cover on soil N biogeochemical processes in the Tibetan Plateau remain unclear. In the current study, the in situ effects of snowpack and litter decomposition on N dynamics in the alpine zone of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Intact soil core incubations in three different snow regimes (0, 30 and 100 cm depth snow) in the winter were used to solve the problem by measure concentrations of mineral form of soil N. In addition, the litter bag method was used to analyze the litter decomposition over the winter. Our results indicate that the snow cover reduced the ammonium (NH4+-N) content, accelerate N mineralization in soil, and did not significantly change the dissolvable organic nitrogen (DON) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). Meanwhile, snowpack increased the litter N content and accelerated litter decomposition in late winter. Litter addition reduced the MBN and NH4+-N contents in soil, but increased the nitrate (NO3--N) content and net N mineralization, suggesting that N availability to plants during the spring thaw period may be enhanced.
12
Content available remote Winter methane emission from an alpine open fen on Tibetan Plateau
EN
Methane (CH4) emission was measured from an open fen on the Zoige Plateau (3500 m a.s.l.) (the eastern edge of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau) during two winters of 2006 and 2007. Three dominant plant stands, including Carex muliensis Hand-Mazz. (CM), Eleocharis valleculosa Ohwif. setosa (Ohwi) Kitagawa.(EV) and Kobresia tibetica Maxim (KT) were chosen to be monitored. Winter CH4 emissions were roughly estimated to be 0.94 mg CH4 m[^-2] h[^-1]. High spatialtemporal variations of the emission were found in this fen (the sequence of CM> EV> KT; 0.63 and 1.24 mg CH4 m[^-2] h[^-1] for 2006 and 2007, respectively). Factors involved in the spatial-temporal variation were: 1) water table in summer determining the winter amount of "old" CH4 stored in peat; 2) ice layer determining the release of CH4; 3) plant growth determining both the quantity of CH4 stored in peat and available substrates for CH4 production in winter. However, due to the homogeneity of freezing in winters, predictive factors such as plant growth and water table in summer could contribute more to winter CH4 emission than in situ freezing conditions. Considering that plant growth and water table are also the key factors controlling the spatial-temporal variation of CH4 emission in summer, we therefore suggested that winter CH4 emission represents the "inertia" of summer CH4 emission.
EN
The aim of this study was to assess initial effects of warming on the plant growth, soil nutrient contents, microbial biomass and enzyme activities of two most widespread ecosystem types: swamp meadow (deep soil, high water content) and alpine meadow (poor soil, low water content), in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (altitude 4600.4800 m a.s.l.) The temperature of air and upper soil layer was passively enhanced using open-top chambers (OTCs) (50 cm high with 60 cm at opening and constructed of 6 mm thick translucent synthetic glass) from 2006 to 2008. The use of OTCs clearly raised temperature and decreased soil moisture. In warmed plots, monthly mean air temperature was increased by 2.10[degrees]C and 2.28[degrees]C, soil moisture of 20 cm soil layer was decreased by 2.5% and 3.9% in alpine meadow and swamp meadow, respectively. Plant biomass significantly increased by 31% in alpine meadow and 67% in swamp meadow. Warming also affected soil microbial biomass C and N at both meadows. In swamp meadow, warming caused the decrease of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in 0-5 cm layer and an increase in 5-20 cm. While in alpine meadow, these soil parameters increased in 0-5 cm layer and decreased in 5-20 cm layer. The effects of warming on enzyme activities differed depending on the enzyme and the meadow ecosystem. In general, enzyme activities were higher in the upper soil layers (0-5 cm) than in the lower soil layers (5-20 cm). The experiment results exhibited that warming improved the soil biochemical and microbiological conditions in high- mountain meadows, at least in the short term.
EN
Seed mass is a critical life-history character in seed evolutionary ecology. Plant species can present responses in seed mass to environment stresses. We tested the hypotheses that seed mass was positively correlated with altitude within species. We selected four congeneric Saussurea species as study objects, and collected their seeds along altitudinal gradients (2100.4200 m a.s.l.) in the alpine area of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Results showed that mean seed mass of the four species were significantly affected by altitude (P <0.001). There was a general trend of an increase in seed weight with altitude among the populations of the four species. In addition, mean seed mass of four species were not significantly different, but all presented a bigger coefficients of variation within species along altitude gradients. Our results indicate selection pressure within species, with larger seeds occurring at higher altitudes.
EN
We studied the phylogeography of Swertia tetraptera Maxim, which is an annual herbaceous plant endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), by sequencing one intergenic chloroplast spacer, trnL-trnF (773 bp). The sampling design included 35 populations and 399 individuals, and spanned the entire distribution of the species. Forty-four haplotypes were characterized, and one of them was widely distributed in all of the populations. The level of differentiation among the populations studied was relatively low (G[st]=0.128). Estimates of N[st]-G[st] for populations of S. tetraptera indicated that no phylogeographical structure exists, which was supported by the distribution of haplotypes. The neutrality test, mismatch distribution and a .star-like. genealogy all suggested that this species experienced population expansion. According to the number of rare haplotype and geological evidence, this study suggested that two potential refugia existed during the last glaciation: the first refugium was identified in a restricted semi-continuous area around the eastern margin of the plateau; the second refugium was located in the central of QTP. In fact, the findings of our study are somewhat similar as the third phylogeographical structure occurring in the QTP, that is, alpine plants have refugia not only in the edge area but also in the Plateau platform. However, the location of plateau edge and plateau platform refugia is very different among them due to the difference of species-specific characteristic such as distributional range and life history traits.
EN
Soil phosphorus (P) availability and fractions are influenced to a large extent by land use and cover changes. Inorganic P (IP) and organic P (OP) fractions in surface soils (0-20 cm) under typical vegetation types, including subalpine coniferous forests, alpine shrubs, and alpine shrub-meadows, near the alpine timberline of the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China, were measured by a modified Hedley fraction method. The results showed that OP is the dominant soil P fraction and the main source of available P in alpine soils near the timberline. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total P contents were higher in subalpine coniferous forests than in alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows. Concentrations of soil labile P (the sums of Resin-IP, NaHCO3-IP, and NaHCO3-OP) were higher in subalpine coniferous forests than in alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows, an observation that may be partially ascribed to the presence of deep litter layers generated by trees. Concentrations of soil labile and moderately organic P (NaHCO3-OP and NaOH-OP) in subalpine coniferous forests were also greater than in alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows. Greater amounts of soil stable OP (extracted by concentrated HCl and cHCl.OP) were accumulated in alpine shrub-meadows compared to alpine shrubs or subalpine coniferous forests. The reduced availability of OP may be attributed mainly to increasing recalcitrant soil organic matter input in alpine shrub-meadows and alpine shrubs. Concentrations of IP associated with Ca minerals and parent materials (extracted by diluted HCl and HCl-IP, and extracted by concentrated HCl and cHCl-IP, respectively) were lower in subalpine coniferous forests, indicating that coniferous forests are more likely to use recalcitrant IP than alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows. In this alpine region, land cover changes from subalpine coniferous forests to alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows near the alpine timberline could decrease soil P conservation, availability, and supplementation.
EN
In the present study, we selected a total of 26 Salix sphaeronymphe Gorz shrubs of various sizes on a cutover in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to evaluate the effects of shrub size on richness, cover and biomass of the understorey herbaceous community, grasses and forbs, as well as litter cover and biomass. Results indicated that the richness of herbaceous community, grasses and forbs significantly increased with the increased area of both undershrub canopies and open field. However, the cover and biomass of the herbaceous community beneath the shrub canopies decreased with increasing shrub size. Grasses and forbs, as different functional groups, responded differently to the increasing area of shrubs: the cover and biomass of grasses decreased while those of forbs increased. The cover and biomass of herbaceous community, grasses and forbs in the open field did not obviously vary with area. Under the shrub canopies, the cover and mass of litter positively correlated to area, but this was not the case in the open field. Our results suggest that shrubs have a positive effect on diversity and a negative effect on the cover and productivity of the herbaceous community in forest secondary succession on the alpine cutovers, and that these effects are size.dependent. Moreover, different functional groups of herbaceous plants can respond differently to the presence of shrubs.
EN
We studied the effects of roads on presence of Plateau brown frogs (Rana kukunoris Nikolsky, 1918) and Tibetan frogs (Nanorana pleskei Gunther, 1896) in temporary pools of Sedges dominated wetland area in eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The road is seven meter-wide, asphalt-paved with daily traffic rate about 400 vehicles. The temporary pools hold water only in summer with surface area of about 2 m2. We used logistic regression models, a theoretic information approach, and model averaging to test the effects of distance from road and depth, area and pH of pools on distribution of frogs in terms of presence/absence in 180 small pools located at 10 to 150 m from the road edge. Observed data showed that presence probabilities of both species declined in the vicinity of roads, starting at approximately 100 m away from the road edge. Model averaging based on AICc ([Sigma Omega i] = 95% confidence) indicated that both distance from road edge and its quadratic term were important predictors for explaining presence of both amphibians. Model-averaged prediction based on 95% confidence model set also revealed non-monotonic increasing curve relationships between presence probability of both amphibians and distance from road edge, even when other habitat variables were held constant. These results indicated that the road-effect zone for both amphibians extended 100 m on side of the wetland roads along which we sampled. Additionally, the results showed that water depth and water pH of pools positively influenced presence of Tibetan frogs and had highest contribution to the models. In contrast, water depth influenced presence of Plateau brown frogs negatively. It was indicated that environmental variables influence the presence of the two species of amphibians in different ways.
EN
Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences and morphological data (body length, hind foot length, etc.) for twelve populations with pairwise distances 27-600 km in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (distributed in Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan Province, and at the altitude 3020-4550 m) in Western China were used to investigate the phylogeographical pattern of Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi Thomas). There was a little disparity between mtDNA genetic distance and morphological Euclidean distance on population relationships. However, there is a significant correlation (P <0.001) calculated by Mantel's tests was validated between mtDNA and morphology distances. Analysis of Molecular Variance showed that most of the observed genetic variations occurred between populations, indicating little maternal gene flow between them, as a result of geographical restrictions. Phylogenetic analysis coupled with cluster analysis together showed that the substantial population structuring and phylogenetic discontinuities existed within this species. The evident allopatric population structuring of this subterranean rodent may mostly result from its specialized subterranean excavating behavior with high energy costs, predation from grassland raptors and also the influences of perennial tundra and environmental desiccation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
EN
Long-term overgrazing has resulted in grassland deterioration and even desertification on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, we examined the characteristics of vegetation and soil properties in the livestock-excluded pastures and the adjacent grazed pastures under two topographic habitats (the flat valley and the south-facing slope). Seven-year exclusion of livestock has enhanced aboveground live biomass, root biomass and litter accumulation. Livestock exclusion has also increased soil bulk density and soil water content, soil organic C concentration, total N concentration and its transformation rate, and soil microbial activity. The results showed that livestock exclusion has facilitated vegetation recovery and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. However, livestock exclusion has significantly decreased graminoid biomass accumulation, especially on the flat valley, the biodiversity also significantly decreased there. The results suggested that long-term livestock exclusion was disadvantageous for palatable forage production and biodiversity protection on the flat valley. Compared to the flat valley, the grassland on the south-facing slope was under more severe degradation, and the reversion was in a slower process. Thus, the optimal grassland management in the livestock-excluded pasture on the flat valley should include a low or moderate grazing intensity or adopt an alternate grazing system, but more effective and even longer livestock exclusion practice should be taken on the south-facing slope.
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