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EN
This paper provides an overview of the paleomagnetic results which constrain the post-Paleogene tectonic development of the Western Carpathians. A group of these results are relevant to the last stage of the Tertiary folding and thrusting of the Silesian, Dukla and Magura nappes of the Outer Western Carpathian and were obtained from Paleogene-Lower Miocene flysch sediments. Both the pre- and post-folding remanences indicate about 50° CCW vertical axis rotation with respect to the present orientation. This is about a 60° rotation relative to stable Europe. It follows that the general orientation of the Silesian and more internal nappes were NW-SE, at least until the mid-Miocene. The CCW vertical axis rotation was coordinated with that of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. The termination of the rotation can be estimated from the paleomagnetic data available from the Pieniny andesites which intruded the Pieniny Klippen Belt and the southern part of the Magura Nappe as well as from those obtained for the Neogene intramontane basins which opened up in the Outer and in the Central Western Carpathians. The paleomagnetic vectors for the andesites form two groups. The first group suggests about 45° CCW rotation relative to north, while the second shows no rotation. At the present stage of our knowledge it seems likely that some of the andesite bodies were intruded around 18 Ma, which is the oldest isotope age for the intrusions of the Wżar Mts, while some other bodies could have been emplaced after the rotation, around 11 Ma, which is the youngest isotope age for the Brijarka quarry. Vertical axis CCW rotation was also observed on sediments older than 11.6 Ma in the Orava-Nowy Targ Intramontane Basin which saddles the Magura Nappe and the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. However, this rotation was related to fault zone activity and was not attributed to the general rotation of the Outer Western Carpathian nappe system. Paleomagnetic results from the Nowy Sącz Intramontane Basin, which opened over the Magura Nappe, and those for the Central Western Carpathian Turiec Intramontane Basin do not indicate vertical axis rotation. In the first case, the loosely controlled age limit of the termination of the rotation is around 12 Ma. Well constrained results from the second basin imply that the rotation was definitely over by 8 Ma. Based on the above observations, and aware of the problem of often loose age control on the formation and deformation of the deposits of the intramontane basins, it is tentatively concluded that the large scale CCW rotation of the Central Western Carpathians, together with the Magura, Dukla and Silesian nappes, must have started after 18 Ma and terminated around 11 Ma.
EN
We have compared maps of landslide activity and hazard, developed with the use of two different dendrochronological indicators: tree-ring eccentricity and reaction (compression) wood. The maps were prepared based on 125 Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) trees growing at 44 sampling points, distributed over an area of 3.75 km2. In general, the two maps show similar patterns of landslide activity. However, tree-ring eccentricity yielded a greater number of dated events (246) compared to compression wood (129). Besides the differences in the absolute values of dating results, the general landslide activity and hazard zonation based on both disturbances are similar. Both growth disturbances develop as a result of stem tilting. Eccentricity develops after slight tilting, while compression wood is developed when tilting is more significant. Because of the differences in the strength of disturbing factors, which cause the development of compression wood and growth eccentricity, the best approach would be to combine the results of dating obtained from the two methods. The dendrochronological analysis of tree growth disturbances (eccentric growth and compression wood) is a promising approach for determining landslide hazards in forested mountain areas and can be applied in spatial management.
EN
The Carpathian Orava Basin is a tectonic structure filled with Neogene and Quaternary deposits superimposed on the collision zone between the ALCAPA and European plates. Tectonic features of the south-eastern margin of the Orava Basin and the adjoining part of the fore-arc Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin were studied. Field observations of mesoscopic structures, analyses of digital elevation models and geological maps, supplemented with electrical resistivity tomography surveys were performed. Particular attention was paid to joint network analysis. The NE-SW-trending Krowiarki and Hruštinka-Biela Orava sinistral fault zones were recognized as key tectonic features that influenced the Orava Basin development. They constitute the north-eastern part of a larger Mur-Mürz-Žilina fault system that separates the Western Carpathians from the Eastern Alps. The interaction of these sinistral fault zones with the older tectonic structures of the collision zone caused the initiation and further development of the Orava Basin as a strike-slip-related basin. The Krowiarki Fault Zone subdivides areas with a different deformation pattern within the sediments of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin and was active at least from the time of cessation of its sedimentation in the early Miocene. Comparison of structural data with the recent tectonic stress field, earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS measurements allows us to conclude that the Krowiarki Fault Zone shows a stable general pattern of tectonic activity for more than the last 20 myr and is presently still active.
EN
[...]First of all, we would like to note that our reply will concentrate on substantial comments on the presented results or/and questionable interpretations.[...]
EN
In their recent paper, Filipek et al. (2017) provided some data on age (dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy) and sedimen tary setting (sedimentological and palynofacial analysis) of the Podhale Flysch (Central Carpathian Paleogene) from the Pol ish Spisz (their fig. 1). They car ried out their in te grated studies on the middle part of the Podhale Flysch succession – the upper part of the Szaflary beds through the lower part of the Chochołów beds. These studies, as stated in Introduc tion, “…allow for a new approach to the knowledge on the CCPB with regard to stratigraphy, depositional palaeoenvironment, and changes during de position”.
EN
Most landslide hazard maps are developed on the basis of an area’s susceptibility to a landslide occurrence, but dendrochronological techniques allows one to develop maps based on past landslide activity. The aim of the study was to use dendrochronological techniques to develop a landslide hazard map for a large area, covering 3.75 km2. We collected cores from 131 trees growing on 46 sampling sites, measured tree-ring width, and dated growth eccentricity events (which occur when tree rings of different widths are formed on opposite sides of a trunk), recording the landslide events which had occurred over the previous several dozen years. Then, the number of landslide events per decade was calculated at every sampling site. We interpolated the values obtained, added layers with houses and roads, and developed a landslide hazard map. The map highlights areas which are potentially safe for existing buildings, roads and future development. The main advantage of a landslide hazard map developed on the basis of dendrochronological data is the possibility of acquiring long series of data on landslide activity over large areas at a relatively low cost. The main disadvantage is that the results obtained relate to the measurement of anatomical changes and the macroscopic characteristics of the ring structure occurring in the wood of tilted trees, and these factors merely provide indirect information about the time of the landslide event occurrence.
EN
The upper Olenekian-Middle Triassic succession of the Tatricum domain (Central Western Carpathians, southern Poland) includes a few horizons of breccias, which are intercalated with early-diagenetic dolostones. On the basis of macroscopic and microscopic (including cathodoluminescence) observations, the paper presents a new interpretation of the genesis of the breccias and their diagenetic history. The rocks studied range from monomictic, cemented mosaic packbreccias to chaotic, unsorted, monomictic, particulate rubble floatbreccias. The processes that preceded the formation of the breccias encompassed the precipitation of evaporites and the early-diagenetic dolomitization of lime muds. The solution-collapse breccias were formed during episodes of cyclic sediment emersions in the upper Olenekian and Middle Triassic, as the result of gradual sediment collapse after karstic dissolution of the intercalated evaporites. After the brecciation process, during diagenesis the rocks were subjected to cementation by sulphate minerals and next, to multi-stage dolomitization. Later tectonic processes led to fracturing and even re-brecciation of the previously formed solution-collapse breccias.
EN
This study aims at quantitative kinematic analysis of fault-slip data and palaeostress reconstruction of polyphase brittle structures developed in the Manín Unit cropping out in the Middle Váh River Valley of western Slovakia. The Manín Unit neighbours the Pieniny Klippen Belt that follows the boundary between the Paleogene accretionary wedge of the Outer Carpathians and the Cretaceous nappe system of the Central Western Carpathians. After the nappe emplacement during mid-Cretaceous times, the Manín Unit was incorporated into the Pieniny Klippen Belt and attained its complex tectonic style. Based on kinematic analysis of meso-scale faults with slickensides, six (D1–D6) brittle deformation stages have been discerned. The relative succession of individual palaeostress states was derived from field structural relationships; their stratigraphic age was estimated primarily by comparison with other published data. Palaeostress analysis in the Manín Unit revealed the existence of six different palaeostress fields acting from the Middle Eocene to the Quaternary. The first three generations of meso-scale brittle structures were formed under a transpressional tectonic regime during the pre-Late Eocene–Early Miocene D1–D3 deformation. Generally, the maximum horizontal stress axis rotated clockwise from a W–E to an approximately N–S direction. Thereafter, a transtensional tectonic regime was characterized by a WNW–ESE to NNW–SSE oriented minimum horizontal stress axis during Middle and Late Miocene D4–D5 deformation. A general extensional tectonic regime influenced the structural evolution of the area in the Pliocene to Quaternary, when a gradual reorientation of the palaeostress field resulted in the development of variable, often reactivated, fault structures.
EN
Pseudothurmanniid ammonites within Upper Hauterivian calcareous deposits are present in quarries on Polomec Hill near the village of Lietavská Lúčka, Slovakia. These deposits belong to the Mráznica Formation of the Krížna Nappe that is a part of the Fatricum Unit in the Central Western Carpathians. Nine ammonite species are described in detail, one of which, Binellicerasmichalíki, is new. The species identified indicate the Upper Hauterivian Balearis and Ohmi ammonite zones. The zone of the uppermost Hauterivian, Catulloi Zone, is not documented as far as pseudothurmanniid ammonites are concerned. The lackof developmentally younger representatives of the pseudothurmanniid ammonites neitherin the studied locali ty, nor in other Slovak locali ties, is explained by marked changes in the northern Tethyan margin in Europe duri ng the latest Hauterivian.
EN
Detrital chromian spinels in sedimentary rocks provide much information concerning the tectonics of their parental ultrabasic rocks. Chromian spinels occurring in the Eocene to Oligocene depos its from the Magura Nappe were exam i ned to provide some constraints on the history of the Magura Basin. The Magura Nappe is a part of the Flysch Belt belonging to the External Western Carpathians. The Magura Nappe is separated by a narrow zone associated with the Pieniny Klippen Belt and is divided into three principal tectono-lithofacies units (from the S to N): the Krynica, Bystrica and Rača units. Cr-spinel is a common accessory mineral (2.3-5.9 vol% of heavy mineral spectra) in the siliciclastic rocks of the Rača and Krynica units. In terms of texture and chemical composition, two types of Cr-spinels were recognized: unaltered and altered. Unaltered spinels were found to contain silicate inclusions such as chromio-pargasite, enstatite, diopside, pargasite, plagioclase and olivine (forsterite). The chromian spinels show wide variations in compositional parameters such as Cr# (0.3-0.7), Mg# (0.3-0.7), TiO2 (<0.03-1.9 wt.%) and Fe2+/Fe3+ (2.5-13) whereas the differences between the Rača and Krynica units are in- significant. These parameters suggest a peridotitic and volcanic origin of the spinels, respectively. The ophiolite source consisting of harzburgitic mantle peridotites was developed mainly in a supra-subduction zone setting; volcanic spinels indicate an origin in mid-ocean ridge basalts, back-arc basin basalts and sporadically in ocean-island basalts. Concerning their geochem i cal features, we propose that during the Eocene to Early Oligocene, the ophiolitic detritus in the eastern part of the Magura Basin deposits may have been derived from a source area located in the Fore-Marmarosh Suture Zone (Eastern Carpathians) that is considered an equivalent of the Black Flysch and Ceahlau units. Some Cr-spinels found in the Eocene sedimentary successions may have resedimented from older Late Cretaceous-Paleocene formations of the Magura Unit, which are considered as reworked sedimentary material from the Pieniny Klippen Belt.
11
PL
Wykorzystując zaktualizowaną mapę geologiczną, 18 przekrojów geologicznych, profile stratygraficzne 7 otworów wiertniczych, wyniki pomiarów terenowych oraz numeryczny model terenu opracowano przestrzenny model geologiczno-strukturalny w rejonie Soli (Karpaty Zachodnie) obejmujący swym zasięgiem powierzchnię ok. 227 km2. Skomplikowana budowa geologiczna Karpat Zewnętrznych w analizowanym rejonie objawia się występowaniem 3 jednostek tektonicznych, w obrębie których można wyróżnić 27 wydzieleń litostratygraficznych. Osnowę strukturalną modelu stworzono na podstawie 66 dyslokacji. Podział litostratygraficzny został uproszczony tak, aby możliwe było połączenie modelu strefy przypowierzchniowej z modelem głębszej strefy skonstruowanym na podstawie interpretacji sejsmiki.
EN
Using an updated geological map, 18 geological cross-sections, stratigraphic profiles of 7 boreholes, the results of field measurements and a digital terrain model spatial geological and structural model in the area of Salt (Western Carpathians) was created. Modeling area covers an area of approximately 227 km2. The complicated geological structure of the Outer Carpathians in the analyzed region revealed the presence of three tectonic units, within which one can ditinguish 27 lithostratigraphic units. The structural model was created based on 66 dislocations. Lithostratigraphic division has been simplified so that it can be combined with model constructed based on seismic data interpretation.
PL
Badania na potrzeby artykułu dotyczyły określenia wyspowego charakteru Beskidu Małego w stosunku do otaczającego go Beskidu Śląskiego, Beskidu Makowskiego, Kotliny Żywieckiej oraz Pogórza Śląskiego. W tym celu sięgnięto do metody wyróżników/wyznaczników krajobrazu na płaszczyźnie geograficznej oraz etnograficznej, badając jego izolację przestrzenną i kulturową. Z analizy elementów przyrodniczych za szczególny wyróżnik wyspowości Beskidu Małego wybrano rzeźbę oraz dominujący typ pokrycia terenu, natomiast z elementów etnograficznych za unikatowy wyróżnik przyjęto konstrukcyjny typ budowli polaniarskiej oraz przynależność etniczno-kulturową mieszkańców regionu. Zdefiniowane w artykule inne wyróżniki krajobrazowe stanowiące często pojedyncze, niewielkie płaty krajobrazowe, posiadające historyczne oraz geograficzne powiązania z regionem, pozwoliły z powyższymi wyróżnikami określić Beskid Mały jako krajobrazową wyspę górską Zewnętrznych Karpat Zachodnich.
EN
The research for the needs of the article referred to the definition of island character of the Little Beskids in relation to surrounding Silesian Beskids, Makowski Beskids, Żywiec Basin and Silesian Foothills. To realize this goal, the method of landmarks and determiners of landscape was used on geographical and ethnographical plane examining its spatial and cultural isolation. From the analysis of the natural elements, terrain and dominant type of the land cover were chosen as a specific landmark of the island character. From ethnographic elements, structural type of pastoral buildings and ethno-cultural affiliation of the inhabitants of the Little Beskids were used as unique landmark. Other landscape landmarks defined in the article posing often single, small landscape patch with historical and geographical connections to the region allowed in the above determine the Little Beskids as a landscape mountain island in the Outer Western Carpathians.
EN
Detrital heavy minerals separated from the Malcov Fm. deposits (Magura Nappe) indicate their source rocks and areas. The heavy mineral assemblages predominantly consist of garnet, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and Cr-spinel. EPMA analyses reveal a few groups of garnets: zoned and unzoned Grs almandines, Prp-Sps almandines, unzoned Prp almandines, almandines, Sps almandines and rare zoned spessartine grains (~85 mol% Sps). The garnet composition indicates that gneisses, mica schists, amphibolites and granites were their main source rocks, but low-grade metapelites with Mn mineralisation probably contributed as well. The detrital dravitic tourmalines were mostly derived from paragneisses and mica schists. Cr-spinel indicates a volcanic source. Based on heavy mineral assemblages, coupled with palaeoflow analysis, we conclude that the Marmarosh Massif and Fore-Marmarosh Suture are the most probable source areas. Aditionally, the Malcov sedimentary basin was supplied by material from the crystalline complexes of the Tisza Mega-Unit and Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The bulk of the clastic deposits comprise classical turbidites. These lithofacies were deposited from either turbidity currents or from concentrated density flows. The palaeoflow record is varied and highlights the contribution of sedimentary material from several directions and/or diversion of gravity currents from the main flow direction (SE–NW). The marginal parts of the Malcov sub-basins were formed of deformed and uplifted older formations of surrounding units of the Magura Nappe and PKB (submerged ridges). Older (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) flysch sediments may have been redeposited from these ridges to neighbouring sub-basins in a transverse direction (NE–SW).
EN
Although Dobšina Ice Cave (DIC, Carpathians, Slovakia) is located outside the high-mountain area, it hosts one of the most extensive blocks of perennial subterranean ice, the volume of which is estimated at more than 110,000 m3. Frozen bat remains were found in the lowermost part of the perennial ice block. They belong to Myotis blythii (Tomes) and the M. mystacinus morpho-group. The radiocarbon dating of bat soft tissues yielded ages of 1266–1074 cal. yr BP and 1173–969 cal. yr BP. The undetermined bat, found in the same part of the ice section in 2002, was previously dated at 1178–988 cal. yr BP (Clausen et al., 2007). The dates testify that the ice crystallized at the turn of the Dark Ages Cold Period and the Medieval Warm Period. The calculated accumulation rate of cave ice varies between 0.7 cm/year and 1.4 cm/year at that time, and is similar to the present ice accumulation rate in DIC. Constant crystallization of ice during the Medieval Warm Period is hypothesized to reflect dry summer seasons since the supply of relatively warm water in the summer is one of the key factors causing the erosion of cave ice. The uppermost sample was covered with 20.6 m of ice. Between ca 1065 cal. yr BP and the present day, the ice grew faster than between ca 1210 yr BP and ca 1065 yr BP by a factor of 1.3–1.8. This may have resulted from conditions favourable for ice accumulation during the Little Ice Age.
EN
Identification of hydrocarbon accumulation boundaries within an oil field area is an important factor for making decisions whether or not to drill out and develop the field, or to give up extraction in some parts of the areas. As an example, two gas/condensate fields in the Devonian strata of the Western Carpathians are presented in this paper. These deposits were found at various depths in the Miocene basement in two separate tectonic blocks. Boundaries of the Stryszawa field were identified with the traditional Horner method and with the modern log-log method on the basis of industrial data obtained with DST and production tests. Based on the analysis of the drilling-up and testing methods used in the L-4 well in the Devonian strata of the Lachowice field the authors formulated the causes of considerably lower inflow of reservoir fluid to the tester during four DST tests, and the inability to determine boundaries of this part of the deposit.
EN
We studied speleothem-fracturing styles and their tectonic context in three cave systems situated in the eastern Bohemian Massif, close to the Western Carpathians orogenic front: the Za hájovnou, Javoříčko, and Mladeč caves. The morphology of the speleothems in particularly thin stalactites, and supporting evidence from the cave interior, indicates a tectonic origin of the breakage. U/Th series dating of the stalactites, supported by Optically Stimulated Luminiscence (OSL) and 14C dating of soft sediments indicate that most of the fracturing occurred in the Upper Pleistocene, with the last fracturing events corresponding to MIS6 and MIS5 stages. OSL dating of faulted soft-sediment infill may even indicate that latest Pleistocene to Early Holocene tectonic events occurred in the Mladeč Cave. The speleothem fracturing is discussed in the regional context of the seismically active Nysa-Morava Zone situated at the junction between the Bohemian Massif (Elbe Fault Zone) and the Western Carpathians. This study provides the first evidence of palaeoseismicity from the subsurface and the oldest dated palaeoseismicity from the contact between the Western Carpathians and the Bohemian Massif.
17
Content available remote Field mapping of buried faults : a new approach applied in the Western Carpathians
EN
Fault array in an area covered by Quaternary sediments and deprived of bedrock outcrops was investigated using fault trace mapping by geophysical methods and human feedback information from dowsing. The tectonics in the study area is dominated by a ENE-WSW fault zone affecting regional-scale structures. The fault network was approximated by dowsing-enhanced mapping and subsequently confirmed by field geophysical measurements using electromagnetic and radon emanometry methods. A resultant detailed map of structural discontinuities highlighted that combined dowsing and geophysical survey is an effective and reliable tool to identify buried faults. This approach with its low costs and fast field recognition is highly recommended for construction-work planning and for mineral resources exploration and exploitation.
EN
Tectonic research and morphological observations were carried out in six caves (Kalacka, Goryczkowa, Kasprowa Niżna, Kasprowa Średnia, Kasprowa Wyżnia and Magurska) in the Bystra Valley, in the Tatra Mountains. There are three cave levels, with the youngest active and the other two inactive, reflecting development partly under epiphreatic and partly under phreatic conditions. These studies demonstrate strong control of the cave pattern by tectonic features, including faults and related fractures that originated or were rejuvenated during uplift, lasting from the Late Miocene. In a few local cases, the cave passages are guided by the combined influence of bedding, joints and fractures in the hinge zone of a chevron anticline. That these cave passages are guided by tectonic structures, irrespective of lithological differences, indicates that these proto-conduits were formed by “tectonic inception”. Differences in the cave pattern between the phreatic and epiphreatic zones at a given cave level may be a result of massif relaxation. Below the bottom of the valley, the effect of stress on the rock mass is related to the regional stress field and only individual faults extend below the bottom of the valley. Thus in the phreatic zone, the flow is focused and a single conduit becomes enlarged. The local extension is more intense in the epiphreatic zone above the valley floor and more fractures have been sufficiently extended to allow water to flow. The water migrates along a network of fissures and a maze could be forming. Neotectonic displacements (of up to 15 cm), which are more recent than the passages, were also identified in the caves. Neotectonic activity is no longer believed to have as great an impact on cave morphology as previously was thought. Those faults with displacements of several metres, described as younger than the cave by other authors, should be reclassified as older faults, the surfaces of which have been exposed by speleogenesis. The possible presence of neotectonic faults with greater displacements is not excluded, but they would have had a much greater morphological impact than the observed features suggest.
EN
The Pieniny Klippen Belt and neighbouring zones of the Western Carpathians represent an ancient accretionary wedge that developed during the meso-Alpidic (Coniacian–Eocene) tectonic epoch. After an overview of the extensive literature data, the authors present an interpretation of the synorogenic sedimentary record of these zones as being related to various environments of the foreland basin system consisting of the trench-foredeep and wedge-top depositional areas. The peripheral trench-foredeep depozones migrated from the South Penninic-Vahic oceanic realm towards the Oravic continental fragment in an intra-Penninic position, where the synorogenic deposits were laid down with coarsening- and thickening-upward trends before being overthrust by the propagating orogenic wedge tip. The development of wedge-top, piggyback basins (Gosau Supergroup) was controlled by the dynamics of the underlying wedge, composed of frontal elements of the Fatric and Hronic cover nappe systems of the Central Western Carpathians (Austroalpine units). Several compressional and extensional events are documented in the complex sedimentary and structural rock records within the wedge and related basins. The successive transgressive-regressive depositional cycles and corresponding deformation stages are interpreted in terms of a dynamic accretionary wedge that maintained the critical taper only transiently. The supercritical taper states are reflected in regression, shallowing and erosion in the wedge-top area, while the trench was supplied with large amounts of clastics by various gravity-flow types. On the other hand, the collapse stages tending to subcritical wedge taper are indicated by widespread marine transgressions or ingressions in the wedge-top area and a general deepening of all basins to bathyal conditions. Accordingly, the evolution of the entire trench-foredeep and wedge-top basin systems was principally controlled by the complex interplay of the regional tectonic evolution of the Alpine-Carpathian orogenic system, local wedge dynamics and eustatic sea-level fluctuations.
EN
The potential change of natural gas composition in the near-wel lbore zone creates a big problem with the selection of appropriate initial value of counterpressure exerted by the displacement fluid on reservoir during the test, and also with the interpretation of the reservoir and production tests results. The analysis of the industrial data reveals that the effect of condensate production in the near-wellbore zone could take place while using too high counterpres-sure during DST tests, as a consequence of using a relatively high column of water displacement fluid in the DST column, i.e. about 2500 m. This thesis can be confirmed after further detailed theoretical analysis of the occurring thermodynamic conditions. The paper addresses technological and interpretation problems encountered during drill stem tests (DST) of gas-bearing Devonian strata, on the example of the Stryszawa field in the Western Carpathians. Special attention was paid to the possible changes of gas compo sition during flow tests and the cases of gas condensation of heavier fractions during build-up tests. Attempts were made at explaining sudden drops of pressure at the build-up stage along with the thermodynamic conditions responsible for this effect. The authors explained the necessity of using an appropriate Ful-Flo sampler in the DST set for collecting gas samples at any time of the test, and devices for continuous measurement of temperature. The use of new types of drill stem testers and appropriate interpretation methods, which would account for a detailed analysis of technological and reservoir conditions allows for more efficient oil prospecting and deciding about enhancement methods in hydrocarbon production. The analysis of thermodynamic conditions on the bottom of the wellbore allow s for selecting proper counterpressure values in view of the condensation of heavier gas fractions in the near wellbore rocks. The analysis of conditions in which heavier gas fractions undergo condensation is approximate and general because the gas samples were collected at the outlet of the DST string (in surface conditions), without a Ful-Flo sampler and without temperature measurements.
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