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EN
The aim of this study is to compare the corrosion resistance of X37CrMoV5-l tool steel after nanostructurization and after a conventional heat treatment. The nanostructuring treatment consisted of austempering at 300°C, which produced a microstructure composed of nanometric carbide-free bainite separated by nanometric layers of retained austenite. The retained austenite occurred also in form of blocks which partially undergo martensitic transformation during final cooling. For comparison, a series of steel samples were subjected to a standard quenching and high tempering treatment, which produced a microstructure of tempered martensite. The obtained results showed that the corrosion resistance of steel after both variants of heat treatment is similar. The results indicate that the nanocrystalline structure with high density of intercrystalline boundaries do not deteriorate the corrosion resistance of steel, which depends to a greater extent on its phase composition.
EN
Analytical transmission electron microscopy has been applied to characterize the microstructure, phase and chemical composition of the Ag–Al wear track throughout its thickness down to the atomic level. Microscopy findings have been correlated with Ag–Al film tribological properties to understand the effect of the hexagonal solid solution phase on the tribological properties of this film. Ag–25Al (at.%) films have been produced by simultaneous magnetron sputtering of components in Ar atmosphere under 1 mTorr pressure and subjected to pin-on-disc tribological tests. It has been shown that hcp phase with (001) planes aligned parallel to the film surface dominates both in as-deposited and in tribofilm areas of the Ag–Al alloy film. Possible mechanisms of reduced friction in easily oxidized Ag–Al system are discussed and the mechanism based on readily shearing basal planes of the hcp phase is considered as the most probable one.
EN
In this work, the effect of heat transfer during explosive welding (EXW) and post-processing annealing on the microstructural and chemical composition changes have been thoroughly analysed using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray synchrotron radiation. Several combination of explosively welded metal compositions were studied: Ti with Al, Cu with Al, Ta or stainless steel, stainless steel with Zr or Ta and Ti with carbon steel. It was found that the melted metals exhibit a strong tendency to form brittle crystalline, nano-grained or even amorphous phases during the solidification. For all analysed metal combinations most of the phases formed in the zones of solidified melt do not appear in the equilibrium phase diagrams. Concurrently, the interfacial layers undergo severe plastic deformation forming nano-grained structures. It has been established that these heavily deformed areas can undergo dynamic recovery and recrystallization already during clad processing. This leads to the formation of new stress-free grains near the interface. In the case of low temperature and short time post processing annealing only the melted zones and severely deformed layers undergo recovery and recrystallization. However, drastic changes in the microstructure occurs at higher temperature and for longer annealing times. Applying such conditions leads to diffusion dominant processes across the interface. As a consequence continuous layers of intermetallic phases of equilibrium composition are obtained.
EN
Three plants extracts were used for biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs nucleation process requires effective reduction agents which secure Ag+ to Ag0 reduction and also stabilizing/capping agents. The UV-vis and TEM observation revealed that the best results were obtained by R. officinalis leaf extract. The strong SPR band peak appeared at the wavelength 418 nm. Synthetized AgNPs were globular, fine (~20 nm), uniform and stabile throughout the experiment. A rapid rate of AgNPs synthesis was also significant and economically advantageous factor. Fine (10-20 nm) and globular nanoparticles were synthetized also by U. dioica leaf extract, but the stability of nanoparticles was not permanent. Despite V. vitis-idaea fruit extract contains a lot of reducing agents, UV-vis did not confirm the presence of AgNPs in solution. Synthetized Ag particles were very unstable, Ag particles agglomerated very fast and clearly indicated sediment was formed.
EN
The effect of bead on plate friction stir welding parameters on the tensile properties of the 70/30 brass joints was investigated using response surface method. The microstructures of the joints were characterized using optical microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile test was conducted to measure the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the joints. In addition, the fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the most effective parameters on the strength and elongation of the joints were tool rotational speed and axial force, respectively. Optimizing the parameters revealed that the maximum strength and elongation of 318.5 MPa and 54.9% can be achieved at a rotational speed of 1000 rpm, a traverse speed of 58.4 mm/min, and an axial force of 3 kN. The strengthening mechanisms of grain boundary and dislocation density effects were responsible for the higher ultimate tensile strength of the joints welded at the lower heat input conditions. Furthermore, the effect of friction stir parameters on the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the joints has been discussed, thoroughly.
EN
In the present research, commercial Al–3%Mg aluminium alloy was subjected to the ECAP processing using a modified die with a helical 30° exit channel. The changes in microstructure were characterized by light microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and TEM. Mechanical properties were compared based on hardness measurement. It is also shown that such modification of ECAP die enhances grain refinement due to the vortex-like flow of metal during subsequent deformations. The results of the metallographic study showed that microstructure is refined due to the interactions and intersections of the deformation bands. The mechanical properties examinations display a significant improvement after the first ECAP pass and less significant increase with subsequent passes.
PL
Bardzo często w okresach kryzysów gospodarczych pojawiają się uciążliwe niedomagania w zakresie utrzymania produkcji na odpowiednim poziomie ilościowym oraz jakościowym zapewniającym stały rozwój. Podołanie rosnącym potrzebom wymaga znacznego wysiłku w zapewnieniu pożądanego zespołu cech użytkowych przy zachowaniu odpowiedniej ekonomiki wytwarzania. Z tymi problemami, szczególnie w ostrej formie, spotykają się przedsiębiorstwa wyposażone w przestarzałe urządzenia produkcyjne, które swoją szansę na przeżycie upatrują w doskonaleniu procesów technologicznych opartych o wiedzę. Rosnące zapotrzebowanie na funkcjonalne stopy miedzi, charakteryzujące się takimi szczególnymi zespołami własności użytkowych, jak korzystna kombinacja wysokich własności mechanicznych oraz konduktywności elektrycznej i cieplnej, stabilne właściwości w warunkach eksploatacyjnych, odporność na korozję oraz zużycie ścierne, odporność na zmienne obciążenia mechaniczne, cieplne i prądowe. Spełnienie tych oczekiwań wymaga dobrania odpowiednich składników stopowych miedzi jak też technologii osiągania odpowiedniej i stabilnej struktury stopów. Dotyczy to głównie stopów miedzi podatnych do utwardzania wydzieleniowego, dyspersyjnego, roztworowego oraz umacniania odkształceniowego. Szczególną uwagę przywiązuje się do wytwarzania silnie rozdrobnionej struktury stopów (ultrafine grain size – UFG). Jedną z metod osiągania silnie rozdrobnionej struktury jest cykliczne przeginanie i prostowanie (continous repetitive corrugation and straightening – CRCS). Metodę tę wykorzystano z powodzeniem do zdecydowanej poprawy własności taśm z miedzi chromowej, podatnej do utwardzania wydzieleniowego, dla stopu CuNi2Si1 oraz dla brązu cynowego i mosiądzów. Otrzymane rezultaty stanowiły pewną zachętę do wykorzystania metody przeginania i prostowania dla metali o sieci regularnej, przestrzennie centrowanej A2. W tym celu do badań wybrano pręty walcowane na gorąco o przekroju 12x12 mm ze stali w gat. S235JR. Ze względu na wymiary prętów oraz dostępność urządzenia do przeginania i prostowania ograniczona została liczba cykli oraz zwiększono wartość odkształcenia i naprężenia.
EN
The periods of economic crises very often see serious problems in the maintenance of production at the appropriate quantitative and qualitative level as required for constant development. To meet the growing needs it is necessary to put considerable effort in ensuring the desired set of functional properties while maintaining adequate production economics. Those problems, especially in a severe form, are encountered by companies equipped with outdated production facilities, the companies which see their chance of survival in improvement of production processes based on the knowledge. There is a growing demand for functional copper alloys characterized by specific sets of functional properties such as advantageous combination of high mechanical properties with electrical and thermal conductivity, stable properties in operating conditions, resistance to corrosion and abrasive wear, resistance to changing mechanical, thermal and current loads. Meeting these expectations requires selection of appropriate copper alloy components as well as a relevant technology to achieve adequate and stable structure of alloys. This applies mainly to copper alloys which are susceptible to precipitation, dispersion, solution and strain hardening. Particular attention is paid to production of a highly fragmented structure of alloys (ultrafine grain size – UFG). One of the methods for production of highly fragmented structure consists of continuous repetitive corrugation and straightening (CRCS). This method was successfully applied for significant improvement of properties of copper alloys strips. The produced results provided some incentive to apply the method of corrugation and straightening to metals with body centred A2 lattice. For this purpose, hot-rolled S235JR steel grade rods of 12x12 mm section were used. Because of the dimensions of the rods and availability of corrugation and straightening equipment the number of cycles was reduced while the values of stress and strain were increased.
EN
The analytical solution of steady-state asymmetric thermo-electro-mechanical loads of a hollow thick infinite cylinder made of porous piezoelectric materials (2D-PPMs) based on two-dimensional equations of thermoelasticity is considered. The general form of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions is considered on the inside and outside surfaces. A direct method is used to solve the heat conduction equation and the non-homogenous system of partial differential Navier equations using the complex Fourier series and the powerexponential law functions method. The material properties are assumed to depend on the radial and circumferential variable and are expressed as power-exponential law functions along the radial and circumferential direction.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the microstructure evolution of a heat treated Al-3%Mg aluminium alloy subjected to the ECAP (equal channel angular pressing process). Design/methodology/approach: Commercial Al-3%Mg alloy subjected to the solution treatment followed by an artificial aging was subjected to the 6 ECAP passes using a processing route Bc. Then the microstructure investigations using a light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were carried out. Additionally the XRD technique was used to calculate lattice micro strain and dislocation density. Findings: The experimental results showed that the obtained microstructure is refined by mutual interactions of shear and microshear bands. The TEM investigation revealed typical for deformed aluminium alloys structure constituents such as dislocation-free grains, nonequilibrium grain boundaries, dislocation cell and (sub)grain structures. Research limitations/implications: The presented investigation results were carried out on samples, not on final products. Practical implications: Current research is moving towards to develop high strength material having a ultra-fine grained microstructure and increased mechanical strength. Originality/value: The paper focuses on the microstructure characterization of ECAP processed Al-3%Mg aluminium alloy. The relationship between the obtained microstructure and its contribution to the Yield strength is investigated.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this article is the development of quantitative methods for assessing the quality of nanocomposite materials used in fuel cells. Design/methodology/approach: latinum is the most commonly used catalyst in fuel cells, commonly in the form of nanoparticles deposited on the surface of carbon black. Due to the nanometric size of platinum particles, transmission electron microscopy can be applied to evaluate the produced catalysts. TEM image also allow to determinate the approximate value of the chemical specific surface area) of platinum nanoparticles, but only in case of spherical particles. Findings: In present work, taking into account additional assumptions resulting directly from the analysis of microscopic images, the method of estimation of the particle diameter and the chemical specific surface area for nonsymmetrical (elongated) nanoparticles is present. Research limitations/implications: The presented work presents a method for determining the specific surface of platinum, when their shape is elongated. It is worth noting that the modified formulas for determining the particle diameter and the value of the chemically active specific surface of the platinum nanoparticles of the elongated shape are equivalent to the formulas previously given for spherical particles, if the particle length and its diameter are equal. In this case, patterns for symmetric particles and more general (modified) patterns can be used interchangeably. Practical implications: Development of new and more effective catalysts for fuel cells. Originality/value: The significance of the presented work results from the possibility of using the described method in the catalyst studies during real catalytic processes. It allows comparing catalytic activity after the process, also in unusual conditions and in an aggressive environment, using minimal amounts of material.
EN
The development of a new deposition method allowing to obtain thick composite coatings is of both scientifically and practical importance. The one presented in this paper is based on a negative side effect taking place during the mechanical synthesis of alloys, i.e. sticking of milled material to the surfaces of both the vial and balls. The experiment covered the comilling of NiAl (~45 µm) with 15 wt.% CrB2 (~40 µm) powders together with nickel platelets used as the substrates and steel balls. The above processing performed at 200 rpm resulted in a steady increase in the thickness of the rubbed-in buildup on the platelet surfaces allowing coatings of 4, 11, 22 and 33 µm to be produced after 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. The OM, XRD and TEM investigations showed that such coatings are characterized by a gradient microstructure with heavily dislocated but coarser grains near the substrate and a more porous inner part formed with rounded well fused agglomerates of greatly refined crystallites. The CrB2 were only slightly larger than the NiAl ones and were distributed quite uniformly. Most of the coating was found well fused with the substrate, but occasional voids and porosity at the substrate/coating interface were also noted. It is worth noting that applying the proposed method allowed the authors to produce a thick, gradient and mostly nano-crystalline NiAl and CrB2 composite coating.
PL
Rozwój nowych metod osadzania powłok kompozytowych jest istotny z naukowego i praktycznego punktu widzenia. Metoda proponowana obecnie bazuje na negatywnym zjawisku zachodzącym w czasie mechanicznej syntezy stopów, tj. oklejaniem mielonym materiałem kul i naczynia w którym prowadzony jest proces. Obecny eksperyment obejmował współmielenie stalowymi kulami proszków NiAl (~45 μm) z 15 wt.% CrB2 (~40 μm) z płytkami Ni zastosowanymi jako podłoża. Proces ten, prowadzony przy 200 obr./min, skutkował ciągłym powiększaniem grubości powłok do 4, 11, 22 i 33 μm odpowiednio po 4, 8, 16 i 32 godz. Badania z wykorzystaniem mikroskopii optycznej, transmisyjnej oraz dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej wykazały, że powłoki te charakteryzuje budowa gradientowa z warstwą silnie zdefektowanych, ale stosunkowo dużych krystalitów przy podłożu stopniowo zastępowanych nanokrystalicznym porowatym materiałem w formie silnie spojonych aglomeratów. Krystality CrB2 wykazywały niewiele mniejsze rozdrobnienie od NiAl oraz w przybliżeniu równomierny rozkład w intermetalicznej osnowie. Powłoki w większej części wykazywały dobre spojenie z podłożem, ale obecność pustek oraz porowatości penetrującej od granic z podłożem była dokumentowana. Należy podkreślić, że zastosowanie proponowanej metody umożliwia wytworzenie grubych, gradientowych i w przeważającej części nanokrystalicznych kompozytowych powłok.
13
Content available remote Effect of milling time on morphology and size of copper/CNT composite powder
EN
The development of a sintered copper matrix composite with a small addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which improves its mechanical strength without a decrease in electrical conductivity is of practical importance. Therefore, in the present paper the parameters of ball milling of a Cu+CNT powder mixture were optimized in order to obtain the highest refinement of particles of such a composite material. Investigations carried out with the help of scanning electron microscopy and sieve analysis revealed that the average particle size of the powder decreases with an increase in the volume content of the carbon nanotubes. The presence of carbon material should limit grain growth during the hot pressing of composite material, allowing much smaller grain sizes and accompanying high hardness to be obtained of the resulting compacts, as compared with similarly processed copper powder.
PL
Opracowanie spiekanych kompozytów na osnowie miedzi z niewielkim dodatkiem nanorurek węglowych, poprawiających ich własności wytrzymałościowe bez wyraźnego spadku przewodności elektrycznej, ma duże znaczenie praktyczne. Dlatego w ramach niniejszej pracy została przeprowadzona optymalizacja parametrów mielenia w młynku kulowym mieszanki proszkowej miedź + nanorurki węglowe w celu uzyskania możliwie największego stopnia rozdrobnienia cząstek takiego materiału kompozytowego. Badania przeprowadzone metodą skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej oraz analiza sitowa wskazały, że średnia wielkość cząstek proszku generalnie spada wraz ze wzrostem zawartości nanorurek węglowych. Obecność nanorurek węglowych powinna zapobiegać rozrostowi ziarna podczas prasowania na gorąco takiego materiału kompozytowego, co pozwoli na uzyskanie znacznie mniejszego ziarna, a w konsekwencji wyższej twardości w porównaniu do wytwarzanego w ten sam sposób proszku miedzi.
EN
This paper presents research results of zinc oxide thin films deposited on a glass substrate with use of ALD method. Our researches focused on analyzing of the influence of ALD deposition process temperature on the morphology and transparency of thin layers. The morphology was examined using both scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Transparency study was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. For our experiments, two sets of the coating have been prepared, differing in temperature and number of cycle used during the preparation process. The first set was deposited in 100 cycles, second one in 500 cycles. Each set of tested coating contained samples prepared at different temperatures.
EN
The scope of this work is to investigate the precipitation of two Al-Mg-Si alloys with and without Cu and excess Si by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), Vickers hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction. The analysis of the DSC curves found that the excess Si accelerate the precipitation and the alloy contain the excess Si and small addition of copper has higher aging-hardness than that of free alloy (without excess Si and Cu) at the same heat treatment condition. The sufficient holding time for the precipitation of the β'' phase was estimated to be 6 hours for the alloy aged at 100°C and 10 hours for the alloy aged at 180°C. The low Copper containing Al-Mg-Si alloy gives rise to the forming a finer distribution of β (Mg2Si) precipitates which increases the hardness of the alloy. In order to know more about the precipitation reactions, concern the peaks on the DSC curve transmission electron microscopy observation were made on samples annealed at temperatures (250°C, 290°C and 400°C) just above the corresponding peaks of the three phases β'', β' and β respectively.
EN
The article presents the investigation results of microstructural, chemical composition changes after clad layers of Inconel 625 and Inconel 686 alloys weld overlaid on boiler tubes. The boiler tubes made of 16Mo3 steel were cladded in the Boiler Factory SEFAKO S.A. using CMT technique. The microstructure and chemical composition of coatings were analysed using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The value of the partition coefficient k was determined for Inconel 625 and Inconel 686 clad layers. The value was calculated by dividing the average content (% wt.) of Ni, Cr, Mo, Fe, Nb and W.
EN
Nanostructured, biocompatible, TiC/Ti Supersonic Cold Gas Sprayed coatings were deposited onto a Ti6Al4V alloy and their microstructure, wear resistance and hardness were investigated. The starting nanostructured powder, containing a varied mixture of Ti and TiC particles, was produced by high energy ball milling. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used for structural and chemical analyses of powder particles and coatings. Coatings, 250-350 μm thick, preserving the nanostructure and chemical powder composition, with low porosity and relatively high hardness (~850 HV), were obtained. These nanostructured TiC/Ti coatings exhibited better tribological properties than commonly used biomedical benchmark materials, due to an appropriate balance of hard and soft nano-phases.
EN
The paper presents continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of selected low-alloy steel with high resistance to abrasion. Samples were prepared from examined material in as delivered conditions, then were austenitized at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C for 20 min, and then cooled with the rates of V800–500 = 50, 10, 5, 1, 0.5, 0.1 °C/s. During the dilatometric research, the critical temperatures were defined as well as the critical points specified for different cooling rates were designated. In addition, metallographic documentation of received microstructures after dilatometric investigations was prepared and hardness measurement was performed. The increase in the austenitizing temperature caused changes in the temperature of MS and in the size of the martensite laths. What is more, the increase in the austenitizing temperature in the case of the analyzed steel caused a displacement of the bainitic and diffusion transformations to longer times. During the analysis using the TEM and SEM it was found that the size of the austenite grains is largely controlled by precipitates of the nitrides of AlN, TiN and carbides, mainly Cr7C3 and M23C6.
19
Content available remote Włókna celulozowe o właściwościach luminescencyjnych
PL
Głównym celem przedstawionej rozprawy doktorskiej było otrzymanie włókien celulozowych modyfikowanych organicznymi i nieorganicznymi związkami luminescencyjnymi do zastosowania w dokumentach i tekstyliach. Podstawowym celem badań było zbadanie wpływu rodzaju, stężenia i rozproszenia modyfikatorów w matrycy polimerowej włókna na jego mechaniczne i luminescencyjne właściwości, jak również na kolor emisji otrzymanych włókien. Włókna otrzymywane były z użyciem sucho-mokrej metody formowania z roztworów celulozy, otrzymanych poprzez bezpośrednie rozpuszczenie celulozy w N-tlenku-N-metylomorfoliny (NMMO). Modyfikatory luminescencyjne dodawane były podczas procesu przygotowania płynów przędzalniczych. Zbadano właściwości otrzymanych luminescencyjnych włókien. Widma wzbudzenia i emisji zostały wykonane na spektrofotometrze fluorescencyjnym. Charakterystyki rozmiaru cząstek modyfikatora i ich rozproszenia w matrycy włókien zostały przestudiowane z użyciem transmisyjnej mikroskopii elektronowej (TEM). Wyznaczono również właściwości mechaniczne modyfikowanych włókien, jak również zbadano wpływ testów starzeniowych na właściwości luminescencyjne i mechaniczne włókien. Biorąc pod uwagę potencjalne zastosowanie otrzymanych włókien, przygotowano w warunkach laboratoryjnych próbki papieru zawierającego włókna luminescencyjne. Zbadano właściwości zmodyfikowanego papieru oraz wykonano analizę jego mikrostruktury z wykorzystaniem skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej (SEM). W wyniku przeprowadzonych prac otrzymano włókna ze specjalnymi luminescencyjnymi właściwościami, gdzie związek luminescencyjny zamknięty jest w matrycy polimerowej włókien. Otrzymane włókna charakteryzują się dobrymi właściwościami mechanicznymi i luminescencyjnymi, z różnymi kolorami emisji. Testy starzeniowe wykazały, iż szacunkowa trwałość włókien wynosi nie mniej niż 10 lat oraz ich właściwości luminescencyjne zostają zachowane. Analiza SEM struktury papieru zawierającego lumine-scencyjne włókna pokazała, iż włókna są trwale wbudowane w jego strukturę i nie mają negatywnego wpływu na właściwości papieru. Dodatek włókien do papieru zapewnia możliwości zastosowania, takie jak: zabezpieczenia dokumentów i tekstyliów oraz znacznik kontroli anizotropii w procesie produkcji papieru.
EN
The main aim of the dissertation was to obtain cellulose fibers modified with luminescent organic and inorganic compounds for documents and papers application. The basic purpose of the research was to examine the influence of modifiers type, concentration and distribution in the polymer matrix of the fibers on their mechanical and luminescent properties, as well on the emission colour of obtained fibers. The fibers were formed with the use of dry-wet spinning method from cellulose solutions, obtained by direct dissolution of cellulose in N-methylomorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO). Luminescent modifiers were added during spinning dope preparation process. The properties of obtained luminescent fiberswere examined. The excitation and emission spectra were performed on fluorescence spectrophotometer. The characteristics of modifiers particles size and distribution in fibers matrix were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical properties of modified fibers were also determined, as well as the influence of aging tests on mechanical and luminescent properties of the fibers. Taking into account the potencial applications of obtained fibers, laboratory production paper samples were prepared containing luminescent fibers, in order to examine their behavior as an additive in papermaking process. The properties of modified paper were examined and pictures of microstructure of paper were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. As a result of my PhD thesis the fibers with special luminescent properties were prepared. Due to the method of modification the luminescent agent is closed in polymer matrix of the fibers. This provides modification’s durability and increase the fibers usability. Obtained fibers are characterized by good mechanical and luminescent properties, with different colours of emission. Aging tests of the fibers showed that estimated durability of the fibers is no less than 10 years and the mechanical properties of fibers worsens of about 40% whereas the luminescent properties are preserved. SEM analysis of paper containing luminescent fibers showed that the fibers are permanently build into the paper's structure and have no negative influence on it's properties. Addition of the fibers to the paper provides application possibilities like documents and textile protection, as well as marker for anisotropy control in papermaking process.
EN
Zn1–xNixO aerogel nanopowders with nickel concentration in the range of 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.25, were synthesized by the sol-gel processing technique and post-annealed in air at 500 ˚C. Structural, vibrational, thermal and magnetic properties of the as-prepared and annealed Zn1–xNixO powdered samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman scattering, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In addition to the ZnNiO phase, XRD analysis revealed the formation of a secondary NiO phase when the Ni content was greater than or equal to 10 %. The TEM images confirm that the particle size is in the range of 20 nm to 40 nm, in accordance with XRD results, and the particles are well dispersed. Raman scattering measurements confirm the wurtzite structure of the synthesized Zn1–xNixO nanopowders and show that intrinsic host-lattice defects are activated when Ni2+ ions are substituted to the Zn sites. Room temperature ferromagnetic order was observed in all of the samples and was strongly dependent on the Ni content and thermal annealing. These results indicate that the observed room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnNiO may be attributed to the substitutional incorporation of Ni at Zn sites.
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