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PL
W części teoretycznej pracy scharakteryzowano elementy stanowiska pomiarowego wraz z budową i zasadą ich działania. Przedstawiono również algorytm przeprowadzania pomiarów, których wyniki umożliwiają wyznaczenie wartości liczby Reynoldsa, liczby (współczynnika) przepływu i rodzaju przepływu. Praktyczna część pracy polegała na zbudowaniu stanowiska pomiarowego, umożliwiającego wyznaczenie parametrów przepływu wody w rurociągu zgodnie z aktualnie stosowanymi w przemyśle metodami i przyrządami pomiarowymi. Przeprowadzono szereg pomiarów i obliczeń, a następnie dokonano analizy uzyskanych wyników i sformułowano wnioski.
EN
The theoretical part of this paper presented elements of the measuring stand with the construction and principle of their operation. Also presented measurement algorithm, the results of which allow determining the value of Reynolds number, number (coefficient) of flow and type of flow. The aim of the practical part of thesis was to build a measuring position enabling the determination of water parameters in the pipeline in accordance with measurement methods and instruments currently used in industry. A number of measurements and calculations were carried out, and then the results obtained were analyzed and conclusions were formulated.
EN
This paper reports an experimental comparative thermal analysis of a flat plate heat exchanger and corrugated plate heat exchanger (CPHE) of different corrugation angles using ethylene glycol as test fluid. The experiments were carried out in counter current mode using water as hot fluid at 75°C. Design of each plate provided with eleven thermocouple sensors to determine the temperatures, in which seven were used to measure the surface temperature of plate and four were used to measure the inlet and outlet bulk temperature of cold and hot fluids. The mass flow rate of test fluid, varied between 0.5 to 4 liters per minute and corresponding steady state temperatures is measured. Using experimental readings, temperature difference between the inlet and outlet streams (∆T), logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) and overall heat transfer coefficient (U) are determined. The obtained ∆T and U values of corrugation angles (30°, 50°) of CPHE were compared with those of flat plate heat exchangers. For corrugation angle of 30° and 50°, the ∆T and U values increases with increase of mass flow rate of the fluid. The turbulence in the flow increases due to increase in the corrugation angle, which results in the enhancement of heat transfer. Moreover, thermal effectiveness (ε) is estimated using NTU method and compared for all the plates. As the NRe values gradually increases, ε decreases for flat plate and CPHE (θ = 30° and θ= 50°). At low NRe value of 114, observed a maximum ε (≅0.998) value for corrugated angle of 50°. There is adequate contact time between the cold and hot fluids at low Reynolds number, so maximum rate of heat transfer is possible, as a result ε values are high.
EN
Artificial roughness has been found to enhance the thermal performance from the collector to air in the solar air heater duct. This paper presents the results of experimental investigation on thermal performance of three sides solar air heater roughened with combination of multiple-v and transverse wire. The range of variation of system and operating parameters is investigated within the limits of relative roughness pitch of 10−25, relative roughness height of 0.018 −0.042, angle of attack of 30°−75° at varying flow Reynolds number in the of range of 3000−12000 for fixed value of relative roughness width of 6. The augmentation in fluid temperature flowing under three side’s roughened duct is found to be 36.57% more than that of one side roughened duct. The maximum thermal efficiency is obtained at relative roughness pitch of 10 and relative roughness height of 0.042, and angle of attack of 60°. The augmentation in thermal efficiency of three sides over those of one side roughened duct is found to be 46−57% for varying values of relative roughness pitch, 38−50% for varying values of relative roughness height, and 40−46% for varying values of angle of attack.
EN
In this paper, investigation of the effect of Reynolds number, nanoparticle volume ratio, nanoparticle diameter and entrance temperature on the convective heat transfer and pressure drop of Al2O3/H2O nanofluid in turbulent flow through a straight pipe was carried out. The study employed a computational fluid dynamic approach using single-phase model and response surface methodology for the design of experiment. The Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation were solved using k-ε turbulent model. The central composite design method was used for the response-surface-methodology. Based on the number of variables and levels, the condition of 30 runs was defined and 30 simulations were performed. New models to evaluate the mean Nusselt number and pressure drop were obtained. Also, the result showed that all the four input variables are statistically significant to the pressure drop while three out of them are significant to the Nusslet number. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis carried out showed that the Reynolds number and volume fraction have a positive sensitivity to both the mean Nusselt number, and pressure drop, while the entrance temperature has negative sensitivities to both.
EN
This work investigates the effect of Reynolds number, nanoparticle volume ratio, nanoparticle size and entrance temperature on the rate of entropy generation in Al2O3 /H2O nanofluid flowing through a pipe in the turbulent regime. The Reynolds average Navier-Stokes and energy equations were solved using the standard k-ε turbulent model and the central composite method was used for the design of experiment. Based on the number of variables and levels, the condition of 30 runs was defined and 30 simulations were run. The result of the regression model obtained showed that all the input variables and some interaction between the variables are statistically significant to the entropy production. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis result shows that the Reynolds number, the nanoparticle volume ratio and the entrance temperature have negative sensitivity while the nanoparticle size has positive sensitivity.
EN
To transport of the air in the pipeline, an analytical model is developed that takes into account the gas velocity, its kinematic and dynamic characteristics - density, viscosity depending on the pressure in a given space of the pipeline. The analytical model makes it possible to calculate the coefficient of friction of gas transportation in the pipeline at intervals of the absolute pressure from 220 to 2 kPa and M < 1 Mach numbers, depending on the diameter and length of the pipeline and physical and technological characteristics of the gas. The K1* aspect ratio is proposed, which characterizes in time the ratio of the dynamic force of movement of gas to the static pressure related to the diameter of the pipeline. The coefficient of air friction was modeled according to the vacuum pressure as a parameter of density and air flow. Air flow was taken from 1.917·10-3 m 3/s to 44.5·10-3 m 3/s respectively, diameters from 0.030 to 0.070 m and Mach number was M = 0.005-0.13. At the vacuum and excess pressures with increasing of Reynolds number and decreasing of Mach number the gas friction coefficient increased linearly. According to the simulation results as the pressure loss and the diameter of the pipeline are increased the friction coefficient increased as well. Analogically, at the vacuum metric pressure when the pressure loss and the diameter of the pipeline are increased the friction coefficient increased. At the pipeline internal diameters of 22, 30, 36 mm accordingly for pressure losses from 2 to 14 kPa the coefficient of air friction varies from 0.006 to 54.527 respectively.
EN
Exergy analysis is a powerful thermodynamic tool and it helps in computing the actual output of a system. It helps the researchers to optimize the roughened solar air heater design to compensate the present and also the future needs. In this study, investigation on exergetic performance evaluation of a solar air heater with W-shaped roughened absorber surface analytically by employing mathematical model and the results obtained are compared with smooth plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. The exergetic efficiency curves has been plotted as a function of different values of Reynolds number and temperature rise parameter for different roughness parameters. The maximum augmentation in the exergetic efficiency of the solar air heater with W-shaped roughened surface as compared to solar air heater with smooth surface has been obtained as 51% corresponding to the relative roughness height of 0.03375 and the rib angle of attack about 60°. Based on the exergetic efficiency the suitable design parameters of solar air heater with W-shaped roughened are determined.
EN
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional, steady, incompressible lid driven flow in a square cavity were investigated in this work. A commercial finite volume package of ANSYS-FLUENT was used to analyze and visualize the nature of the flow inside the cavity at different Reynolds Numbers. In addition, a MATLAB code was developed and validated by comparing the results with the reference values from literature. Staggered grid was employed in the discretization of the cavity to avoid checkerboard pressure while developing the code. The governing equations were discretized in terms of velocity and pressure fields. The artificial compressibility method was used to de-couple the pressure and velocity terms in the governing equations. A 129×129 grid system was used in both cases. The effects of Reynolds number (100≤ Re ≤ 1000) on the flow characteristics were illustrated through an analysis of stream function, velocity vector, pressure co-efficient and velocity contours. The thinning of the wall boundary layers with an increase in the Reynolds number is evident from the u and v velocity profiles along the vertical and horizontal lines at the geometric center, although the rate of this thinning is very slow for Re> 5000.
EN
This article indicated at erosion as one of the causes of degradation of surfaces washed by fluids and conditions of its occurrence. Corrosive – erosive theory of metal surface degradation has been discussed linking it with an instance of destructive processes taking place in cylinder liner blocks of combustion engines. Physics and conditions influencing processes on liquid – washed operational surface phase boundary have been justified. Out of the contemporary hypotheses explaining the physics of cavitation erosion, the bubble theory has been considered. A mathematical model of erosion has been presented in the context of cavitation implosion energy determining crash interactions of liquid cumulative fluxes on the washed surface. Occurring plastic deformations have been graphically explained linking them with the occurrence of fatigue micro-cracks and later with erosive pits. Influence of initial steel hardness on intensity of cavitation erosion has been checked. Discussion of ways to increase metal surface resistance to cavitation erosion has been carried out.
EN
In this study, a finite volume method (FVM) is suitably used for solving the problem of a fully coupled fluid flow in a rectangular domain with slip boundary conditions. Numerical solutions for the flow variables, viz. velocity, and pressure have been computed. The FVM, with an upwind scheme, has been implemented to discretize the governing equations of the present problem. The well known SIMPLE algorithm is employed for pressure-velocity coupling. This was executed with the aid of a computer program developed and run in a C-compiler. Computations have been performed for unknown variables with Reynolds numbers (Re) = 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000. The behavior of steady-state solutions of velocity and pressure of the fluid along horizontal and vertical through geometric center of the rectangular domain have been illustrated. We observed that, with the increase of the Reynolds number, the absolute value of velocity components decreases whereas the pressure value increases.
PL
Podstawowym surowcem energetycznym w Polsce jest węgiel. W ostatnich latach podejmowano próby spalania koloidalnych zawiesin pyłu węglowego w oleju napędowym lub opałowym. Przy pomiarach przepływu takich zawiesin, może dochodzić do wytrącania i zalegania w układach przesyłowych osadów, co w efekcie może prowadzić do zaburzeń strumienia przepływu. Wiarygodność pomiaru tego parametru, mogą zapewnić kryzy segmentowe. W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań przepływowych kryz segmentowych z przytarczowym punktowym odbiorem ciśnienia różnicowego, przy niewielkich liczbach Reynoldsa oraz symulacje numeryczne dla wybranej kryzy. W badaniach jako medium wykorzystano wodę.
EN
In Poland coal is the main energy resource. As part of the conducted research attempts were made at using suspensoids containing coal dust in gas oil and furnace oil. This leads to a reduction in NOx and SOx percentage without the need for an expensive desulphurization and dust extraction installation. However, there is a need for using cheap but reliable systems to measure the flow of the injected fuel. In real operating conditions various residues may often deposit in fuel transmission systems, which in turn can lead to flow fluctuations. Reliable flow factor measurement requirements can be met by segmental orifices. In the article, based on a research and measurement station, presented were the results of flow measurements with segmental orifices with point reception of differential pressure for small Reynolds numbers as well as numerical simulations. For the selected segmental orifice the flow factor characteristic in the function of the Reynolds number was calculated. In the research, water was used as the medium; the next stage of the research will involve the realization of the proposed solution with the use of hydraulic oil.
PL
Węgiel to podstawowy surowiec energetyczny w Polsce. Od połowy ubiegłego wieku podejmowano próby spalania koloidalnych zawiesin pyłu węglowego w oleju napędowym lub opałowym. Ze względów ekonomicznych podjęto badania nad wykorzystaniem koloidalnych zawiesin wodno-węglowych CWL (Coal-Water Liquid), jako paliwa w energetyce ciepłowniczej. Pozwala to na obniżenie zawartości NOx i SOx bez konieczności inwestowania w drogie układy odsiarczania i odpylania, co jest atutem ekologicznym i ekonomicznym. Wymagane, ze względów technologicznych, układy pomiaru strumienia dostarczanego paliwa, powinny być tanie w eksploatacji, niezawodne oraz odporne na zanieczyszczenia. Warunki te mogą spełnić kryzy mimośrodowe lub segmentowe. W artykule przedstawiono stanowisko doświadczalno-pomiarowe, pozwalające na przeprowadzenie przepływowych badań wstępnych, kryz mimośrodowych z punktowym odbiorem ciśnienia różnicowego, przy małych liczbach Reynoldsa. Wyniki wykonanych pomiarów charakterystyk przepływowych oraz symulacji numerycznych przedstawiono w tabelach i na wykresach. Dla wybranej kryzy mimośrodowej wyznaczono wartość współczynnika przepływu C w funkcji liczby Reynoldsa. Przedstawione w artykule analizy dotyczą przepływu wody. Planowane są dalsze badania dla oleju hydraulicznego.
EN
The energy industry in Poland is mostly based on coal as an energy resource. Until the half of the previous century studies and attempts were made at burning coal dust-based suspensoids in gas oil and furnace oil, with positive results. For economic reasons, studies and attempts were made at using coal and water-based CWL (Coal-Water Liquid) suspensoids as fuel in the heating industry. Using this fuel leads to a reduction in NOx and SOx percentage without the need for an expensive desulphurization and dust extraction installation, which is a huge economic and ecological advantage. For technological reasons required are systems for measuring the flow of the injected fuel that are cheap in use, reliable and residue-resistant. These requirements can be met by segmental and eccentric orifices. In the article, presented was a research and measurement station which enables its users to conduct introductory flow measurements for eccentric orifices with point reception of differential pressure for small Reynolds numbers. The results of the flow characteristic measurements as well as of numerical simulations were presented in the form of tables and charts. For the selected eccentric orifice the C flow parameter in the Reynolds number function was determined. The analysis of the study results presented in the article refers to the flow of water. The next planned stage of the research will involve flow studies and measurements with the use of hydraulic oil as the medium.
EN
Colebrook-White’s formula is considered as the only correct method to calculate λ friction factor. The only disadvantage of this model is that the calculations need to be carried out by the successive approximations method. However, there are already the models that directly allow for the calculation of factor λ with satisfactory accuracy. In this paper, the explicit formulas for the calculation of the λ factor in chronological order are presented and the related errors in relation to the λ value calculated from the Colebrook-White’s formula for hot and cold water was determined. Additionally, for calculated λ factors linear head loss was listed calculated for pipe 100 m length.
PL
Jako jedynie słuszny wzór do obliczania współczynnika oporów λ uważany jest wzór Colebrooka-White’a. Jedynym mankamentem tego wzoru jest konieczność prowadzenia krokowych obliczeń, metodą kolejnych obliczeń. Istnieją już jednak zależności, które w sposób jawny pozwalają na obliczenie współczynnika λ z zadawalająca dokładnością. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono w kolejności chronologicznej jawne postaci wzorów do obliczania λ oraz określono błąd względy w stosunku do wartości λ wyliczonej ze wzoru Colebrooka-White’a dla wody ciepłej i zimnej. Dodatkowo dla wyliczonych współczynników λ zestawiono wysokości strat liniowych obliczonych dla 100 m odcinka przewodu.
PL
Bioługowanie rud na hałdzie stało się komercyjnym procesem, pozwalającym na odzysk metalu z ubogich surowców mineralnych. Proces bioługowania prowadzony na hałdzie jest uzależniony od czynników mikrobiologicznych, chemicznych i hydrodynamicznych. W pracy zostały przedstawione wyniki testów prowadzonych w kolumnie z upakowanym złożem, zawierającym rudę i dodatki. Ustalony został wpływ różnych dodatków (piryt, siarka, szkło i polietylen) na stopień odzysku miedzi z rudy łupkowej. Do badań zostały użyte bakterie Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, pochodzące z własnej kolekcji. Bakterie były hodowane na dwóch pożywkach – 2K i 9K. Surowcem użytym w badaniach był odpad z pierwszego czyszczenia, pochodzący z Zakładu Wzbogacania Rud Lubin. Materiał ten zawierał najwięcej minerałów wchodzących w skład rudy łupkowej. Doświadczenia przeprowadzono, stosując różne ilości dodatków do złoża rudy, znajdującej się w kolumnie. Badania wskazały na istotną rolę, jaką odgrywa immobilizacja (unieruchomienie) komórek bakteryjnych na powierzchni ciał stałych w procesie bioługowania. Określony został wpływ warunków hydrodynamicznych istniejących w porowatym złożu na odzysk miedzi. W optymalnych warunkach odzysk miedzi przekroczył 70% po 14 dniach prowadzenia procesu bioługowania.
EN
Heap bioleaching is a well establish commercial process for metal recovery from low-grade ores. Bioleaching process carried out in the heap is influenced by microbiological, chemical, and hydrodynamic factors. In this paper, the column tests data are presented. The effect of various additives (pyrite, sulphur, glass, and polyethylene) to the black ore on the copper recovery during the black shale bioleaching has been evaluated. For the bacteria growth two different media (2K and 9K) were used. The ore material selected for the bioleaching experiments was taken from the industrial flotation circuit (middlings from 1st cleaning) from Lubin Concentrator. The bioleaching tests were conducted with different amounts of additives which were added to the column packed with black shale ore. These experiments reveal that the microbial cells immobilization has an effect on the copper recovery. The role of hydrodynamic conditions in porous media is also described in the context of copper recovery. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction of copper was obtained more than 70% in 14 days, which is better than bioleaching without additives.
15
Content available remote Kryterium powstawania strugi syntetycznej
PL
W pracy przedstawiono kryterium powstawania strugi syntetycznej. Zaprezentowano wyniki pomiaru prędkości powietrza w osi dyszy generatora strugi syntetycznej dla zmiennej częstotliwości f = 5-400 Hz generatora, zmiennej średnicy dyszy d = 15, 24, 40 mm oraz zmiennej głębokości komory rezonansowej generatora H = 20, 40, 60 mm. Dokonano pomiaru mocy elektrycznej przetwornika elektroakustycznego. Porównano uzyskane wartości liczb Reynoldsa oraz Stokesa z danymi literaturowymi oraz warunkiem powstawania strugi syntetycznej, uzyskując zbieżność otrzymanych wyników.
EN
The paper presents a criterion for the formation of a synthetic jet. The paper presents air velocity measurement in the axis of the nozzle of synthetic jet generator for various frequencies f = 5-400 Hz, various nozzle diameters d = 15, 24, 40 mm and for various cavity depths H = 20, 40, 60 mm. Electrical power of electroacoustic transducers was measured. Obtained values of Reynolds and Stokes numbers were compared with literature data, and the criterion for synthetic jet formation. Convergence of the obtained results was gained.
EN
Combination of computed microtomography and fluid flow simulation approach leads to rock permeability estimation as a reservoir parameter deciding about the rock potential to fluid (hydrocarbons and/or formation water) flow in porous space. For the proper simulation run and results two aspects are needed to be considered: modelling approach and the flow regime. The Knudsen number classifies the modelling approach and Reynolds number – flow regime. The Knudsen number and Reynolds number were calculated for the Carboniferous sandstone sample, cored at 3154 m depth and with total porosity obtained from micro-CT equal to 12.6%.
PL
W pracy zostały omówione parametry kryterialne oraz sposoby ich wyznaczania w celu poprawnego modelowania zjawiska przepływu płynu przez ośrodki porowate z zastosowaniem komputerowej mechaniki płynów. Poprawny dobór poszczególnych równań i modeli podczas komputerowej symulacji przepływu płynu wymaga obliczenia kryterialnych parametrów, jakimi są liczba Knudsena i liczba Reynoldsa. Wartości liczb kryterialnych determinują możliwe do zastosowania podejście w modelowaniu przepływów oraz określają zakres charakteru przepływu, jaki występuje w analizowanym przypadku. W pracy przedstawione zostały wyniki obliczeń parametrów kryterialnych dla piaskowca karbońskiego.
EN
The study presents the manners of determination of the Darcy friction factor λ for a homogenous hydromixture of alum sludge of varied hydration and temperature for the laminar flow zone. The rheological evaluation of the hydromixture as a viscoplastic body has been conducted with use of measurements of viscosity. The curves of flow were approximated with use of the generalized Vočadlo model. The Darcy friction factor λ of the pipeline was determined with use of the non-dimensional criterion λ(Regen) and λ(Re, He).
PL
Praca przedstawia sposoby określenia współczynnika oporów rurociągu λ, dla jednorodnej hydromieszaniny osadów pokoagulacyjnych o różnym uwodnieniu i różnej temperaturze, dla laminarnej strefy przepływu. Ocenę reologiczną hydromieszaniny, jako ciała plastyczno-lepkiego, wykonano na podstawie pomiarów wiskozymetrycznych, przy zastosowaniu do aproksymacji krzywych płynięcia uogólnionego modelu Vočadli. Określenie współczynnika oporu rurociągu λ przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem bezwymiarowego kryterium λ(Regen) oraz λ(Re, He).
EN
Purpose: Abnormalities in blood vessels by virtue of complex blood flow dynamics is being supported by non-Newtonian behavior of blood. Thus it becomes a focus of research to most of the researchers. Additionally, consideration of real life patient specific model of vessel as well as patient specific inlet flow boundary condition implementation was limited in literature. Thus a thorough implementation of these considerations was done here.Method: In this work, a numerical investigation of hemodynamic flow in stenosed artery has been carried out with realistic pulsating profile at the inlet. Flow has been considered to be laminar due to arresting condition of cardiovascular state of the subject. Two non-Newtonian rheological models namely, Power Law viscosity model and Quemada viscosity model have been used. Two different patient-specific pulsatile profiles are considered at the inlet of a long stenosed artery with varying degree of stenoses from 25% to 80%. Results: Transient form of Navier-Stokes equation is solved in an axi-symmetric domain to calculate the detailed flow structure of the flow field. From the simulation data, temporal and time averaged wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index and pressure drop are calculated. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that oscillatory shear index and wall shear stresses areextensively governed by the degree of stenoses. The position and movement of recirculation bubbles are found to vary with flow Reynolds number.
EN
The two-dimensional Burgers' equation is a mathematical model which is used to describe various kinds of phenomena such as turbulence and viscous fluid. In this paper, Crank-Nicolson semi-implicit scheme is used to handle such problem. The proposed scheme forms a system of linear algebraic difference equations to be solved at each time-step. The linear system is solved by direct method. Numerical results are compared with those of exact solutions and other available results. The present method performs well. To our best knowledge no one has solved Burgers' equations using this scheme. The proposed scheme can be extended for solving non-linear problems arising in various branches of engineering and science.
20
Content available remote Properties of homogeneous flow of hydraulic fluid retaining gap
EN
This paper presents the laminar flow of homogeneous liquids in crevices of smooth hydraulic resistance. The paper presents a theoretical model for the distribution of pressure in the gap and the flow rate through the slot hydraulic. The presented theoretical models for the distribution of pressure and flow in the gap on conventional hydraulic resistance of hydraulic joints, whose shape is related to the errors of their execution. In deriving the theoretical models, by introducing a variable height of the gap in the initial episode, was founded stream velocity profile variability in the hydraulic fluid retaining gap and zero values of local losses at the entrance to the slot. An analysis of the validity of the simplifications adopted in the given formulas for the distribution of pressure and flow in the hydraulic gap and on the basis provides guidelines for estimating the energy losses that occur cracks in the hydraulic resistance.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia przepływu laminarnych cieczy jednorodnych w gładkich hydraulicznych szczelinach oporowych. Przedstawiono wzory teoretyczne na rozkład ciśnień w obszarze szczeliny oraz natężenia przepływu przez szczelinę hydrauliczną. Przedstawione wzory teoretyczne na rozkład ciśnień i natężenia przepływu w szczelinie hydraulicznej dotyczą typowych hydraulicznych szczelin oporowych, których kształt związany jest z błędami ich wykonania. Przy wyprowadzaniu wzorów teoretycznych, przez wprowadzenie zmiennej wysokości szczeliny we wstępnym jej odcinku, założono zmienność profilu prędkości strugi cieczy w hydraulicznej szczelinie oporowej oraz zerowe wartości strat lokalnych na wejściu do szczeliny. Dokonano analizy zasadności przyjętych uproszczeń w podanych wzorach na rozkład ciśnień i natężenia przepływu w szczelinie hydraulicznej i na jej podstawie przedstawiono wytyczne dotyczące szacowania strat energetycznych jakie mają miejsce w hydraulicznych szczelinach oporowych.
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