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EN
Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)) is an invasive species in the Oder River. In this study, age of 147 fish was determined using scales and otoliths, and the Fraser-Lee back-calculation method was used for population structure and theoretical length growth rates with 3 mathematical models of growth: von Bertalanffy, Ford–Walford and 2nd degree polynomial. Fish condition was determined using Fulton, Le Cren and Clark equations. Average total length and weight of fish was 162.00 mm and 83.00 g, respectively. Males were more abundant than females, representing 70% of the fish caught, and achieved greater total lengths and weights. Age 2+ dominated females and 3+ males age groups. Of the three mathematical models used to estimate fish growth, the 2nd degree polynomial model had the best fit to back-calculated lengths. Males had slightly higher growth rates than females in the first two years of life but comparable in subsequent years. The diet consisted of various benthic organisms that varied with fish age. The most frequently occurring food component was Dreissena polymorpha, which accounted for approximately 70% in the diet of fish with a body length greater than 191 mm.
EN
The seasonality and catching of smelt in the Pomeranian Bay were analyzed. The growth rate of this species was analyzed based on the readings of the otoliths from 230 fishes caught during the monitoring catches. The average total length and standard length as well as the weight of smelt were respectively 141.76 mm (±25.18), 120.54 mm (±21.73) and 16.41g (±11.25). Between males and females the small, statistically insignificant differences were noted. Due to the linear correlation between R and TL, the back readings were made in the variant of Rosa–Lee. The obtained empirical datas were used to theoretically increase the length by model: von Bertalanffy, Ford–Walford, polynomial of the 2nd degree and modified power function. Among the mathematical models used in the paper, the growth of the fish most suited to back readings turned out to be a modified power function. The relation between the total lengths and the weights of the smelts from the waters of the Pomeranian Bay is described by the equation for the whole material: y = 0.0015x3.4633.
PL
Przeanalizowano sezonowość i współczesne połowy stynki w Zatoce Pomorskiej. Na tym tle, na podstawie odczytów na otolitach 230 stynek złowionych w czasie połowów monitoringowych, przeanalizowano tempo wzrostu tego gatunku. Średnia długość całkowita i długość ciała oraz masa jednostkowa złowionych stynek wyniosła odpowiednio 141,76 mm (±25,18), 120,54 mm (±21,73) oraz 16,41 g (±11,25). Zanotowano niewielkie, nieistotne statystycznie różnice między samcami a samicami. Z uwagi na prostoliniową zależność między promieniem łuski (R) i całkowitą długością ciała (TL) odczyty wsteczne wykonano w wariancie Rosy–Lee. Uzyskane dane empiryczne wykorzystano do obliczenia teoretycznego wzrostu długości stynki z użyciem matematycznych modeli wzrostu: von Bertalanffy’ego, Forda–Walforda, wielomianu 2. stopnia i zmodyfikowanej funkcji potęgowej. Spośród zastosowanych modeli wzrostu ryb najbardziej dopasowanym do odczytów wstecznych okazała się zmodyfikowana funkcja potęgowa. Zależność między długością całkowitą a masą jednostkową stynki z wód Zatoki Pomorskiej opisuje równanie dla całego materiału: y = 0,0015x3,4633.
EN
The paper describes new directions in which the safety of navigation in Pomeranian Bay (Poland) became into a new era since the LNG Terminal in port of Świnoujście begun to attend to a large gas tankers at around 320 meters length, 50 meters breadth, and draught of 12.5 meters. For the safety of naviga-tion in Pomeranian Bay, the Maritime Administration has modified the traffic regulations, directing the ship's traffic to the zones outside the main approaching channel. For some of the ships navigating in to Świnoujście the new regulations mean the necessity of passing the shallow waters, with all consequences of that. The most important effect, being predominating in shallow waters, it is the squat effect. This effect is causing the ship's speed reduction and the increase of fuel consumption. It is very difficult to select the influence of the squat effect from others, like weather conditions, waves high and direction, and sea keeping qualities for ships of different type. This paper is giving the contribution to deep analysis of the above, and is presenting the test results done for passenger/cargo Ferries, travelling as per regular service to the port of Świnoujście: M/F "Gryf" and M/F "Wolin".
EN
Etmopterus spinax is a deep-sea shark species that inhabits the northeast Atlantic and the western Mediterranean Sea. Skagerrak and Kattegat are reported to be part of the distribution of the species, but it has never been noted in the southern Baltic. Lacking any commercial value and commonly discarded in trawl and longline fisheries, E. spinax has been poorly studied. We reported on the first record of one specimen of E. spinax caught in the Pomeranian Bay on October 13, 2016 at a depth of 10 m. It was a female measuring 42.7 cm in total length. The morphological examination of the specimen was supported with COI barcode analysis, whereas species assignment to the population of origin was conducted based on a control region (CR) sequence of mtDNA. COI and CR sequence searches against GeneBank confirmed its identity as E. spinax and revealed that the specimen shared identical haplotypes with fish from populations in the Azores, Rockall Trough, and west of Ireland in the northeast Atlantic. The stomach contents, parasitic fauna, and hepatosomatic index of the individual were also examined. Only one L3 larval Anisakis simplex nematode specimen was collected from the stomach lumen of the shark. The specimen could have arrived in the Pomeranian Bay along with an inflow from the North Sea. In December 2014, a strong Major Baltic Inflow brought large amounts of water into the Baltic Sea, followed by some inflows of moderate intensity.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono jednoczynnikową analizę wariancji prędkości statków na Zatoce Pomorskiej w kolejnych tygodniach stycznia i lutego 2017 roku. Zweryfikowano hipotezę o równości przeciętnych prędkości statków w poszczególnych tygodniach, sprawdzając najpierw założenia niezbędne do przeprowadzenia testu ANOVA. Do sprawdzenia normalności rozkładów wykorzystano testy Cramera von Misesa i Andersona-Darlinga, a do oceny jednorodności wariancji posłużył test Lavene’a.
EN
In this paper one-factor, fixed-effects completely randomized design of analysis of variance for vessel speed on the Pomeranian Bay has been presented. The hypothesis on the equality of the vessel speed means in nine weeks in January and February 2017 has been verified. To verify normality of distributions tests Cramer von Mises and Anderson-Darling have been used. To assess the equality of variances Levene’s test has been used.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine the biological characters typical of Neomysis integer, to investigate and update issues of its biology, ecology, and distribution in the southwestern Baltic Sea, and to compare biological properties of N. integer collected during eight study seasons in 2006–2007 in the region from Świnoujście to Darłowo. No link was established between N. integer size and sample collection site. The population attained sizes within the range of 2.64 to 18.84 mm. The size at which females achieved sexual maturity varied seasonally. A mean of 34 eggs was noted in the marsupium. The mean wet weight of N. integer was 0.011 g. Three generations were confirmed at most of the study sites.
EN
This paper presents the results of a detailed comparative description of the morphological characters of N. integer obtained during eight research seasons in 2006–2007 period from the region stretching from Świnoujście to Darłowo. An attempt was made to assess the suitability of the studied characters for establishing to which populations individuals belong, to identify secondary sex traits and to detect differences in the body shape of these shrimp-like crustaceans. Most of the measurable characters in all of the samples discrimination analysis indicated the characters which differentiated the compared groups were telson length, lower abdomen width, exopodite uropod length, cephalothorax width below the carapace, cephalothorax width above the carapace and the height of fourth and fifth abdominal segment connections.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono sukcesję sezonową mezozooplanktonu w wodach Zatoki Pomorskiej. Badania prowadzono wzdłuż wybrzeża od Świnoujścia do Mrzeżyna w latach 2001–2003 w poszczególnych porach roku. Sezonowe i ilościowe zróżnicowanie zooplanktonu przedstawiono również za pomocą wskaźników biocenotycznych. Wykazano, że największym zagęszczeniem zooplanktonu charakteryzowały się wody wysłodzone w rejonie Świnoujścia i Dziwnowa.
EN
The paper presents seasonal succession of mezozooplankton in the waters of Pomeranian Bay. The research was carried out along the sea-shore from Świnoujście to Mrzeżyna in the years of 2001–2003 in particular seasons of the year. Seasonal and quantitative diversification o zooplankton was also depicted by means of biocenotic indices. It has been proven that the fresh waters in the area of Świnoujście and Dzwinowo were characterized by the highest concentration of zooplankton.
PL
W roku 2008 prowadzono obserwacje nad zgrupowaniami organizmów poroślowych Zatoki Pomorskiej. Wyznaczono stanowiska w Międzyzdrojach, Niechorzu oraz Kołobrzegu. Próbki organizmów pobierano z filarów molo, ostróg oraz gwiazdobloków z falochronów w każdej miejscowości. Materiał biologiczny pobrano wiosną (11 maja 2008), latem (27 lipca 2008) oraz wczesną jesienią (14 września 2008). Dokonano analizy jakościowej i ilościowej zebranych organizmów bezkręgowych.
EN
In 2008, observations carried out on groups of biofauling organisms Pomeranian Bay. Appointed position in Międzyzdroje, Kołobrzeg and Niechorze. Samples of organisms were collected from the pillars of the pier, wooden spurs and conctrte starblocks as part of the breakwaters in each village. The biological material has been collected in the spring (11 May 2008), summer (July 27, 2008) and early autumn (September 14, 2008). There have been qualitative and quantitative analysis of any invertebrate organisms collected.
PL
Badania temperatury i zasolenia wód Zatoki Pomorskiej prowadzono na dwunastu stacjach, rozmieszczonych w strefie brzegowej od Świnoujścia do Darłówka od wiosny do jesieni w 2006 i 2007 r. Wahania badanych parametrów w strefie przyujściowej Zatoki Pomorskiej były niewielkie. Najniższe temperatury wody (w zakresie od 4.5 do 8.5°C) odnotowano w październiku 2006 r., natomiast najwyższe - w czerwcu 2007 r. (17.0-20, 1°C). Zasolenie wód było niskie - w granicach od 1.2 do 2.9 PSU.
EN
The examination of the temperature and the salinity of the waters of Pomerania Bay was carried out in twelve stations, located in the coastal zone from spring until autumn 2006 and 2007. The fluctuations of parameters in the estuarine zone of Pomeranian Bay were insignificant. The lowest temperatures of water (in the range of 4.5-8.5°C) were observed in October 2006, while the highest temperatures were observed in June 2007 (17.0 - 20.1°C). The salinity of waters was low - within 1.2 to 2.9 PSU.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono inicjatywy ekologiczne dotyczące wykorzystania sztucznych podłoży w środowisku strefy przybrzeżnej Zatoki Pomorskiej (południowy Bałtyk) na przykładzie sztucznych raf. Pierwsza z nich została zrealizowana w 1990 r. i miała na celu rewitalizację środowiska morskiego w Południowym Bałtyku, natomiast druga została wstrzymana w fazie projektowej i w głównej mierze miała służyć zwiększeniu bioróżnorodności hydrobiontów oraz stworzeniu miejsc tarliskowych dla ryb. W 1990 r. sztuczne podłoże okazało się doskonałym siedliskiem dla zespołu omułka Mytilusedulis, w rejonie sztucznej rafy stwierdzono również duże koncentracje ryb i ich larw. W pracy zawarto również problemy związane z przygotowaniem i wypełnieniem wymaganych procedur zarówno w fazie przygotowania i realizacji tego typu projektów.
EN
Ecological initiatives concerning the use of artificial surfaces placed in the littoral zone of the PomeranianBay (southern Baltic) as exemplified by construction of artificial reefs are presented. First was realized in 1990 and aimed at revitalization of the Baltic environment: the other one is in a project phase, referring chiefly to an increase of aquatic species diversity and the creation of spawning grounds for fish. In 1990 such artificial substratum showed that it is an excellent habitat for Myiilusedulis, huge concentration of fishes and its larvae were noted as well. Problems connected with the preparation and fulfilment of required procedures, both in the preparatory phase and during realization of these types of projects, are also discussed.
12
Content available remote Incidents Analysis on the Basis of Traffic Monitoring Data in Pomeranian Bay
EN
In this paper preliminary analysis of grounding incidents was presented for the future use in navigational safety management system development. The analysis is focused on the area of Pomeranian Bay. Grounding incidents model is created with use of AIS data. The distance of vessel from the dangerous depth and draught/depth ratio was considered as the main factors of navigational incident in presented model.
EN
The first occurrence of striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus in the Pomeranian Bay (in 2007) and the occurrence of three very rarely noted species (tub gurnard Chelidonichthys lucerna, Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus, thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus) collected in 2007-2008 in the Pomeranian Bay, Szczecin Lagoon and Lake Dąbie are reported. Their expansion is probably due to increased sea temperatures resulting from climate change, as well as the inflow of saline water. The "visitors" hosted eight pathogens from four taxonomic groups: Protozoa, Nematoda, Acanthocephala and Mollusca. Nematodes, the most numerous ones, were found in three host species. All the parasite species were new for the hosts examined; only the larvae of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum had already been recorded in one of the hosts (Chelidonichthys lucerna). The stomachs of almost all the fish examined were empty, but the species composition of the parasite fauna found showed that the fish must have ingested some food in the Pomeranian Bay.
14
Content available remote Holocene evolution of the Pomeranian Bay environment, southern Baltic Sea
EN
This article focuses on the diatom assemblages and geochemical composition of sediment cores retrieved from the Pomeranian Bay. We also discuss similarities and differences in the diatom assemblages and the palaeogeographic development of nearby regions. Our main objective was to determine the characteristics and rate of the Littorina transgression in the Pomeranian Bay area. Sediments were divided into units based on differences in the distribution of diatom ecological groups and in geochemical ratios, such as Mg/Ca, Na/K and Fe/Mn. This study identified lacustrine sediments deposited during the time of the Ancylus Lake. This lacustrine-period sedimentation took place in a shallow lake under aerobic conditions. The record of the onset of marine environment dates to 8900-8300 cal BP and corresponds to the Littorina transgression. After about 8300 cal BP, sedimentation took place in a deeper marine environment with higher biogenic production and anaerobic conditions. The abrupt appearance of marine diatom species and increased geochemical salinity indicators reflect the large impact of the Littorina transgression on the Pomeranian Bay environment.
EN
In recent years, a team at the Geology and Paleogeography Unit, Marine Sciences Institute, University of Szczecin, has been performing geological, geochronological and paleogeographic surveys in (i) the Szczecin Lagoon and Świna Gate Sandbar and (ii) the estuary section of the Rega river valley near Mrzeżyno. These studies have helped to examine and identify not only the distribution of fossil marine sediments but also their lithological and sedimentological characteristics. The age of marine ingressions and regressions in the coastal zone of the Pomeranian Bay were determined using approximately 170 radiocarbon assays. It was found that the marine ingression associated with the 'Littorina transgression' was not synchronous at these two areas. It started earlier in the Mrzeżyno area, ca. 8300-8200 cal BP. In that first phase, marine sediments developed as tightly packed sands containing a few fragments of shells. In several profiles, these deposits were separated from the bottom and top with layers of peat, thus allowing an indirect determination of their age. The next phase of ingression began about 7300 cal BP. These younger marine sediments already contained quite numerous shells of marine malacofauna, especially Cardium glaucum, often found in a life position. In the area of the Szczecin Lagoon and Swina Gate Sandbar, the oldest marine ingression started as early as about 7350 cal BP. The quite clear trace is a considerably thicker series of marine sands with numerous sea shells representing marine and brackish-marine environments, including Cardium glaucum shells in a life position, which made it possible to identify the age and the rate of accumulation of marine sands.
EN
This article presents results of the analysis of 3 sediment cores taken from the bottom of Pomeranian Bay, southern Baltic Sea. These results are part of a larger project that aims to determine the characteristics and rate of the Atlantic marine ingression in the Pomeranian Bay area. The main geochemical elements and diatom assemblages from the cores were identified, revealing lacustrine sediments deposited during the time of Ancylus Lake and marine sediments deposited during the Littorina transgression. Distinct changes in the geochemical composition and diatom assemblages suggest that the Littorina transgression had a very large impact on the environment of Pomeranian Bay.
EN
The aim of this study was to show the influence of environmental conditions on the ionic composition of fish bones. The analysis concerned the ionic structural composition of the operculum in fish species with different abiotic habitat preferences. Three species of fish were examined: cod, Gadus morhua L., 1758; sea trout, Salmo trutta morpha trutta L., 1758 and perch, Perca fluviatilis L., 1758. Results from hydrochemical research on salinity in the Pomeranian Bay (Southern Baltic) were also utilized. Using the determined ratios (Ca:Mg, Na:Mg, Sr:Ca and Na:Ca in the operculum and Ca:Mg, Na:Mg and Na:Ca in the waters of the Pomeranian Bay), typical correlations were determined for the analyzed habitat. Macrocation structure in the operculum bones for each species were found to be as follows: - cod: Ca – 32.3%, Mg – 29.8%, Na – 1.4%, K – 0.8%, Sr – 2.1%; - sea trout: Ca – 22.8%, Mg – 13.5%, Na – 0.8%, K – 0.2%, Sr – 1.7%; - perch, Ca – 37.9%, Mg – 15.1%, Na – 2.4%, K – 0.7%, Sr – 1.6%.
EN
Langmuir and Langelier calcite saturation indexes were calculated for water in the vicinity of the Świna Channel in the Pomeranian Bay. Measurements carried out in April-October of 1994 and 2004 indicated that CaCO3 concentrations nearly reached the saturation level, though in spring and fall the water showed slight calcite unsaturation while in summer it was oversaturated with calcite. The observed saturation levels were related with the shifts in the equilibrium between assimilation and dissimilation processes in the Pomeranian Bay ecosystem.
EN
This investigation of Pomeranian Bay waters was conducted from March 2001 to August of 2003 from aboard the r/v Nawigator XXI, which is owned by the Maritime Academy in Szczecin. A total of 147 water samples were collected at 15 stations on three transects in the Pomeranian Bay from Świnoujście, Międzyzdroje, and Dziwnów to the Odra Bank. Zooplankton was sampled with a Bongo type planktonometer O = 20 cm with a mesh size of 80 žm during 10 min. filtering hauls in the pelagic zone from the bottom to the surface at an average vessel speed of 3 - 4 knots. The method developed and published by Orłowski was used to transform the large amount of seasonal data for the entire study period into isoline illustrations of the spatial structures in the Pomeranian Bay of mesozooplankton and selected species, namely Acartia bifilosa, Acartia longiremis, Pseudocalanus elongatus, and Temora longicornis. The average mesozooplankton aggregations in ten consecutive seasons at the 15 stations investigated from 2001 to 2003 in the entire Odra estuary area fluctuated from 2,442 to 92,200 ind. m-3. The highest species variety was noted among marine Copepoda, which was the dominant group in virtually every season investigated. Their maximum abundance reached as much as 213,493 ind. m-3. The euryhaline species A. bifilosa occurred throughout the research period and at all stations at an abundance that reached 210,443 ind. m-3. The seasonal succession series were as follows: in spring, the dominants were Acartia spp. and Evadne nordmanni; in summer - Keratella cochlearis, Bosmina coregoni maritima, and A. bifilosa; in fall – T. longicornis and Acartia spp.; in winter – T. longicornis and Centropages hamatus.
PL
W dniach 3-8 września 2001 r. odbył się rejs, podczas którego wykonywano pomiary temperatury powietrza i wody w wybranych obszarach Zatoki Pomorskiej, Zatoki Greifswaldzkiej, Cieśniny Piany i Zalewu Szczecińskiego. Na podstawie zebranych danych dokonano wstępnej analizy wyników w postaci obliczenia różnicy temperatur między powietrzem i woda. Dane te są częścią pracy, która ma na celu przeanalizowanie zjawiska wymiany ciepła na granicy woda-powietrze na wymienionym obszarze.
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