The article presents the qualitative assessment of the Oder Waterway (Odrzańska Droga Wodna; ODW) based on the Polish classification of inland waterways. Taking into account basic parameters of ships and convoys capable of navigating on the Oder, the river is classified in most sections as a waterway of regional importance (Class II and III). Considering the existing differences of development and operating parameters of the Oder Waterway, its navigational sections have been distinguished and presented in detail in respect of their adaptation for the purposes of inland water transport. The section of the free flowing Oder from the lock in Brzeg Dolny (281.6 km) to the estuary of the Lusatian Neisse (542.4 km) has the lowest transit depths, and the most difficult section to navigate is the section directly below the barrage in Brzeg Dolny, where – due to the progressive erosion of the river bed – the depths are lower than 1.0 m for the majority of the navigation season. The dilapidation of structures built on the Oder causes the operating parameters to lower and consequently the level or the transport use of the Oder. Should one want to take advantage of certain features of inland navigation, such as safety, low energy consumption and high dead-weight tonnage of vessels to create multimodal transport chains, including intermodal and combined chains along the Oder Transport Corridor, until the operating parameters of the waterway are improved, one has to use the means of road and rail transport which would take cargo from vessels on those sections where free inland were not possible.