The combined stochastic-deterministic approach, which may be applied to the numerical analysis of a wide range of scalar elliptic problems of civil engineering, is presented in this paper. It is based on the well-known Monte Carlo concept with a random walk procedure, in which series of random paths are constructed. Additionally, it incorporates selected features of the meshless finite difference method, especially star selection criteria and a local weighted function approximation. The approach leads to the explicit stochastic formula relating one unknown function value with all a-priori known data parameters. Therefore, it allows for a fast and effective estimation of the solution value at the selected point(s), without the necessity of generation of large systems of equations, combining all unknown values. In such a manner, the proposed approach develops and extends the original standard Monte Carlo one toward analysis of boundary value problems with more complex shape geometry, natural boundary conditions, non-homogeneous right-hand sides as well as anisotropic and non-linear material models. The paper is illustrated with numerical results of selected elliptic problems, including a torsion problem of a prismatic bar, a stationary heat flow analysis with anisotropic and non-linear material functions, as well as an inverse heat problem. Moreover, the appropriate coupling with other deterministic methods (e.g., the finite element method) is considered.