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EN
In the Gałęzice-Bolechowice-Borków region, located in the Holy Cross Mountains, several limestone and dolomite quarries are currently in operation. Deep drainage of these quarries caused the formation of a large regional depression cone that affected numerous groundwater intakes, including those supplying potable water for communes, and a large intake in the Dyminy quarter of Kielce. The range of the depression cone will increase in the future, both vertically and laterally, due to expanding extraction of industrial stones from continuously deepened mining levels. Prognoses of further changes of hydrologic conditions in the region and their impact on admissible volumes of groundwater resources available in particular intakes are calculated using the stationary mathematical model.
2
Content available remote Rzeźba strukturalna obszaru Świętokrzyskiego Parku Narodowego
EN
The area of the Świętokrzyski National Park is one of the most evident examples of structural morphology in Poland. Its relief is clearly determined by bedrock lithology: the hill ranges are composed of hard quartzitic sandstones of the upper Cambrian (Łysogóry Range) and the Lower Devonian (Klonowskie Range), while the depressions, usually vast and flat-bottomed, are distributed on outcrops of soft, easily weathered and eroded Ordovician and Silurian shales, greywackes and sandstones. The parallel pattern of hill ranges and depressions, as well as a mesh-grid pattern of river valley systems and the antecedent character of river gaps, reflects fold tectonics modified by transverse faults. Such a morphology developed during the Paleogene and Neogene under hot and then warm, gradually cooling climatic conditions. In the Pleistocene, principally under the periglacial conditions, block fields (symbols of the Świętokrzyski NP) and crags (crests, table-like forms, cupolas and spurs) were formed. The shape and spatial position of most crags are related to geological structures.
EN
The objective of this paper is a review of data on reconstruction of the Pleistocene palaeogeography (environment) and stratigraphy based on studies of karst sites in the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains. Although the number of known Pleistocene karst sites in this region is small, the investigations of them have played a crucial role in a research of the Pleistocene. The study of the Kozi Grzbiet site provided the first evidences for new climatostratigraphy and classification of glaciations in Poland. The explanation of genesis of cryogenic calcite crystals discovered in Chelosiowa Jama-Jaskinia Jaworznicka cave system started a new direction of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of the last glacial period. Kadzielnia palaeontological site was one of the first Early Pleistocene fossil assemblages in karst studied in Poland, whereas Raj cave provided abundant palaeontological and archaeological material from the Last Glacial. Other sites are of less scientific importance, however some of them can be used in education and popularisation of geosciences. Small number of already studied sites does not exclude discoveries of next sites of high scientific importance.
EN
According to the current state of research five sand-gravel accumulation levels of Quaternary age are visible in the morphology of the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains, within the Wierna Rzeka, Hutka and Bobrza river valley systems and the lower stretches of the Biała Nida and Czarna Nida river valleys. Two upper levels (V and IV) correspond to valleys formed during the Odranian Glaciation-Saalian, MIS6 and its reccesional phases under the influence of proglacial and extraglacial waters beyond the extent (to the east) of the maximal ice-sheet limit of this glaciation, reaching to the present-day Leśnica-Gnieździska-Łopuszno line. Two lower levels (III and II) are terraces that were typically formed during the climatic conditions thatprevailed during Vistulian stadials. Sands and gravels of the three upper levels (V−III) contain numerous debris flow deposits and cryoturbation structures documenting periglacial conditions during their accumulation. The lowermost level (I) is a typical Holocene floodplain.
5
Content available remote Pleistocene deposits in the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains
EN
The paper presents characteristics of the Pleistocene sediments in the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains. They are subdivided into four complexes and their stratigraphic setting is referred to the updated scheme for the Pleistocene of Poland. The Preglacial Complex includes fluvial sediments characteristic for its lack of Scandinavian material. Sediments of three main glaciations (Nidanian, Sanian 1 and Sanian 2) within the South Polish Complex, are referred also as the South Polish Glaciations. The oldest of these glaciations (Nidanian) is separated from the middle glaciation (Sanian 1) by sediments of the Podlasian Interglacial, represented by clay at the Kozi Grzbiet Cave that contains faunal remains and record of the Brunhes/Matuyama palaeomagnetic boundary. During the middle (Sanian 1) and youngest glaciation (Sanian 2), the Holy Cross Mountains were almost completely covered by the Scandinavian ice sheet, forming glacial deposits separated by fluvial series of the Ferdynandovian Interglacial. The Middle Polish Complex begins with sediments of the Mazovian Interglacial, represented by a pollen record from the Zakrucze site. They are followed by deposits of periglacial and fluvial origin of the Liwiecian Glaciation, Zbójnian Interglacial, Krznanian Glaciation and Lublinian Interglacial. The following glaciation (Odranian) is represented by the youngest glacial deposits that document presence of the Scandinavian ice-sheet in the westernmost part of the Holy Cross Mountains. The North Polish Complex is composed of a climatic warming (Eemian Interglacial) and cooling (Vistulian Glaciation), and is represented by valley and periglacial deposits. The last cooling of the Pleistocene is recorded in faunal remains in the Raj Cave.
EN
Vertebrate remains, mostly cryptodiran turtle shellfragments, pliosaur skull bones and teeth, plesiosaur vertebrae and crocodylomorph isolated teeth and skull fragments are described from the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) limestone beds of Krzyżanowice in the NE margin of the Holy Cross Mountains in Poland. The vertebrate fossils were collected during the palaeontological excavations conducted in 2018 and 2019 by the authors, and in the 1960s by a scientific team from the Museum of the Earth and the Institute of Paleobiology Polish Academy of Sciences. All osteological remains are generally very well preserved. This interesting vertebrate bones association from the upper part of the Kimmeridgian represents fossils of animals from two different types of environment. The first contains costal reptiles, like turtles and crocodylomorphs, the second one contains large pelagic animals - pliosaurids and plesiosaurids. This new vertebrate fauna from Poland has been correlated with age-equivalents from other regions of Europe and both Boreal/Subboreal and Mediterranean palaeobiogeographical realms.
EN
The aim of this study was to reconstruct the location mechanism of a Triassic sandstone wedge within folded Palaeozoic rocks. A vertically oriented Buntsandstein succession (Lower Triassic) from Józefka Quarry (Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland), steeply wedged within folded Devonian carbonates, is recognised as an effect of normal faulting within a releasing stepover. The sandstone succession, corresponding to the Zagnańsk Formation in the local lithostratigraphic scheme, is represented by two complexes, interpreted as deposits of a sand-dominated alluvial plain (older complex), and coarse-grained sands and gravels of a braided river system (younger complex). The sandstone complex was primarily formed as the lowermost part of the several kilometres thick Mesozoic cover of the Holy Cross Mountains Fold Belt (HCFB), later eroded as a result of the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene uplift of the area. Tectonic analysis of the present-day position of the deformed sandstone succession shows that it is fault-bounded by a system of strike-slip and normal faults, which we interpret as a releasing stepover. Accordingly, the formation of the stepover in the central part of the late Palaeozoic HCFB is evidence of a significant role of strike-slip faulting within this tectonic unit during Late Cretaceous/Paleogene times. The faulting was probably triggered by reactivation of the terminal Palaeozoic strike-slip fault pattern along the western border of the Teisseyre–Tornquist Zone.
EN
Results of palynological studies of the Lower Devonian siliciclastic deposits of the Barcza Beds (Upper Pragian-Lower Emsian) from two abandoned quarries at Barcza in the Holy Cross Mts. is presented. Based on miospores, the biostratigraphic position of the tuffite horizon from the Barcza profile was defined as the early Emsian AB (annulatus-bellatulus) palynological Zone.
EN
Amongst the materials collected from the Cambrian outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains by priest professor Włodzimierz Sedlak, there is a holotype and only specimen of Helcionella polonica, as well as a rock fragment with casts of medusoids on its surface. We decided to revise these materials for their importance to discussions on the early molluscs’ size and the medusae fossil record; as well as for the critical nature of previously published revisions of taxa erected by Sedlak.
PL
Nieczynny kamieniołom dolomitów Zachełmie, położony w miejscowości Zagnańsk, 12 km na północ od Kielc, jest wyjątkowym miejscem na mapie geologicznej Gór Świętokrzyskich. Zobaczyć tu można skały powstałe w dwu etapach rozwoju geologicznego Ziemi. Etap starszy reprezentują szare dolomity i iłowce dolomityczne środkowego dewonu, nachylone stromo ku północy. Zostały one sfałdowane w karbonie i permie, podczas orogenezy waryscyjskiej. Etap młodszy obejmuje zróżnicowane utwory permu (?) i dolnego triasu, nachylone ku wschodowi pod kątem około 10°. Zostały one zaburzone w paleogenie, podczas ruchów tektonicznych orogenezy alpejskiej. W północnych ścianach kamieniołomu dobrze widoczny jest kontakt obu tych kompleksów skalnych, rozdzielonych powierzchnią niezgodności tektoniczno-erozyjnej, która dokumentuje waryscyjskie ruchy orogeniczne, a kontaktujące ze sobą skały dzieli luka czasowa, obejmująca około 140 mln lat. Dolomity powstały w środowiskach lagun i płytkiego szelfu powolnie pogłębiającego się morza. Można w nich zaobserwować skamieniałości typowe dla tych środowisk dewońskich, m.in. stromatolity, amfipory, muszle ramienionogów i skamieniałości śladowe. W południowej ścianie kamieniołomu można zobaczyć unikalną powierzchnię z licznymi strukturami uznanymi za najstarsze na świecie ślady lądowych kręgowców – tetrapodów. Ponadto, w dolomitach w północno-wschodniej części kamieniołomu, można znaleźć takie minerały jak kalcyt, hematyt, dolomit, syderyt, ankeryt, kwarc i baryt. Powstały one w spękaniach utworzonych podczas waryscyjskich ruchów górotwórczych. Utwory permskie (?) i triasowe, o brunatno czerwonej barwie, odsłonięte w północnych ścianach wyrobiska, stanowią wypełnienie wąskiej, kopalnej doliny (wąwozu), wyrzeźbionej w powierzchni stropowej dolomitów. Ich profil rozpoczynają brekcje i zlepieńce złożone głównie z okruchów skał dewońskich, zachowane w zagłębieniach na dnie kopalnego wąwozu, a w części będące osadem pokryw stokowych na jego zboczach. Brekcje i zlepieńce leżące wyżej są osadem gwałtownych spływów gruzowych, które ku górze profilu są całkowicie zastąpione przez piaskowcowo-mułowcowe osady leniwego strumienia. W okresach zaniku przepływu w jego korycie powstawały wysychające jeziorka, wypełniane iłami. W osadach tej części profilu widoczne są drobne struktury prądowe, rzadziej spotyka się szczątki roślinne i szczeliny z wysychania. Odkryto tu najstarsze tropy pozostawione przez dinozaura. Najwyższą część odsłoniętego profilu tworzą szare, gruboławicowe piaskowce, powstałe w kanałach rzek roztokowych. Ze względu na wyjątkowe walory geologiczne wschodnią część kamieniołomu i przewężenie w części środkowej objęto ochroną, tworząc tam rezerwat przyrody nieożywionej. Fragment północnej ściany tego przewężenia, z powierzchnią niezgodności tektoniczno-erozyjnej, stanowi pomnik przyrody. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na wyżej wymienione walory geologiczne kamieniołomu oraz zaproponowanie działań zwiększających atrakcyjność już istniejącej infrastruktury geoturystycznej, w postaci umieszczania dodatkowych tablic informacyjnych z opisami zjawisk i procesów geologicznych.
EN
The Abandoned Zachełmie quarry, a unique place on the geological map of the Holy Cross Mountains, is located in Zagnańsk, about 12 km northwards from Kielce is. Deposits of two stages of geological development, separated by tectonic movements, are exposed in the section. The older complex is represented by the Middle Devonian grey dolomites and dolomitic claystones, steep inclined to the north. They were folded in the Carboniferous and Permian by the Variscan tectonic movements. The younger complex comprises various Permian-Lower Triassic deposits, inclined about 10° eastwards. They were deformed during the Paleogene by Alpine tectonic movements. Contact of both complexes, well exposed in the northern walls of the quarry, suggests Variscan orogenic movements, while the tectonic-erosion gap, separating them, amounts to about 140 million years of development. Dolomites originated in the shelfal and lagoonal environments of the slowly deepening sea. Fossils typical for their Devonian environment may be found: stromatolites, amphipores, brachiopod shells and trace fossils. The unique surface with numerous structures interpreted as tetrapod trucks, the oldest in the world, is exposed in the southern wall of the quarry. Moreover, minerals occur in the north-eastern part of the quarry: calcite, hematite, dolomite, siderite, ankerite, quartz and barite. They originated in fissures cutting dolomites during the Variscan orogenic movements. The Permian (?) and Triassic, red-brown deposits crop out in the northern walls of the quarry. They represent infilling of a narrow palaeo-valley/ravine, cut in the surface of Devonian dolomites. Their section is commenced with dolomite breccia and conglomerates that fill cavities in an uneven surface of ravine basement. These conglomerates represent a debris cover lain on its sides. The breccia and conglomerates laying further above, originated as abrupt debris flow deposits. In the upper parts of the section, they were intercalated and eventually entirely substituted with sandstones and mudstones being deposits of fine creeks. Periods of the flow extinction are documented with clays deposited in temporal ponds. Fine current structures, scarce flora remains and desiccation cracks may be distinguished in that part of the section. The oldest trace fossils of dinosaurs were found here. The thick-bedded grey sandstones distinguished in the uppermost part of section were deposited in alluvial channels of braided rivers. The unique values of the object are protected in a natural reserve formed in the eastern part of the quarry and in the narrow passage in the central part. The fragment of the wall in the passage with exposition of a tectonic-erosion unconformity is a natural monument. Authors intend to present the unique geological values of the quarry and to suggest how to improve the actual geotouristic infrastructure  – location of several information boards with descriptions of geological phenomena and processes.
PL
Badania zawartości wybranych pierwiastków przenośnym spektrometrem XRF (p-XRF) są obecnie jedną z najbardziej rozwijających się instrumentalnych metod badawczych. Jego niewielkie rozmiary i waga, łatwość obsługi i szybkość wykonywania analiz umożliwiają zastosowanie spektrometru zarówno w laboratorium, jak i w pracach terenowych. Metodę wykorzystano do oznaczenia zawartości wybranych pierwiastków w glebach z rejonu góry Strużnej w Krajnie (Góry Świętokrzyskie). Do oznaczenia zawartości badanych pierwiastków zastosowano spektrometr OLYMPUS Delta X Premium (anoda tantalowa 4W, 40 kV, natężenie 200 μA, tryb ”soil”, 135 sekund). Przed rozpoczęciem analiz p-XRF był standaryzowany z użyciem materiałów referencyjnych NIST 2710a i NIST 2711a. Mapy zawartości otrzymanych dla: K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As i Pb wykonano w programie SURFER 7.0 z wykorzystaniem procedury krigingu. Zarówno dobra zbieżność średnich zawartości uzyskanych dla badanego obszaru w porównaniu ze średnimi wartościami dla gleb Gór Świętokrzyskich, uzyskanymi wcześniej przez różnych autorów z zastosowaniem standardowych wówczas metod analizy chemicznej, jak również dobra zgodność rozkładu zawartości badanych pierwiastków z budową geologiczną rejonu góry Strużnej pozwalają stwierdzić, że wybrana metoda fluorescencji rentgenowskiej jest odpowiednia dla tego typu badań. Wysoka dokładność uzyskanych oznaczeń z użyciem spektrometru p-XRF Olympus Delta X dowodzi, że urządzenie to jest efektywnym narzędziem zarówno dla prac środowiskowych, jak i geochemicznych.
EN
The analysis of chemical composition using the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (p-XRF) is recently rapidly developing instrumental research method. This method was applied to analyze the content of selected elements in soil samples from the Strużna region of the Holy Cross Mountains. The Olympus Delta Premium p-XRF spectrometer (4W Ta anode X ray tube, 40 kV, 200 μA current beam, “soil” mode, 135 seconds) was used. Prior to analyze the soil samples, the NIST 2710a and NIST 2711a reference standards were utilized in order to calibrate the p-XRF spectrometer. The maps showing obtained results of K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As and Pb were constructed using the SURFER 7.0 software with kriging procedure. The obtained results show arithmetic means similar to the previously obtained using traditional methods of chemical analysis for the soils of Holy Cross Mountains. These results combined with the high accuracy of measurements obtained by using the p-XRF Olympus Delta X spectrometer proved this device to be the effective tool for environmental and geochemical studies.
EN
A huge isolated accumulation, more than 3 m thick and 10 m wide, of densely packed, uncrushed brachiopods has been found in Józefka Quarry within the Middle/Upper Devonian Szydłówek Beds deposited in a relatively deep environment of an intrashelf basin (Kostomłoty facies zone, western Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). The low-diversity assemblage is strongly dominated by the atrypide Desquamatia globosa jozefkae Baliński subsp. nov. and, to a lesser degree, by the rhynchonellide Coeloterorhynchus dillanus (Schmidt, 1941), which constitute 72.8% and 22.1% of the fauna, respectively. Less frequent are specimens representing the genera Hypothyridina, Schizophoria and Phlogoiderynchus. According to the conodont fauna found within the coquina bed, the stratigraphic position of the shell accumulation is close to the Givetian/ Frasnian boundary. The brachiopods are associated with numerous crinoids and less frequent bryozoans, receptaculitids (Palaeozoic problematica), sponges and solitary corals. Although it is difficult to entirely exclude the autochthonous nature of the brachiopod coquina member, its allochthonous origin and redeposition of the brachiopod shells to the deep basin by gravity flows is much more probable. Such conclusion is supported by the following facts: (1) the position of the complex in a succession of deep-marine basinal facies impoverished in oxygen; (2) its lateral thinning-out and composite internal stratification; (3) the lensshaped geometry of the coquina bed in the section perpendicular to the bedding dip; (4) high variability of the sediments preserved within the shells; and (5) the preferred orientation of the shells. The brachiopods mixed with crinoidal debris were probably transported by low-velocity, high-density, gravity-induced debris flows. Lack of fossils typical of the Middle Devonian shallows, such as massive stromatoporoids, amphiporoids and tabulates, indicates that the source area of the bioclastic material was not located in the shallowest part of the shelf, but most probably on a submarine sea-mount to the north of present-day Józefka, as suggested by earlier investigators. The triggering mechanism of the allochthonous deposition was an earthquake rather than storm activity. The enormous thickness of the brachiopod complex is probably caused by the sinking of bioclastic material, transported in succeeding depositional multi-events, in a soft, muddy bottom, typical of the Szydłówek Beds deposition.
EN
A new species of heterobranch gastropods, the hammerhead Chelidonura radwanskii sp. nov., found in the socalled Pleurotoma-clays of middle Miocene (Langhian) age in the environs of Korytnica, southern Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, is described. It is the first fossil representative of Chelidonura A. Adams, 1850. This tiny gastropod is named in honour of the late Professor Andrzej Radwański.
EN
The southern slope of Łysica Mountain, which is the highest elevation of the Holy Cross Mountains, is comprised of three lithological complexes divided by parallel fault zones. The uppermost part of the succession consists of quartzitic sandstone of the Wiśniówka Formation. The formation is underlain by a complex of sandstone with mudstone interbeds, with black claystone underneath, which is exposed in the upper part of the Glęboczka ravine succession. The strata of the first and the third complexes dip northward, whereas those of the second complex dip southward. In the fault-bound zone between the second and the third complexes, there are concentrations of weathering iron ore. The black claystone, which is lithologically similar to this of the Pepper Mountains Formation, contains a taxonomically rich assemblage of organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) diagnostic of the Upper Cambrian (Lower Furongian) successions. The new record of microfossils allows determining the age of the succession composing the Łysogóry Mountains for the first time in the history of regional geological investigation.
15
Content available Zasługi Jana Samsonowicza dla polskiego górnictwa
PL
Omówiono badania geologiczne Jana Samsonowicza w Górach Świętokrzyskich i na Lubelszczyźnie prowadzące do odkryć złóż rud żelaza w Rudkach koło Nowej Słupii, fosforytów w rejonie Annopola-Rachowa oraz węgla kamiennego w Zagłębiu Lubelskim, których konsekwencją było uruchomienie eksploatacji tych surowców mineralnych i kopalin energetycznych; dwa pierwsze surowce były intensywnie eksploatowane od czasów międzywojennych do końca lat 60. ubiegłego wieku, a eksploatację węgla kamiennego na Lubelszczyźnie podjęto w latach 80.
EN
The author presents geological research of Jan Samsonowicz in Holy Cross Mts and in the Lublin area. This research has led to discovery of the deposit of iron ore in Rudki near Nowa Słupia, ore of phosphorites in Annopol-Rachów region and deposit of coal in the Lublin area. The results of these discovers were exploitations of those mineral deposits. The ores of iron and phosphorites were exploited from before World War II until the end of 60s while the exploitation of coal in the Lublin area begun in the 80s.
EN
Magnetostratigraphy of the Keuper succession in the southern Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains is presented based on investigations of two sections of Brzeziny and Wolica. They cut an ~60 m thick succession of variegated siltstones and claystones, which overlies the Reed Sandstone (Stuttgart Formation). The succession has been correlated with the Patoka Member of the Grabowa Formation, defined in the Upper Silesia region as an equivalent of the Steinmergelkeuper (Arnstadt Formation). The primary Late Triassic magnetization was obtained from component B carried by fine-grained haematite. Twelve magnetic polarity zones, six of normal and six of reversed polarity, have been defined. The obtained polarity pattern corresponds to the Norian (E13–E16 Newark zones) according to the Long-Rhaetian option of the Late Triassic Magnetic Polarity Time Scale. The mean normal polarity characteristic direction (N = 24, D/I = 31/62, k = 28.24, α95 = 6.04) differs significantly from the reversed one (N = 18, D/I = 223/-25, k = 16.38, α95 = 8.65): the primary magnetic signal is partly overlapped by component A carried by magnetite of recent viscuous remanent magnetization. Some samples do contain also coarse-grained haematite that, however, does not form any clustered magnetization. The palaeopole position calculated from the transposed reversed and normal polarity directions of component B corresponds to the Late Triassic (Norian) segment of the reference Baltica/Europe Apparent Polar Wander Path.
PL
W pracy przestawiono wyniki badań triasowych surowców ilastych Wierzbka I, będących częścią złoża Wierzbka z okolic Suchedniowa, do produkcji płytek klinkierowych metodą prasowania. W technologii produkcji płytek klinkierowych wykorzystuje się głównie surowce ilaste o zabarwieniu ceglastym, zawierające w swoim składzie Fe2O3, sprzyjający procesom spiekania i silnie wpływający na barwę otrzymanego tworzywa, charakterystycznego dla typowych tworzyw klinkierowych. Surowce stosowane w tej technologii powinny charakteryzować się dobrą spiekalnością, co gwarantuje uzyskanie tworzywa o niskiej nasiąkliwości, wysokiej odporności chemicznej i wytrzymałości mechanicznej. [...]
EN
The paper presents results of research on the assessment of the suitability of the Wierzbka I Triassic clay raw materials, which are part of the Wierzbka deposit near Suchedniów, for the production of clinker tiles obtained by pressing. Red colour clays are often used in the production technology of clinker tiles. The high content of Fe2O3 in the composition of red clays promotes the sintering process and affects the colour of the resulting material, a typical characteristic of clinker materials. The raw materials used in this technology should have good sinterability, which guarantees a material with low water absorption, high chemical resistance and mechanical strength. [...]
EN
According to common interpretations, two narrow crustal blocks are supposed to occur on the south-western edge or in the foreland of the East European Craton. The first one, bounded on the NE by the Nowe Miasto-Radom-Rava Ruska fault system, and on the SW by the Holy Cross Fault, stretches NW-SE from the Łysogóry-Radom region in Poland to the Rava Ruska Zone in Ukraine. The second one, bounded on the NE by the Holy Cross Fault, and from the SW by the Chmielnik-Ryszkowa Wola–Krakovets fault zone, is thought to tie together the Kielce area of the Holy Cross region with the Kokhanivka Zone in Ukraine. Both these blocks may have formed in connection with the development of regional listric faults during Precambrian asymmetric stretching of the Baltica continent, and were part of the marginal zone of the East European Craton. The sedimentary development of the blocks can be comparable to the Blake Plateau off the Florida coast. Both the Paleozoic sections and tectonic deformation styles in the Polish and Ukrainian segments of these blocks are different. Paleozoic tectonic structures of the Holy Cross region have a southern vergence, while the Paleozoic rocks of the Rava Ruska and Kokhanivka regions in western Ukraine are thrust towards the NE. This demonstrates the different tectonic evolution of the Paleozoic succession between the Holy Cross region and western Ukraine, and makes questionable the genetic relationships between these two regions. In this situation, the tectonic blocks of the foreland should be considered heterogeneous. Structural-facies evidence suggests that the SW boundary of the East European Craton should be moved at least to the Chmielnik–Ryszkowa Wola-Krakovets fault.
EN
Fern remains of matoniacean affinity were found in the Lower Hettangian strata of lacustrine/backswamp origin from the Niekłań PGI 1 borehole (central Poland, Holy Cross Mts.). The preserved fragments have been identified as Matonia braunii (Göppert, 1841) Harris, 1980. The remains suggest a rather small, low-growth plant with palmately compound fronds. The sori contain at least 5 sporangia preserved with well-developed annuli. The spores are triangular, trilete and kyrtomate, with a thin and smooth surface corresponding with dispersed Dictyophyllidites mortoni (de Jersey, 1959) Playford et Dettmann, 1965. Based on the gross morphology of sterile and fertile pinnae, suggestions made by Harris (1980) on the synonymy of Phlebopteris braunii (Göppert, 1841) Hirmer et Hörhammer, 1936 with P. muensteri Schenk, 1867 (Hirmer and Hörhammer, 1936) and their referral to Matonia braunii is proved and confirmed in this paper. The fern occurs in strata indicating a warm and humid climate and approaching transgression resulting in a high water table and the enhanced accumulation of organic matter.
EN
Upper Hettangian (Lower Jurassic) marginal-marine Przysucha Ore-bearing Formation exposed at Zapniów mine and clay-pit (northwestern part of the Holy Cross Mountains area, central Poland) revealed an interesting assemblage of dinosaur tracks. Although mostly yielding poorly preserved and isolated tracks probably left in shallow water conditions, the site nevertheless indicates a diversity of early saurischian (theropods and sauropodomorphs) and ornithischian (thyreophorans) dinosaur trackmakers. This new assemblage is partly consistent with the Lower-Middle Hettangian ichnorecord from the same region. The tracks are preserved in sediments of a barrier-foreshore origin within a barrier/lagoonal depositional system, belonging to the highstand systems tract, located below a marked erosional surface (sequence boundary), which is associated with a substantial fall in sea level at the end of Hettangian times. Here we described all previously and newly collected or observed in the field dinosaur tracks from both surface and underground exposures at Zapniów. Four ichnospecies: Grallator isp., Anchisauripus isp., cf. Tetrasauropus isp., and cf. Anomoepus isp. were identified. The theropod and ornithischian tracks show distinct similarities to those described from the richest in this region and most famous Gliniany Las dinosaur track assemblage, in age approximately coeval to Zapniów. Two sizes of theropod tracks (small and medium) indicate the presence of two different size classes or species of predators in this area. The described cf. Tetrasauropus isp. from Zapniów is the first unquestioned evidence of basal sauropodomorphs in the Upper Hettangian of the Holy Cross Mountains and first record of this ichnotaxa in the Lower Jurassic of Poland. Additionally, two theropod trackways (Anchisauripus isp.) show evidence for trotting. The new finds suggest similarities between marginal-marine environments (delta-plain and foreshore-barrier/lagoon lithofacies) association of dinosaurs containing low-browsing thyreophorans accompanied by small or juvenile sauropodomorphs and small to medium sized theropods. Presence of the ornithischian footprints suggests their prominent role as a major component in Middle-Upper Hettangian dinosaur faunas in marginal-marine environments dominating in the region.
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