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EN
The paper presents the results of the analysis of diatoms from surface sediments (stones, sands) and macroflora (seagrass, macroalgae) collected at 16 sampling sites located along the inner coastal zone of Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea) along the Hel Peninsula. The main diatom species of epilithon, epipsammon and epiphyton were characterized with respect to their autecological preferences (habitat, salinity, trophic status, saprobity). Three groups of diatoms were distinguished with respect to the type of substrate based on the results of benthic flora analysis: diatoms (i) of one type of substrate, (ii) of two types and (iii) those occurring on all types of substrates. Moreover, the distribution of benthic diatom communities indicates ecological differences in the study area. Marine and brackish-water species were observed in large numbers in the coastal zone of the Outer Puck Bay, whereas freshwater flora occurred with a higher frequency in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon. The content of polysaprobionts and of α-mesosaprobionts indicates that the region of the Hel Tip is highly eutrophicated and very polluted. The coast in the vicinity of Kuznica is less polluted, whereas the best environmental conditions are found in the Jurata–Jastarnia region, as evidenced by the frequency of diatoms that are β-mesosaprobionts.
EN
The Hel Peninsula is a 35 km long spit that extends into water depths of almost 60 m. Unlike most sandy barriers, the distal end of the Hel Peninsula is prograding into the deep water. This affects unique conditions for the evolution of this section of the Peninsula. The aim of this study is to determine the morpholithodynamic changes on the tip of the Hel Peninsula. Shore studies were performed in 2006-2008 and 2012. Measurements included: beach profiling, determination of shoreline and dune base line positions, and collection of sediment samples. The different nature of the eastern, central and western part of the Hel tip is evident. The eastern part is accumulative, the central part is variable with the general nature of strong and differently directed redeposition and accumulative periods, while the western part is highly erosive.
PL
Przedstawiono zasady wdrożenia projektu pilotażowego smart grid na Półwyspie Helskim w zakresie monitoringu i oprogramowania sieci średniego i niskiego napięcia.
EN
The paper presents principles of implementation of pilot project smart grid on Hel Peninsula in the scope of monitoring and software of MV and LV networks.
4
Content available Okupacja hitlerowska Helu. Wybrane aspekty
PL
Artykuł jest próbą scharakteryzowania okresu okupacji hitlerowskiej na Półwyspie Helskim w latach 1939–1945. Problematykę tę ukazano przez pryzmat aspektów wojskowych, funkcjonowania społeczności lokalnej oraz niemieckiej, tzw. wielkiej ewakuacji roku 1945. Rozważania oparto przede wszystkim na dostępnej literaturze krajowej i obcojęzycznej, a także nieznanych relacjach mieszkańców półwyspu. W swoich przemyśleniach autor, na podstawie dotychczasowej wiedzy i własnych badań, usiłował pokazać dzieje militarne półwyspu w okresie drugiej wojny światowej oraz życie codzienne mieszkańców po klęsce wrześniowej 1939 roku. Artykuł jest próbą rozpoczęcia szerszej dyskusji naukowej nad tym obszarem wiedzy historycznej, przyjmując, że stan badań w tym zakresie jest wysoce niezadowalający.
EN
The article is an attempt to characterize a period of the Nazi occupation on Hel Peninsula in 1939–1945. It shows military aspects, functioning of the local community and the so-called German grand evacuation in 1945. Considerations are based primarily on available national and foreign language literature as well as unknown accounts of Peninsula inhabitants. The author, in his considerations, based on his up to date knowledge and his own research, tries to show the military history of the Peninsula during World War II and daily life of the Peninsula inhabitants after the September’s defeat in 1939. The article attempts to begin a wider scientific discussion related to this area of historical knowledge, assuming that the state of research in this realm in highly unsatisfactory.
PL
Ze względu na swoje położenie geograficzne Półwysep Helski odegrał w historii szczególną rolę. Stanowił osłonę Zatoki Gdańskiej i ujścia Wisły. Był bazą operacyjną floty. Zwłaszcza w XX wieku polskie i niemieckie obiekty militarne spełniały ważne funkcje obronne. Obecnie straciły swe znaczenie militarne. Ze względu na dużą wartość historyczną te, które ocalały, stają się coraz większą atrakcją turystyczną.
EN
Because of its localization Hel Peninsula played a crucial role in the past. It used to support the defense of the Bay of Gdansk and the area in the mouth of the Vistula. It was a naval base. It was especially in 20th century that Polish and German military objects played a huge defensive role. They have lost their military function. However, owing to their great historical value those remains of the past are becoming greater and greater tourist attraction.
EN
Coastal upwelling often reveals itself during the thermal stratification season as an abrupt sea surface temperature (SST) drop. Its intensity depends not only on the magnitude of an upwelling-favourable wind impulse but also on the temperature stratification of the water column during the initial stage of the event. When a "chain" of upwelling events is taking place, one event may play a part in forming the initial stratification for the next one; consequently, SST may drop significantly even with a reduced wind impulse. Two upwelling events were simulated on the Polish coast in August 1996 using a three-dimensional, baroclinic prognostic model. The model results proved to be in good agreement with in situ observations and satellite data. Comparison of the simulated upwelling events show that the first one required a wind impulse of 28000 kg m-1 s-1 to reach its mature, full form, whereas an impulse of only 7500 kg m-1 s-1 was sufficient to bring about a significant drop in SST at the end of the second event. In practical applications like operational modelling, the initial stratification conditions prior to an upwelling event should be described with care in order to be able to simulate the coming event with very good accuracy.
EN
The purpose of the presented paper is the identification and assessment of causes of intensive abrasion in the open coastline of the Hel Peninsula and the effect of countermeasures. Numerical modeling of nearshore hydrodynamics, topographic analysis and field measurements were carried out. The Baltic Sea hydrodynamic model, a model of wave-induced nearshore circulation and the wave model SWAN were employed. 3D hydrodynamic modeling resulted in the become visible that fields of shear bottom stresses as well as bottom currents depended on atmospheric forcing and depth. A correlation between bottom stresses and topography was obtained. The results of modeling of the nearshore hydrodynamics demonstrated a dominant role for alongshore sediment transport. The magnitude of both cross- and alongshore wave-induced currents strongly depended on wave height gradient, which was significantly greater in storm periods. During storms, sediment transport occurs also in the cross-shore direction.
PL
Referat porusza problemy wynikające ze specyfiki terenów mierzejowych. Uwypuklając walory przestrzeni Półwyspu Helskiego jest wskazaniem właściwego kierunku myślenia o gospodarowaniu tym potencjałem.
EN
The paper touches on problems characteristic for peninsula space. It emphasizes the Hel peninsula virtues to show the right direction of managing the potential.
EN
Low water salinity values were recorded during upwelling events along the marine side of the Hel Peninsula. The most probable explanation of those unexpected results is a submarine groundwater discharge in this region. The hydrogeological structure of the area and some previous studies on salinity anomalies observed in the Gulf of Gdansk seem to confirm the hypothesis. This report encourages further complex research aimed at studying this phenomenon.
10
Content available remote Nitrogen species and macroelements in aerosols over the southern Baltic Sea
EN
The annual cycle of atmospheric nitrogen species and macroelements (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl–) over the south-eastern Baltic region was investigated. A one-year record enabled the variability of nitrogen species and macroelements in the aerosol over the coastal station at Hel to be traced. The highest concentrations of sea salt components were recorded in summer, while anthropogenic nitrate concentrations were highest in winter. When the air masses were of mixed marine and continental origin, the nitric acid reacted with coarse sea salt particles to form stable, coarse sodium nitrate. This seems to be a permanent removal pathway for nitrate. Anthropogenic aerosol species like NH4+ or NO3– formed by gas-to-particle conversion were generally associated with fine particles (<1 žm). Coarse particles like sodium or chloride resulted from resuspension from seawater.
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