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EN
The paper discusses the ASG EUPOS services. There is presented an assessment of the possibility of using this system selected sites in hydrography and off-shore navigation tasks. Presented and analyzed the experiments were carried out in the port of Gdynia and on the Gulf of Gda?sk. The results obtaining in the work confirm the possibility of the position accuracy guaranteed by ASG EUPOS services. The obtained accuracy greatly exceeds the needs and requirements of coastal navigation and underwater mining and exploration of sea bottom.
EN
This manuscript is a continuation of the results presented in the earlier work by Dzierzbicka-Głowacka et al. (2013). Major purpose of this study is to characterize population dynamics of three major Baltic calanoid copepod species (Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus sp.) in the Gulf of Gdańsk during the years 2006–2007. This paper focuses mostly on biomass estimation, production and mortality rates. All three species had the highest observed biomass in summer 2007 and it was 12.62, 9.16 and 0.80 mg C m-3for Acartia spp., T. longicornis and Pseudocalanus sp., respectively, while highest daily production rates for those species were 28.22, 18.47, 1.34 mg C m-2, all recorded in summer 2007. Mortality rates were calculated for all copepodite stages of selected species, and in most cases highest values were observed during summer seasons
EN
This study is the first to report the presence of intersex in invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus inhabiting the Baltic Sea. The discovery was made in the area of two harbours of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Poland). Macro- and microscopic male gonad analysis revealed the presence of female gametes in testes (testis-ova) of single specimens. In addition, a female-like urogenital papilla was observed in one of the intersex fish. These findings might be due to the exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) however the occurrence of single intersex individuals as a baseline level in investigated population is also possible. In the future, more comprehensive research in the other areas of the Gulf of Gdańsk needs to be carried out in order to determine the extent and to better understand the cause of the observed phenomenon.
EN
Detection of small crafts/targets, in particular, sailing yachts with the ship's radar is not always possible. Radar reflectors are used to improve their detection. The AIS (Automatic Identification System) transmits position, motion vector and identification signals of a vessel to other ships and VTS (Vessel Traffic Services) centers . This system significantly increases the possibility to detect small crafts. The paper presents results of comparative study of using information from the Automatic Identification System and from radar to determine the accuracy of tracking the position and motion vector of ships in the Gulf of Gdansk. Possibilities and limitations of the AIS are also presented.
EN
The present paper reports on the occurrence of the Atlantic rangia Rangia cuneata in the Wisła Śmiała River (coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk, the southern Baltic Sea) from around 2012–2014.
EN
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its derivatives are considered to be the precursors of dioxins, thus their concentrations in environmental compartments remain relatively correlated. Unlimited production and usage of PCP in recent decades may have posed a potential ecological threat to marine ecosystems due to uncontrolled discharge of this contaminant into the Vistula River and finally into the Gulf of Gdańsk. Since there are no data on PCP concentration in sediments of the southern part of the Baltic Sea, the level of contamination has been examined and possible influence of sediment properties in the Gulf of Gdańsk on the accumulation intensification has been investigated. The study has resulted in the evaluation of an efficient analytical procedure characterized by a low detection limit (LOD<1 ng g−1 d.w.). Instrumental analyses have been supplemented with Microtox® bioassay in order to assess the sediment toxicity. The obtained concentrations in collected samples varied from below the LOD in sandy sediments to 179.31 ng g−1 d.w. in silty sediments, exceeding the PNEC value of 25 ng g−1 d.w. (Predicted No Effect Concentration) estimated for the Baltic Sea (Muir & Eduljee 1999). It has been proven that properties of sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk, including pH, Eh of bottom water, the content of water and organic matter, affect the rate of PCP accumulation. High toxicity has been recorded in the bottom sediments of the Gdańsk Deep but no statistically significant correlation between PCP concentration and the sediment toxicity has been observed. Analysis of PCP concentration distribution in sediment cores revealed that the surface layer is the most polluted one, which indicates a continuous inflow of PCP from the Vistula River. Horizontal PCP distribution in the sediment from the Gdańsk Deep reveals variability similar to that observed for highly chlorinated dioxins (Niemirycz & Jankowska 2011).
EN
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution and abundance pattern of the Harris mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea). Between 2006 and 2010, this species was found at 69 out of 129 sampling stations, at depths from 0 to 20 m. Two main aggregations of the Harris mud crab were established: (1) in Puck Bay (max. density 19 indiv. 100 m-2) and (2) in the Gdynia and Sopot area (max. density 5 indiv. 100 m-2). 920 specimens were collected during the whole sampling period: 150 juveniles, 370 females and 400 males. The minimum measured carapace width was 1.96 mm, the maximum 21.40 mm (mean 9.03 ±4.11 mm).
EN
Evadne anonyx, a new invasive Ponto-Caspian species, was detected for the first time in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the summer of 2006. Seven years probably elapsed from the first record of E. anonyx in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) to the first one in the Gulf of Gdańsk. Although the species was found at 10 out of 13 stations in rather low densities (not exceeding 6 indiv. m-3), all the developmental stages of E. anonyx were present (juveniles as well as adults - parthenogenetic females, gamogenetic females and males) in the plankton material investigated.
EN
Elemental mercury re-emission into the air from an old burial ground in Gdańsk Letnica and from a modern landfill in Gdańsk Szadółki resulted in noticeably increased TGM concentrations from the urban background level of 1.9 ng m-3 to a maximum value of 164.4 ng m-3. Hgtot concentrations in the soil of the burial ground ranged from 37.3 to 4817.3 ng g-1 and in the surrounding water: from 22.0 to 55.0 ng dm-3. The highest Hg_tot concentrations in the modern landfill (Gdańsk Szadółki) were reported for the unsorted waste: 36.1 - 972.8 ng g-1. Laboratory experiments on the re-emission of Hg(0) into the air showed that emission from soil was stimulated by solar radiation and from the water – additionally by turbulent mixing.
EN
The aim of this study was to analyze the variability of the suspension concentration in the area where the Vistula River discharges into the Gulf of Gdańsk. While analyzing the relationship between suspension concentration and the distance from the river mouth and the spatial location in the water column, a number of other important factors were considered, i.e. salinity, temperature, the composition of suspension and in situ hydrodynamic conditions. The samples of surficial sediment were analyzed with regard to the content of organic matter and <0.063 mm size fraction.
EN
The aim of this study was to estimate the residue of chlorinated pesticides in the edible fish caught in the Gulf of Gdańsk and in the Vistula Lagoon. The highest mean concentrations of total DDT were found in the muscles of salmon (331.45 ng g−1 lw.) and sabre carp (306.29 ng g−1 lw.) caught in the Vistula Lagoon, and in the muscles of cod (309.88 ng g−1 lw.) and herring (304.86 ng g−1 lw.) from the Gulf of Gdańsk. Moreover, it was discovered that the following were present in the muscles of fish: DDT metabolites (pp’-DDE and pp’-DDD isomers) as well as hexachlorobenzene and its metabolites and endrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan isomers and methoxychlor. Pesticides concentrations were higher in the livers of fish than in the muscles, which proves that the removal of toxins from the fish systems dominates over their accumulation. Because no concentration limits for pesticides have been defined, consumer safety assessment of fish caught in the Southern Baltic and in the Vistula Lagoon is not possible. The authors, having observed an increase in heksachlorobenzen in fish tissues suggested the existence of contemporary sources of pesticides which introduce them into the coastal zone.
EN
The paper presents modeling of egg production (Egg — no. of eggs female−1 d−1) by Temora longicornis in the changing environmental conditions of the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep). It is hypothesized that the food-saturated rate of egg matter production is equivalent to the specific growth rate of copepods. Based on the findings from the south-western Baltic Sea, Egg of T. longicornis is evaluated as a function of food concentration, temperature and salinity over a wide range of these parameters. Subsequently, the rate of reproduction during the seasons in the Gulf of Gdańsk is determined. According to our calculations, values of Egg reach ca 11 eggs per day in April and decline strongly in June-July, while the second smaller peak in reproduction occurs in September, ca 8 eggs per day. Our results suggest that egg production rates of T. longicornis depend not only on food concentration and temperature, but also on salinity, which is a masking factor in the Baltic Sea.
EN
This study presents total mercury concentrations (HgT) in selected tissues and organs (blood, muscles, liver, kidneys, feathers and claws) of the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in order to assess the environmental pollution in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic. Dead, frozen birds were collected in the vicinity of Wladysławowo between December 2009 and March 2010, an exceptionally severe winter — a total of 13 specimens; 6 adults (>4 years old) and 7 immature birds (≤4 years old). Mercury concentrations in all analyzed samples exceeded the detection limit. The lowest average concentration, at a level of 0.4 μg Hg g−1 (d.w.) was observed in the muscles of adult and immature gulls while the highest, at a level of 3.3 μg Hg g−1 (d.w), was determined in the contour of immature gulls. A significant linear correlation was found between mercury concentration in the blood and the concentration in the kidneys and liver, with the coefficients of determination at R2 = 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. This indicates that blood of birds, as a mercury carrier, may reflects the concentration of mercury in tissues and internal organs of birds and, in the case of kidneys and liver, may express long-term exposure to mercury in nourishment.
EN
This article presents results of diatom analysis of seven sediment cores taken from various depths of the Gulf of Gdańsk between the Hel Peninsula and the coast of Gdańsk and Gdynia. Further eight cores were drilled in the northern, southern and central part of the Vistula Lagoon. The present investigations enabled the determination of: (i) differentiation of diatom assemblage zones, (ii) correlation of palaeoecological units with reference to the following stages: Mastogloia Sea, Littorina Sea, Post-Littorina Sea, including the latest environmental changes associated with an anthropogenic factor, (iii) description of the defined diatom biofacies based on statistical analysis, (iiii) reconstruction of spatial and temporal development of both basins with the emphasis on the role of inflows of sea and river waters.
EN
The paper presents the history of diatom studies carried out in the Gulf of Gdańsk and the Vistula Lagoon since the beginning of the 20th century. One aspect of the research focuses on describing the structure of planktonic and benthic communities living in different parts of the area or occurring in their surface sediments as taphocoenoses. Other investigations concentrate on the fossil diatom flora, which is widely used in the research on the Late Glacial and Holocene to resolve paleogeographic, sedimentological and paleoecological problems.
EN
The ongoing processes of surface sediments and their biological activity are highly dynamic. Sediment samples for the current study were collected at 48 stations in the Gulf of Gdańsk in May 2006, and the following sediment parameters were analysed: grain size distribution, water volume, permeability, organic matter content, chlorophyll a and EPS carbohydrate concentrations. The spatial distributions of the different parameters varied distinctly, which suggested a strongly diversified bottom environment. The results obtained were used to create spatial distribution maps, and statistical analyses of the results showed that the Gulf's bottom can be divided into four areas impacted by different parameters: (1) the inner Puck Bay; (2) the outer Puck Bay; (3) the outer Gulf of Gdańsk; (4) the open sea. Distinct correlations between microbenthic activity, expressed as carbohydrate and chlorophyll concentrations, and sediment physical parameters were noted. The bottom of the Gulf of Gdańsk appeared to be strongly influenced by wave motion. This led to the conclusion that the most dynamic areas are the shallow coastal zones, which play important roles in water purification processes and in the proper functioning of the Gulf of Gdańsk ecosystem. This study of the spatial distribution of sediment parameters is the first of its kind, and the widest-ranging study of sediments ever to be conducted in this region.
EN
The River Vistula is one of the largest suppliers of fresh water and terrigenous matter to the Baltic Sea. The impact of this river on the Baltic coastal system and the fate of the sediment delivered to the Gulf of Gdańsk are not well understood. Spatial transport patterns, as well as the settling, deposition and accumulation of the sediments were studied at the Vistula prodelta in different seasons from January 2012 to January 2013. The concentration of suspended matter in the water column was measured with optical methods, the sedimentation rate was determined with sediment traps, and the sediment accumulation rate was estimated using 210Pb dating. Our data shows that the annual supply of sediment to the sediment-water interface exceeds the annual rate of sediment accumulation in the outer Vistula prodelta by a factor of three. Sediment trapping during rough weather showed that significant sediment redeposition was taking place, even at depths of 55 m. The dynamic sedimentary processes occurring in the Vistula prodelta mean that that more than two-thirds of the sediment mass can be remobilized and then redeposited in deeper parts of the Gdańsk Basin.
EN
The paper characterizes the population dynamics of the major Baltic calanoid copepod species (Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus sp.) in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea) from January 2006 to December 2007. The data were collected at six stations (M2, S1, S2, S3, S4, J23) located in the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The objective of this research was to describe and compare the seasonal and spatial distributions of these three major copepod species. Their distributions in the study area are largely similar, although there are some exceptions regarding Pseudocalanus sp. Copepoda development in the Gulf was at its most intense from May to September, peaking in July. The abundance of these species was the least at the shallowest stations. Based on these results, the weighted mean depth WMD per developmental stage was calculated for Pseudocalanus sp., Acartia spp. and T. longicornis. The paper also compares the abundance (in indiv. m-2) of the copepodite stages of these species in two regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk and the Gotland Basin). Except for Pseudocalanus sp., the abundance of these copepodite stages (ΣCII-CVI) in the Gulf of Gdańsk in 2006 was similar to that in the Gotland Basin in the mid-1990s; in spring/summer 2007, however, their abundances were significantly higher (ca 2-4 times) in the former region.
EN
The biomass, production, composition of autotrophic phytoplankton and hetero-trophic bacteria were studied along with environmental and biological parameters. Samples were taken from Vistula river water (at Kiezmark) and from the river plume to the outer stations in the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea) in June 2005. The phytoplankton biomass gradient appeared to be simply the result of dilution of the river water in the sea water, whereas the bacterial abundance and biomass dropped between the river station and the first sea water stations, a decrease that cannot be explained by the dilution effect. The Vistula water stimulated the production mainly of bacterioplankton but also of phytoplankton in the river plume as compared to rates measured in Vistula waters and at the open sea stations. However, this stimulation did not result in a measurable increase in biomasses, probably because of the short retention time of water in the river plume. Phytoplankton production was correlated with phytoplankton biomass (Chl a), while bacterial production was correlated with phytoplankton production and phytoplankton biomass (Chl a).
EN
Non-indigenous gammarid species: Pontogammarus robustoides (G.O.Sars, 1894), Obesogammarus crassus (G.O. Sars, 1894), Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald, 1841) and Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) are present in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea). These species reached the Gulf of Gdańsk by 2010 near the point where the River Vistula flows into the Baltic Sea, and become constituents of the amphipods in shallow bottom. All the gammarid species found are of Ponto-Caspian origin. They have been able to move across Europe along rivers and canals, and inhabit reservoirs and drainage systems in the vicinity of such waterways. D. villosus is the latest gammarid species to have colonized Poland. The floods that afflicted Poland in May and June 2010 could have had a significant influence, intensifying as they did the inflow of water from the Vistula into the Gulf of Gdańsk. This could have accelerated the arrival of individuals of these species. The water salinity at the sampling stations was 5.8 – 6.1 PSU. The possible invasion of non-native gammarids may have important consequences for the benthic fauna communities in the Gulf of Gdańsk.
PL
Nierodzime gatunki kiełży: Pontogammarus robustoides (G.O.Sars, 1894), Obesogammarus crassus (G.O. Sars, 1894), Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald, 1841) and Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) obecne są już w Zatoce Gdańskiej (Bałtyk Południowy). Gatunki te pojawiły się w Zatoce Gdańskiej w 2010 roku, niedaleko ujścia Wisły do Bałtyku i stały się składnikiem obunogów płytkiego dna. Wszystkie wymienione gatunki są pochodzenia ponto-kaspisjkiego. Przedostały się do Europy rzekami i kanałami, i zasiedlają zlewnie tych rzek. D. villosus jest najnowszym przybyszem, który skolonizował Polskę. Najprawdopodobniej powódź, która dotknęła Polskę w maju i czerwcu 2010 roku zintensyfikowała napływ wód Wisły do Zatoki Gdańskiej. Przyśpieszyło to przedostanie się osobników wymienionych gatunków do Zatoki Gdańskiej. Zasolenie wody na stacjach zbioru materiału wynosiło od 5.8 do 6.1 PSU. Inwazja nierodzimych gatunków kiełży może znacznie wpłynąć na zespoły bentosowe Zatoki Gdańskiej.
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