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EN
An accumulation of glacial sediments is located near Písečná village in the depression between the Sokol Ridge and Zlaté Hory Highlands NNE of Jeseník town (Eastern Sudetes). The accumulation lies at the lateral side of the mountain valley of the Bělá River and fills a preglacial palaeovalley of this river. Research combining facies analysis of outcrops, ground penetrating radar survey, interpretation drilling survey, and modelling of the preglacial relief was undertaken at the site. According to the results obtained, the upper part of the sedimentary accumulation represents a coarse-grained terminoglacial glaciofluvial delta of the Gilbert type. The development of the accumulation has dominantly been driven by the preglacial morphology. Facies typical for foresets of coarse-grained deltas represented mainly by high-density flows, cohesionless debris flows, debris falls and less common low-density flows were found in the outcrops. The delta near Písečná prograded into a lake dammed by the ice-sheet front in the north. The lake was bounded by the slopes of Sokol Ridge, Zlaté Hory Highlands and Góry Parkowe on other sides. The lake level reached an altitude of up to 430 m a.s.l., as the coarse-grained delta plain base lies at this level.
PL
Mobilność jest niezwykle ważna dla rozwoju gospodarczego oraz dla jakości życia obywateli, którzy mogą swobodnie podróżować zarówno w celach turystycznych i rekreacyjnych, jak i służbowych czy też szkoleniowych. W niniejszym artykule, będącym kolejnym w cyklu publikacji dotyczących konkurencji na rynku międzynarodowych przewozów pasażerskich, przedstawiono wyniki analizy ofert przewozów z Warszawy do stolic państw Europy Centralnej. Porównano przewozy realizowane indywidualnymi środkami transportu oraz transportem zbiorowym. Pod uwagę wzięto dostępność danego środka transportu, czas podróży oraz cenę.
EN
Mobility is extremely important for economic development and for the quality of life of citizens who are free to travel both for leisure and leisure purposes and for business purposes or training. In this article, being the next in a series of publications on international competition passenger transport, results are presented analysis of transport offers from Warsaw to the capitals of the countries of Central Europe. Comparisons were made with individualized transport and public transport. Considered taken availability of the means of transport, travel time and price.
3
Content available remote Precast concrete architecture in Central Europe
PL
Mobilność jest niezwykle ważna dla rozwoju gospodarczego oraz dla jakości życia obywateli, którzy mogą swobodnie podróżować zarówno w celach turystycznych i rekreacyjnych, jak i służbowych czy też szkoleniowych. W niniejszym artykule, będącym kolejnym z cyklu publikacji dotyczących konkurencji na rynku międzynarodowych przewozów pasażerskich, przedstawiono wyniki analizy ofert przewozów z Warszawy do stalic państw Europy Centralnej. Porównano przewozy realizowane indywidualnymi środkami transportu oraz transportem zbiorowym. Pod uwagę wzięto dostępność danego środka transportu, czas podróży oraz cenę.
EN
Mobility is extremely important for economic development and for the quality of life of citizens who are free to travel both for leisure and leisure purposes and for business purposes or training. In this article, being the next in a series of publications on international competition passenger transport, results are presented analysis of transport offers from Warsaw to the capitals of the countries of Central Europe. Comparisons were made with individualized transport and public transport. Considered taken availability of the means of transport, travel time and price.
5
Content available remote Strategic importance of the seaport of Koper, Slovenia
EN
Presented is the development of the city and the port of Koper in the Upper Adriatic and its role as a regional transport node. Koper is in fact a substitute port-city; it developed after the decline of Trieste in the post-WW2 period because of the needs of Slovenian economy within ideologically polarized Europe during the 1950s. Favourable economic connections between Slovenia and the wider hinterlands in Central Europe facilitated the development of this port into an important North Adriatic transport node, with over 20 million tons of cargo per year and specialization for transportation of cars, timber, containers and finer commodities.
PL
Problem międzynarodowych połączeń kolejowych Małopolski oraz sąsiednich regionów podjęty został ze względu na niekorzystne zmiany w ofercie przewozowej, powodujące rezygnację pasażerów z transportu kolejowego. Celem zobrazowania zmian zachodzących w ofercie pociągów międzynarodowych oraz lokalnych pociągów transgranicznych w południowej Polsce szczegółowej analizie poddano ofertę przewozową, na podstawie sieciowych rozkładów jazdy pociągów na przestrzeni ostatnich 20 lat. Stwierdzono, że w ostatnich latach nastąpiło istotne pogorszenie liczby i jakości połączeń z krajami sąsiednimi, zwłaszcza ze Słowacją. Dokonano także przeglądu zapisów ustawowych oraz rządowych dokumentów planistycznych wyznaczających ramy organizacji przewozów międzynarodowych. W szczególności zwrócono uwagę na konsekwencje zapisów Planu zrównoważonego rozwoju publicznego transportu zbiorowego w zakresie sieci komunikacyjnej w międzywojewódzkich i międzynarodowych przewozach pasażerskich w transporcie kolejowym. Wykazano, że jednym z powodów spadku atrakcyjności oferty jest pogarszający się stan infrastruktury kolejowej. Na podstawie przeglądu trwających prac modernizacyjnych i rewitalizacyjnych na wybranych liniach kolejowych zaproponowano kierunki rozwoju sieci połączeń pomiędzy Polską a Czechami i Słowacją. Wskazano na konieczność podjęcia działań o charakterze systemowym, w tym umożliwiających finansowanie sieci międzyregionalnych połączeń przyspieszonych, które mają szansę wypełnić lukę pomiędzy pociągami kwalifikowanymi a siecią połączeń aglomeracyjnych i mogą odegrać rolę w kształtowaniu oferty przewozowej pociągów transgranicznych przez południową granicę Polski.
EN
The problem of international connections between Małopolska and neighbouring regions has been brought up due to the unfavourable changes of the offer, resulting with resignation of passengers from the railway transport. In order to illustrate the changes in the offer of long-distance and local passenger trains crossing the south border of Poland, the timetables of the last 20 years have been analyzed. It has been noted that during last few years the number of connections between Southern Poland and neighbouring countries, especially Slovakia, has been dramatically decreased. Review on law acts and government documents determining frames organisation of international railway transport services in Poland has been carried out. In particular, the consequences of the Plan of sustainable development of the public transport in the range of communication network in interregional and international passenger railway transport have been outlined. It has been proven, that one of the reasons of the decrease of the offer quality is deteriorating condition of the Polish railway infrastructure. Basing on results of inspection of current modernisation and revitalisation processes conducted on selected railway lines, some opportunities of the international connections development between Poland and the Czech Republic, as well as Slovakia have been proposed. The improvement of the current situation needs comprehensive solutions, e.g. wide subsidizing of domestic and trans border interregional express connections have been indicated.
EN
Spatial and temporal variability of NO2 tropospheric column over Europe was analyzed for a 3 year period (2008-2010) based on monthly average observations from SCIAMACHY and the GEM-AQ model results. The GEM-AQ model was run in a global variable configuration with a resolution of ~15 km over Central Europe. Spatial averaged time series were calculated for two selected regions in Western and Central Europe in order to assess the seasonal and interannual variability of the tropospheric NO2. The spatial pattern is similar near large emission sources for consecutive years. However, in remote regions there are differences due to interannual variability of meteorological conditions. Highest tropospheric NO2 column values (over 150 × 1015 molecules/cm2) were persistent over the Benelux and over most of the European agglomerations. The general agreement between modelled and observed NO2 column is good. In the remote areas, the modelled NO2 column shows weaker gradients than the observed field.
EN
The article summarizes the pilot research project and implementation works performed by the University of Agriculture in Krakow. This was as part of the project "Valorisation and sustainable development of cultural landscapes using innovative participation and visualization techniques - VITAL LANDSCAPES", implemented as a part of the CENTRAL EUROPE project. The work was conducted in Mściwojów, Lower Silesia, with a particular focus on the von Nostitz family property. The work covered creating a 3D visualization of the revitalization concept for the property, while adhering to the rule of developing local community participation and decision-makers participation. The developed concept was also subjected to an advanced evaluation of the effects of its implementation, which covered the area of the property with its new functions. It also covered the water reservoir and the agricultural lands of the village.
EN
The complex tectonic history of Central Europe (Fig. 1a) reflects the break-up of a Neoproterozoic supercontinet(s) (Rodinia/Pannotia) to form the fragment Baltica and the subsequent growth of continental Europe beginning with the Caledonian orogeny. Caledonian and younger Variscan orogenesis involved accretion of Laurentian and Gondwanan terranes to the riftet margin of Baltica. (East European craton, EEC) during the Paleozoic. From Central Poland northward, the region also experienced volcanic activity during the Permian and tectonic inversion during the Alpine orogeny, which in the south continues today. The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) is a term used to refer to the suite of sutures and terranes that formed adjacent to the rifted margin of Baltica, and these features extend from the British Isles to the Black Sea region (Fig. 1a and 2). Understanding the structure and evolution of the TESZ region is one of the key tectonic challenges in Europe north of the Alps. The TESZ is far more complex than a single suture but in a broad sense is the boundary between the accreted terranes and Baltica. The TESZ includes the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ), which has several definitions. Here, we will use the term TTZ to refer to a structural zone associated with the southwestern edge of the EEC. Beginning in 1997, Central Europe, between the Baltic and Adriatic Seas, has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments (Fig. 1b). These experiments - POLONAISE’97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, and SUDETES 2003 - have only be possible due to a massive international cooperative effort. International Consortium consisted of 35 institutions from 16 countries in Europe and North America - Austria, Belarus, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and the United States. The majority of the recording instruments was provided by the IRIS/ PASCAL Instrument Center and the University of Texas at El Paso (USA), the Geological Survey of Canada and other countries. For example, in the CELEBRATION experiment, the total number was 1230 stations ands 147 shot points located along seismic lines of a total length of about 9000 km. A large number of seismic sources and stations in all experiments means that besides 2 - D approach along profiles (Fig. 3 and 4), also 3 - D approach (Fig. 5 and 6) could be implemented in data interpretation. Total length of seismic profiles in all experiments is about 20 000 km (Fig. 1b).
EN
The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) analysis technique adapted for monitoring of high - rate coordinate variations from GPS observations is applied for detection of actual displacements related to moderate and light earthquakes. Two approaches are examined: kinematic PPP which is suitable for larger displacements and analysis of residuals from quasi-static PPP which is suitable for detection of min or earthquake related displacements. The potential and limits of the se used methods are documented on M 6.3 L’Aquila earthquake and M 4.3 Tatabanya earthquake. Our experiments proved the ability to measure dynamic seismic-related short-term coordinate variations at sub-centimetre level with PPP using GPS 1 Hz satellites observations.
EN
During Middle Triassic times, the Peri-Tethys Basin bordered the north-western Tethys shelf and was connected to the open Tethys Ocean via three seaways. Today, Lower Muschelkalk carbonates of this epeiric sea cover large parts of Central Europe, documenting the evolution of a low-relief, homoclinal, mud-dominated ramp system during the Anisian. In view of their geotectonic/climatic setting, depositional processes, facies architecture, and distribution, the rocks are considered as an outcrop analogue for layer-cake reservoirs of world-wide importance, e.g. the Permo-Triassic Khuff or Jurassic Arab carbonates in the Middle East. In general, two different reservoir types and their interplay might be considered: The proximal stacks of muddy dolostones (NW part of the basin) and the more distally developed grainy limestones (central and SE part of the basin). The rather uncommon depositional setting with minor relief and minimal accommodation contributed to both, the stratal and lateral facies development, and to unusual and possibly even "inverted" facies patterns with thick, grainy facies found in the more distal environments. Based on litho- and microfacies analyses, six main facies types are distinguished, building characteristic cyclic facies successions of different hierarchies. The stratal architecture of small-scale depositional sequ ences systematically changes in relation to their relative proximal-distal position on the Muschelkalk ramp system. Here, we present porosity and permeability data of the different facies types and within the basin-wide sequence stratigraphic framework. Dolo-wacke-/packstones and peloid grainstones attain the highest porosities of up to 24%, whereas bioclastic grainstones show porosities of up to 8%. The platy and nodular mud-/wackestone and most of the bioclastic wacke-/packstones typically show porosities below 2%. Even in the most porous strata, permeabilities do not exceed 10 mD, and only a few carbonates show higher permeabilities up to 90 mD. Within large-scale, third-order depositional sequences late highstand deposits represent the most permeable sediments.
13
Content available remote Summary of Central European geokinematics based on CERGOP-2 project
EN
The CERGOP-2/Environment Project [Pesec, 2002), the successor ofCERGOP (Central Europe Geodynamics Porject) [Fejes et al., 1993| has several work packages to share the operational and scientifc work. The work package 10.3 is devoted to integrate those geological and geophysical data that have primary importance regarding the present-day geodynamics of the Pannonian basin and its surroundings from the Adriatic microplate to the Carpathian Arc. This final report is a summary of all activities and deliverables and other results obtained within work package 10.3 during CERGOP-2/Environment project period and built on the former CERGOP achievements.
EN
Central Europe Regional Geodynamic Project (CERGOP) realized in 1994-1997 and its follow-up CERGOP-2/Environment realized from 2003 is aimed to geodynamical investigation of the region of Central Europe. Within this project epoch GPS campaigns in annual or bi-annual intervals are performed. They are covering nine-years period of epoch repeated observations. The crucial products of analysis of epoch campaigns are site velocity estimates serving further as input data for geo-kinematical interpretations and strain rate analyses. In the paper are presented and analysed velocities for nearly 30 sites with 8-9 year observation history. Simultaneously are estimated velocities for sites with shorter (4-6 years) observing span. This new CERGOP velocity field comprising 53 sites of Central Europe geodynamic reference network (CEGRN) is compared with velocities derived from older CERGOP campaigns and with ITRF velocities.
EN
The report contains the description of monitoring of recent crustal movements in the European region covered by the CEGRN stations with highlighting the geologic, geophysical and geodetic aspects of studies carried out by European scientific institutions. The report includes the information coming from different sources and in particular from studies performed by the CERGOP-2/Environment work package subgroups WP10.1 - WP10.7. These sub-groups currently arranged, planned and organised programmes of their activities in particular regions in a fully independent, self-determining and "sovereign" way. So the report was currently updated by the results of investigations of the sub-groups WP10.1-WP10.7. Since all chairmen of work packages were obliged to report their activities at the EGU-CEI symposia in April every year it was expected that the three main inputs of new results of investigations would be available in April 2004, April 2005 and April 2006. The chairmen of work packages had also to concisely report the activities of their sub-groups at the CERGOP-2 Working Conferences that were organised every year in fall time. So, also a short updating of the Pilot Report was possible after the CERGOP-2 fall conferences.
16
Content available remote CERGN 2003 solution and its relation to CERGN 1994-2001 campaign results
EN
Analysis strategy and results from CEGRN epoch campaign in 2003. Combined product based on individual network solutions by four analysis centres and its comparison with CEGRN 2001 coordinates. Time evolution of coordinates at some long-term observed CEGRN sites during seven epoch campaigns since 1994.
EN
The report contains the description of monitoring of recent crustal movements in the European region covered by the CEGRN stations with highlighting the geologic, geophysical and geodetic aspects of studies carried out by European scientific institutions. The report includes the information coming from different sources and in particular from studies performed by the CERGOP-2/Environment workpackage sub-groups WP10.1 - WP10.7. These sub-groups currently arrange, plan and organise programmes of their activities in particular regions in a fully independent, self-determining and "sovereign" way. So the report will be currently updated by the results of investigations of the sub-groups WP10.1-WP10.7. Since all chairmen of workpackages are obliged to report their activities at the EGU-CEI symposia in April every year it is expected that the three main inputs of new results of investigations will be available in April 2004, April 2005 and April 2006. The chairmen of workpackages have also to concisely report the activities of their sub-groups at the CERGOP-2 Working Conferences that will be organised every year in fall time. So, also a short updating of the Pilot Report will probably be possible after the CERGOP-2 fall conferences.
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