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EN
Having a positive trust climate and organizational distributive justice is essential for any organization. Many studies have found that both trust and organizational justice have a direct positive impact on organizational performance. However, the relationship between them has not been considered widely, especially in the Middle East. Therefore, the study aims to examine the relationship between organizational distributive justice and the trust climate among the employees in three Middle Eastern countries and to find out what demographic variables affect this relationship. The sample of the study consisted of 190 employees who came from three countries, namely, Syria, Egypt, and Turkey. To achieve the purpose of the study, a questionnaire of 20 items was sent online to employees. Later descriptive analysis methods and Pearson correlation were used to achieve the purposes of this study. The study found that there was a strong positive relationship between organizational distributive justice and the trust climate. Besides, there was a significant difference in organizational distributive justice when it was related to work experience. There were also statistically significant differences in trust in the supervisor, related to age; moreover, there were significant differences in trust in the organization and co-workers depending on work experience level, however, gender did not show any significant differences.
PL
Posiadanie atmosfery pozytywnego zaufania i sprawiedliwości dystrybucyjnej organizacji jest niezbędne dla każdej organizacji. Wiele badań wykazało, że zarówno zaufanie, jak i sprawiedliwość organizacyjna mają bezpośredni pozytywny wpływ na wyniki organizacji. Jednak relacje pomiędzy nimi nie były szeroko rozważane, szczególnie na Bliskim Wschodzie. Dlatego badanie ma na celu zbadanie związku między organizacyjną sprawiedliwością dystrybucyjną a atmosferą zaufania wśród pracowników w trzech krajach Bliskiego Wschodu oraz ustalenie, jakie zmienne demograficzne wpływają na ten związek. Próba badawcza obejmowała 190 pracowników pochodzących z trzech krajów, a mianowicie z Syrii, Egiptu i Turcji. Aby osiągnąć cel badania, do pracowników wysłano kwestionariusz zawierający 20 pytań. Późniejsze metody analizy opisowej i korelacja Pearsona zostały wykorzystane do osiągnięcia celów tego badania. Badanie wykazało, że istnieje silny pozytywny związek między organizacyjną sprawiedliwością dystrybucyjną a atmosferą zaufania. Poza tym istniała znacząca różnica w organizacyjnej sprawiedliwości dystrybucyjnej, gdy była ona związana z doświadczeniem zawodowym. Istniały również statystycznie istotne różnice w zaufaniu do przełożonego, związane z wiekiem; ponadto istniały znaczne różnice w zaufaniu do organizacji i współpracowników w zależności od poziomu doświadczenia zawodowego, jednak płeć nie wykazywała znaczących różnic.
EN
Green Supply chain, Green Packaging, Eco-labels, and Eco-design strategies are concepts that are discussed frequently within scientific and political debates. Eco-design strategies for Lifecycle Design include the Eco-design Strategy wheel which presents eight Eco-design strategies: New concept development, Selection of low-impact materials, Reduction of materials usage, Optimization of production techniques, Optimization of distribution system, Reduction of impact during use, Optimization of initial lifetime, and Optimization of end-of-life system. This research investigates specifically the selection of low impact raw materials phase using the European Union as a benchmark to improve the Egyptian situation and aims to apply the closed loop cycle to the Egyptian Plastics Industry. Its goal is to enlight the way towards Sustainable and Circular economy system in Plastics manufacturing sector in Egypt while emphasizing the financial benefits from the Business and Marketing perspectives rather than the Environmental perspective only.
EN
Northern Egypt was always an unusually important area for our study on the history of ancient Egyptian state. The “country of papyrus” called by Egyptians temehu, their feeder and granary, a communication centre important for contacts with Levant. Several Egyptian capitals were also located here and during the antic period the region became a centre of culture, sciences and the cradle of Coptic religion. Paradoxically, this curious area was until quite lately very poorly investigated. Even now the problems of modern Egypt related with farming activities, demographic development and industrial spread as well as with the traditional way of thinking are clearly visible in this particular important region.
4
Content available remote Historia luster
EN
The construction industry is considered as one of the most important sectors in Egypt. One of the major challenges faced by the industry, however, is the unavailability of suitable performance measurement systems for assessing companies’ performance. Modern performance assessment systems adopt a more universal approach to the measurement of construction company performance as opposed to the traditional project triangle. This paper aims to examine the practice of performance measurement in the Egyptian construction industry. Results show dominant role of in-house developed performance management systems as well as the use of KPIs as a method of performance assessment. The study further reveals that the highest importance is given to measures related to the time of project delivery, quality of works, clients’ satisfaction and profitability. Hence, the traditional project triangle of project’s success is the most prevalent approach to performance evaluation in the construction industry in Egypt. However, a shift towards a more holistic approach to performance assessment in larger companies was observed.
6
Content available Biomineralogia zębów mumii egipskich
PL
W dotychczasowej literaturze niewiele jest wiadomości dotyczących mineralogicznych badań zębów pochodzących ze starych cmentarzysk takich jak np. groby mumii egipskich. Prezentowana publikacja uzupełnia w zakresie badań mineralogicznych wiedzę dotycząca przyżyciowych i pośmiertnych zmian w zębach ludzi Starego i Nowego Państwa Egipskiego. Ukazuje ona zjawiska zachodzące w historycznych zębach, które są zbliżone do zjawisk współczesnych. Wykonano ją na kilkunastu zębach, prezentując w publikacji jedynie wybrane, szczególnie ciekawe zjawiska.
EN
In the literature so far, there has been little information on mineralogical studies of teeth from old cemeteries, such as the tombs of Egyptian mummies. This publication adds to the knowledge in the field of mineralogical studies regarding vital and posthumous changes in the teeth of the people of Old and New Kingdom of Egypt. It shows the phenomena occurring in historical teeth, which are similar to those occuring in modern times. The research was conducted on approximately a dozen teeth, and the publication presents only selected, particularly interesting phenomena.
PL
Artykuł proponuje zastosowanie algorytmów optymalizacyjnych w badaniach organicznego rozwoju wczesnośredniowiecznej osady w Abû Mînâ (Egipt). Na podstawie zrekonstruowanej liczby mieszkańców w poszczególnych zespołach zabudowy zaproponowano trzy hipotezy dotyczące ich interakcji z zespołem sklepów i warsztatów, który powstał w specyficznej lokalizacji. Wyniki analizy rzucają nowe światło na ostatnią fazę rozwoju Abû Mînâ.
EN
The paper proposes the use of optimization algorithms in research on the organic development of an early medieval settlement in Abû Mînâ (Egypt). On the basis of the reconstructed number of inhabitants in individual building complexes, three hypotheses regarding their interaction with a group of stores and workshops that was created in a specific location were proposed. The results of the analysis shed new light the last phase of on Abû Mînâ development.
EN
A bed of Middle Miocene (Serravallian) lagoonal facies with well-developed patch reefs is described from a section at the Siwa Oasis, northern Western Desert of Egypt. It is well-exposed in the middle Siwa Escarpment Member of the Marmarica Formation and displays remarkable bioerosion structures that show abundant ichnofossils. Nine ichnotaxa, belonging to four ichnogenera, were identified: two correspond to the clionaid sponge boring Entobia (E. laquea and E. ovula), five to the bivalve boring Gastrochaenolites (G. lapidicus, G. torpedo, G. cluniformis, G. hospitium and G. cf. orbicularis) and two to the annelid-worm boring Maeandropolydora (M. sulcans) and Trypanites (T. weisei). In addition, traces of the boring polychaete worm Caulostrepsis and the boring acrothoracican barnacle Rogerella were recorded. These ichnoassemblages have been assigned to the Entobia ichnofacies. The organisms bored into a hard, fully lithified carbonate substrate in a low-energy, shallow-marine environment. The ichnotaxa associations indicate water depths of a few metres (<10 m) and a very low sedimentation rate in a lagoonal setting during a Serravallian regressive cycle.
EN
A research was conducted on the Holocene lake sediments from the full-cored FA-1 drilling at the southern shore of the Qarun Lake in the Faiyum Oasis in northern Egypt. Altogether 10 taxa of molluscs and 8 taxa of ostracods were identified in the examined deposits, with total amounts of 768 and 2872 individuals, respectively. The fauna was investigated with palaeoecological purpose and allowed for preliminary reconstruction of sedimentary environment in the lake. The occurrence of Valvata nilotica Jickeli, 1874 and Gomphocythere sp. in the lower part of the core and a low proportion of carapaces (2.4–28%) indicated freshwater and higher-energy conditions, respectively. Rapid expansion of Cyprideis torosa (Jones, 1850) at a depth of 18 m could point to very short saline episode in the lake. The increase in salinity and drop of water level were evidenced in the uppermost part of the core (4–3.5 m), when the lake was dominated by Hydrobia ventrosa (Montagu, 1803), Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789) and C. torosa. The steady sedimentation in a shallow lake was also supported by considerable amount of complete ostracod carapaces (45%). The faunal assemblage and smooth valves of C. torosa suggested salinity of 14–25‰.
EN
This study evaluates changes in the environmental and climatic conditions in the Faiyum Oasis during the Holocene based on diatom analyses of the sediment FA-1 core from the southern seashore of the Qarun Lake. The studied FA-1 core was 26 m long and covered the time span ca. 9.000 cal. yrs BP. Diatom taxa were abundant and moderately to well-preserved throughout the core sediments. Planktonic taxa were most abundant than the benthic and epiphytic forms, which were very rare and sparsely distributed. The most dominant planktonic genera were Aulacoseira and Stephanodiscus followed by frequently distribution of Cyclostephanos and Cyclotella species. The stratigraphic distribution patterns of the recorded diatoms through the Holocene sediments explained five ecological diatom groups. Thesegroups represent distinctive environmental conditions, which were mainly related to climatic changes through the earlyand middle Holocene, in addition to anthropogenic activity during the late Holocene. Comparison of diatom assemblages in the studied sediment core suggests that considerable changes occurred in water level as well as salinity. There were several high stands of the freshwater lake level during humid, warmer-wet climatic phases marked by dominance of planktonic, oligohalobous and alkaliphilous diatoms alternated with lowering of the lake level and slight increases in salinity and alkalinity during warm arid conditions evident by prevalence of brackish water diatoms.
11
EN
Public participation is a critical aspect in the planning, also spatial planning. Its role is changing dramatically as it is present not only in social development but also tackles issues connected with cultural, educational. The most important element in participation is the will to do it – to engage in the process of planning the of life, of new urban communities, and how it is taking place in the planning process at different levels/ scales. There is a need to strengthen the public participation in the Egyptian context. Consequently, there are many cases in public participation related to the different levels (metropolitan, city, action area), connected to urban issues, besides, the sectoral issues related to economic development and societal needs. Thus, there is still a gap between existing national policies and their implementation at local level. The important question is how to achieve the local needs with strategies prepared on upper-level agencies. The main problem, in addition to the environmental issues is the regional disparities, poverty illustrated by low human development index. The research aim is to determine general framework and rules of citizen participation in Egypt by illustrating many cases from Egyptian context, and to examine the process and assess their effectiveness and the paper will end with the policy changes.
PL
Substancje organiczne w stanowiskach zachowują się rzadko. Im starsze stanowiska tym mniej jest w nich substancji organicznych. Jedna z okoliczności sprzyjających jej zachowaniu jest spalenie bez dostępu powietrza, czyli zwęglenie. Badania tego typu materiału wymagają stosowania szeregu metod stosowanych m.in. w naukach mineralogicznych. Badania zwęglonych substancji ze stanowiska Tel el Fakha , które mają około 5 tyś. lat pozwoliły rozpoznać spaloną sieczkę zbożową, spalony chleb, dziegieć. spalone tkanki roślinne, spalone kości i ości ryb.
EN
Organic substances are rarely well-preserved at excavation sites. The older the site, the less of organic substances there is. One of the conditions that favor their preservation is burning without air, i.e. charring. Studies of this type of material require implementing a number of methods used, among others, in mineralogical sciences. Such methods were used in this publication. Studies of charred substances from the Tel el Fakha site, which are about 5 thousand years old, allowed us to recognize: burnt chopped cereals, burnt bread, wood tar, burnt vegetable tissues, burnt bones and fish bones.
EN
The geopolitical location of Yemen makes the country an area that has always drawn the attention of external actors interested in expanding their influences in the Arabian Peninsula. During the period of the Cold War, the territory of today's Yemen was a theater of geopolitical rivalry, where the interests clashed between both superpowers and regional actors. During the conflict in North and South Yemen, external entities played an important role as they drove the dynamics of these conflicts counting on achieving their own strategic objectives. The purpose of this article is to seek answers to the questions: who, how and why was engaged in armed conflicts in the territory of North and South Yemen during the Cold War era, and what long-term consequences of this commitment can be observed today?
PL
Historia Kairu to historia Egiptu. Od czasów przedfaraońskich do dziś miejsce to było areną ważnych wydarzeń politycznych, gospodarczych, religijnych i społecznych. Jak w soczewce skupiają się tutaj wszystkie etapy rozwoju Egiptu i zmiany, które zachodziły w nim przez tysiąclecia. Najbardziej widoczna jest oczywiście kultura islamska, szczególnie czytelna w niezwykłych zabytkowych budowlach okresu średniowiecza. Do najważniejszych dzielnic należy tzw. Stary (Historyczny) Kair będący od dziesięcioleci polem pracy konserwatorów i badaczy. Jednocześnie rozwój miasta – szczególnie demograficzny – widoczny we wszechobecnych budowach i  remontach stwarza wielkie zagrożenie dla zabytków oraz samego krajobrazu miasta naznaczonego zarówno historią, jak i duchem historycznego i współczesnego orientu.
EN
The history of Cairo is the history of Egypt. From the days of prePharaonic times till the present day this place was the arena of important political, economic, religious and social events. It focuses like a lens all stages of Egypt’s development and the changes that took place in it for millennia. Today the most visible is obviously Islamic culture, particularly evident in the unusual historic buildings of the medieval period. The most important areas so called Historical Cairo Quater, became since decades a huge working area for conservators and researchers. In the same time a development of the city – particularly demographic – visible in the ubiquitous construction sites and repairs became a  great threat to the monuments and the landscape of the city itself. The landscape crucially marked by both history and spirit of the Orient.
15
EN
The Lake Qarun (Faiyum Oasis, northern Egypt) is a relic of the much larger Holocene lake. Past lake levels and extensions were reconstructed, based on setting of archaeological sites scattered along northern paleoshores of the ancient lake. However, geoarcheological works did not yield enough data to establish continuous environmental history of the lake. A deep drilling FA-1 on the southeastern shore of the lake, performed in 2014, supplied with a core, 26 m long that is the one of the longest lake sediment cores in northeastern Africa. The basal section of the core consisted of thin-laminated diatom marly deposits, underlain at the Late Pleistocene/Holocene boundary by coarse-grained sands. The sediment lamine were quite well developed, especially in the lower part of the core. Preliminary results indicated annually deposited sediment sequence with seasonality signals provided by microlamine of diatoms, calcite, organic matter and clastic material. Early Holocene varved sediments from the Faiyum Oasis supplied with exceptional paleoenvironmental data for northeastern Africa, which enriched a record from previous logs drilled at the southwestern margin of the Qarun Lake.
EN
The present study focused on the determination of the baseline data and correlations between biological and physicochemical variables, including the assessment of trophic conditions in Lake Qarun. The concentrations of nutrients were high, with the maxima usually in the east subarea (total nitrogen 6.40 mg dm-3, mineral nitrogen 2.34 mg dm-3, orthophosphates 0.22 mg dm-3). A total of 134 phytoplankton species were recorded. Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae co-dominated spatially and seasonally in phytoplankton assemblages. The highest phytoplankton density (935 × 104 cells dm-3) and chlorophyll a content (69.3 μg dm-3) were recorded in the east subarea of the lake, whereas the largest total and dominant fish (Mugil cephalus and Solea spp.) were in the west. Tilapia zillii and Engraulis encrasicolus were most abundant in the east and in the middle part, respectively. When phytoplankton density decreased from the east toward the west subarea, the Secchi disk depth increased. The TLI-based assessment indicated hypereutrophic waters at most sites of Lake Qarun. Statistically significant positive or negative correlations were found between the dominant fish species: T. zillii and Solea spp., and the phytoplankton density, Dinophyceae density, concentrations of TP, chlorophyll a, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. Such correlations may be helpful to better understand how to enhance the sustainable fish production.
17
Content available Nowy Kanał Sueski – nowa nadzieja dla Egiptu?
PL
Jedna z największych i najważniejszych inwestycji hydrotechnicznych Egiptu ostatnich lat dobiegła końca. 29 lipca 2015 r. sfinalizowano prace nad Nowym Kanałem Sueskim, a tydzień później, 6 sierpnia, powstałym w rekordowym tempie szlakiem przepłynął pierwszy statek. Egipskie władze upatrują w zakończonym przedsięwzięciu nadziei na ożywienie gospodarcze pogrążonego w stagnacji kraju.
EN
One of the largest and most important hydraulic engineering projects of Egypt in recent years has come to an end. On 29 July 2015 the work on the New Suez Canal was, completed, and a week later, on August 6, the first vessel sailed along the route built in a record time. Egyptian authorities perceive the newly completed project as a hope of economic recovery for the country mired in stagnation.
18
Content available remote Egipski popiół z łusek ryżowych jako materiał zastępujący cement
PL
Popiół z łusek egipskiego ryżu przygotowano spalając w laboratorium te łuski w 650°C przez 90 minut. Płukanie łusek powoduje, że uzyskany z nich popiół ma niską zawartością węgla i zawiera 90% krzemionki i 1,5% K2O. Zastąpienie cementu CEM I 42,5 N popiołem, o powierzchni właściwej 78 m2/g, w ilości 10%, 15% i 20%, poprawia uziarnienie spoiwa, jednak zwiększa jego wodożądność oraz ilość części nierozpuszczalnych. Zaprawa z 10% popiołu osiągnęła większą wytrzymałość na ściskanie po 28 dniach hydratacji; większa zawartość popiołu powoduje nieznaczny spadek wytrzymałości, jednakże wartości te mieszczą się w wymaganiach normowych.
EN
An Egyptian rice husk ash was prepared by burning the husk in the laboratory at 650°C for 90 minutes. Washing of the husks leads to low carbon ash, grey in color, with 90% silica and 1.5% K2O content. Replacement of CEM I 42.5 N with 10%, 15% and 20% ash of fineness 78 m2/g, improves the particle size distribution of the cement, increases its water demand and the insoluble residues. The reference mortar exhibit higher 28-day strength with 10% ash replacement; higher replacement ratio causes slight declination of the strength values, however still remaining within the standard specifications.
PL
Jednym z kluczowych elementów kolejnych strategii biznesowych Grupy Kapitałowej Polskiego Górnictwa Naftowego i Gazownictwa SA (PGNiG SA) jest rozszerzenie działalności poszukiwawczo-wydobywczej firmy poza granice Polski. Uzyskanie dostępu do złóż zagranicznych pozwala na rozbudowę potencjału własnych zasobów oraz wyjście spółek GK na rynki zagraniczne. Artykuł szczegółowo omawia zakres prac prowadzonych przez specjalistów PGNiG SA na koncesjach za granicą oraz przybliża zagadnienia związane z geologią poszczególnych regionów. Przykładem wspomnianej aktywności jest działalność PGNiG Upstream International na Norweskim Szelfie Kontynentalnym. Spółka eksploatuje tam złoża ropne i ropno-gazowe (Skarv, Morvin, Vale i Vilje, a niebawem również Gina Krog i Snadd), prowadzi także prace poszukiwawcze w sąsiedztwie eksploatowanych złóż oraz w rejonach słabiej rozpoznanych geologicznie. Innym przejawem aktywności firmy jest jej działalność w Danii (Południowa Jutlandia) i Niemczech (Południowa Bran-denburgia), gdzie poszukiwania skupiają się na, dobrze znanym polskim geologom, poziomie zbiornikowym dolomitu głównego (Ca2). W poziomie tym PGNiG SA odkryło, udokumentowało i udostępniło do produkcji dwa największe złoża ropno-gazowe w Polsce (BMB i LMG). W Pakistanie z kolei PGNiG SA z powodzeniem prowadzi poszukiwania na, zlokalizowanej w prowincji Sindh, koncesji Kirthar, gdzie od niedawna trwa eksploatacja złoża Rehman, a w nieodległej perspektywie czasowej do produkcji zostanie włączone nowoodkryte złoże Rizq. Całość uzupełnia działalność w Libii i Egipcie. Prace poszukiwawcze prowadzone w Libii przez POGC Libia BV koncentrują się w basenie naftowym Murzuq na obszarze koncesyjnym 113 i trwają nadal, mimo ogłaszanego stanu siły wyższej, w praktyce zawieszającego prace polowe. W Egipcie PGNiG SA prowadziło poszukiwania na koncesji Bahariya, zlokalizowanej w północnej części egipskiej Pustyni Zachodniej, jednak niesatysfakcjonujące wyniki prac skłoniły do opuszczenia tego kraju.
EN
Among the key elements of the PGNiG Group business strategies is the expansion of exploration and production activities outside Poland. Gaining access to foreign deposits allows for the expansion of the potential of own resources and entering foreign markets. The article provides both a detailed description of the scope of works carried out by PGNiG SA specialists at licenses located abroad, and information of issues related to the geology of individual regions. Operations carried out by PGNiG Upstream International on the Norwegian continental shelf are an example of the activities. The company operates oil as well as oil and gas deposits (Skarv, Morvin, Vale, Vilje, and soon, also Gina Krog and Snadd), and carries out exploration works in the vicinity of the operated deposits, as well as in the areas that are less recognized from the geological point of view. Another forms of the company activities are operations in Denmark (South Jutland) and Germany (South Brandenburg) where the research focuses on the Main Dolomite (Ca2) reservoir level that is well-known to the Polish geologists. Two of the largest oil and gas deposits in Poland (BMB and LMG) have been discovered, documented and developed for the production by PGNiG SA at this level. In Pakistan, in turn, PGNiG SA successfully conducts exploration at the Kirthar license, located in the Sindh Province, where exploitation of the Rehman deposit has recently been launched; the exploitation of the newly discovered Rizq deposit will also be launched in the near future. Operations are complemented by activities in Libya and Egypt. The exploration works conducted in Libya by POGC Libya BV are focused in the Murzuq petroleum basin at concession area no. 113, and are continued despite the announced force majeure state that, in practice, means holding up the field works. PGNiG SA has conducted exploration works at the Bahariya license located in the northern part of the Egyptian Western Desert, however, unsatisfactory results led the company to leave this country.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia jeden z projektów konserwatorskich zrealizowanych w świątyni Hatszepsut w Deir el-Bahari w Egipcie, w ramach którego zabezpieczono strop nad Westybulem Kaplicy Hathor. Stan stropu kamiennego i wynikające z niego zagrożenia od lat budziły wątpliwości. Nieszczelności umożliwiały docieranie wody opadowej do wnętrza i narażały na destrukcję polichromię na ścianach i stropie. Zaobserwowano również liczne złuszczenia i spękania architrawów oraz opartych o nie płyt stropowych. Zniszczenia te w połączeniu ze słabym oparciem płyt o ściany zewnętrze oraz ich znacznymi gabarytami i masą mogły grozić zawaleniem Westybulu. W latach 2009 – 2015 zrealizowano projekt zabezpieczenia stropu. Jego pierwszym etapem była szczegółowa inwentaryzacja zniszczeń oraz wytypowanie najbardziej zagrożonych elementów. Wskazane bloki (wszystkie architrawy oraz wybrane płyty stropowe) zostały następnie podwieszone do zewnętrznej, stalowej konstrukcji wsporczej zamontowanej powyżej stropu. W ostatnim etapie projektu wykorzystano konstrukcję stalową do zamontowania lekkiego zadaszenia, w postaci płyt warstwowych, które miało ochronić strop przed niepożądanymi czynnikami zewnętrznymi, a przede wszystkim zapewnić odpowiednią izolacyjność termiczną i stabilne warunki klimatyczne.
EN
The paper discusses one of the conservation projects carried out in the Temple of Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari in Egypt. The project involves the protection of the ceiling over the Vestibule of the Hathor Shrine, which had been in a very bad condition for years. Leaks in the ceiling allowed the rain water to penetrate the interior and to destroy the polychrome preserved on the walls and at the bottom of the ceiling. A detailed examination indicated the presence of numerous transverse cracks and extensive erosion of the surfaces of the architraves and ceiling plates. These destructions with a very week support of the ceiling plates and their substantial weight and size might have resulted in the Vestibule destruction. The project was executed in years 2009-2015. The examination of the ceiling allowed to select the most damaged elements (all architraves and most of the ceiling slabs). During the next phase of the project, the blocks were suspended to a steel construction installed above the ceiling. Creating the roof cover made of light sandwich panels was the last stage of the endeavour. The roof is supported by the existing steel construction. Its basic task is to protect the ceiling from the excessive heat and dust and the interior of the Vestibule from the rain.
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