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PL
Ratunkiem dla niszczejącego dziedzictwa kulturowego Europy Środkowej jest kompleksowo i skutecznie przeprowadzana rewitalizacja. Jest ona jednym z najważniejszych sposobów zapewnienia ładu przestrzennego i wysokiej jakości przestrzeni publicznej. Pomimo transformacji politycznej, jaką przeszła Europa Środkowa, a później w następstwie wstąpienia do Unii Europejskiej absorbcji funduszy pomocowych, problem rewitalizacji jej bezcennego dziedzictwa kulturowego wciąż nie został rozwiązany. Brak środków finansowych jest dla większości władz publicznych cały czas jednym z najbardziej palących problemów w odniesieniu do ochrony oraz utrzymania zarządzanych przez siebie obiektów zabytkowych. Przy ograniczonych środkach publicznych jedyną możliwością realizacji zadań rewitalizacyjnych jest sięgnięcie do doświadczeń i kapitału finansowego sektora prywatnego. Z pomocą przychodzi tutaj formuła partnerstwa publiczno-prywatnego (PPP). Niestety, do dzisiaj jest tylko kilka przykładów PPP w projektach rewitalizacyjnych. Jedną z przyczyn niewielkiego wykorzystania tej formuły jest brak wystarczającej wiedzy i dobrych praktyk. Najlepszym sposobem na zmianę tej sytuacji jest zwiększenie kompetencji i wiedzy zarówno władz publicznych, jak i podmiotów prywatnych w zakresie wykorzystania mechanizmów PPP, również przy okazji rewitalizacji obiektów dziedzictwa kulturowego. Przykładem takiego działania jest projekt Restaura realizowany wspólnie przez 10 instytucji z 4 środkowoeuropejskich państw: Polski, Słowacji, Chorwacji oraz Słowenii. Ma on na celu współpracę instytucji partnerskich w zakresie stworzenia skutecznych strategii dla odnowienia dziedzictwa kulturowego z wykorzystaniem PPP. W ramach projektu miasta partnerskie wskażą obiekt/obszar przeznaczony do rewitalizacji. Następnie przygotowana zostanie kompleksowa dokumentacja techniczna, prawna i finansowa. Zniszczony zabytek będzie przygotowany do prac restauratorskich w formule PPP. Stworzona baza dokumentów i dobrych praktyk będzie ogólnodostępna i stanie się wzorem dla innych samorządów i prywatnych inwestorów w Europie Środkowej.
EN
The last hope for the deteriorating cultural heritage in Central Europe is a complex and efficiently carried out revitalisation. It is one of the most important ways to ensure spatial order and high quality public spaces. Despite the political transformations that Central Europe underwent, and then acquiring aid funds as a result of accession to the EU, the problem of revitalising the priceless cultural heritage has still not been resolved. The lack of sufficient funds has been one of the most urgent issues for the majority of authorities in reference to the protection and maintenance of historic objects they are in charge of. With limited public funds, the only possibility to implement revitalisation tasks is to use the experience and the financial capital of the private sector. The formula of the public-private partnership (PPP) might be of help here. Unfortunately, revitalisation projects have only included a few examples of PPP so far. One of the reasons for the rare use of the formula is insufficient knowledge and lack of good practice. The best way to change the situation is increasing the competence and knowledge of both the authorities and private subjects concerning the application of the PPP mechanisms, also for the revitalisation of the cultural heritage. An example of such an activity is the Restaura project realised by 10 cooperating institutions from 4 Central-European states: Poland, Slovakia, Croatia and Slovenia. Its goal is the cooperation of partner institutions in order to create effective strategies for restoring the cultural heritage using the PPP. Within the project partner cities indicate the object/ area intended for revitalisation. Then a complex technical, legal and financial documentation is prepared. The damaged historic object will be prepared for the restoration treatment within the PPP formula. The created document and good practice base will be generally available and will set an example for other local authorities and private investors in Central Europe.
EN
The post-1989 transition from a centrally planned economy to a free-market economy generated new investment opportunities in Poland, heavily impacted by computerization. The article analyses the genesis, course and effects of implementation of computerization in a cartographic publishing house which spent several decades operating on a typical Central and Eastern European market. It also highlights the multi-dimensional nature of this process, presenting it in the context of political and socio-economic changes. The author indicates that the factors hindering efficient implementation of computerization were the very qualities which in the past determined the enterprise’s market potential: a great reserve of source and technical materials for publishing maps, efficient technological facilities, experienced employees and the management who sought modernization, but underestimated the potential of computerization and had to deal with its own psychological barriers related to the issue.
3
Content available remote Central Europe after 1918. a short outline1
EN
This paper analyses changes in the region’s states, and the evolution of Central Europe’s (CE) position in the international environment. Since forming in 1918, the new CE independent states have remained a focus for neighbouring powers and Western powers. The paper looks at the background for the historical, political, economic, demographic, cultural and geopolitical importance of Central Europe. Three essential periods can be distinguished, the first being thepost-WW1 period, when after the downfall of Austria-Hungary and the weakening of Germany, Russia and Turkey, a number of independent states emerged. The lack of Western assistance and insufficient mutual cooperation meant that CE countries became subject to aggression from Berlin and Moscow. After WW2, the region was forcefully reintegrated into the Soviet Union – and its states were subjected to political, social, economic and cultural degradation. The downfall of the Soviet Union and democratic transition in the states of Central Europe contributed to the regional economic and security integration. EU membership and close ties to the USA forged significant possibilities for development and becoming a subject of European policy. Historical experiences show that Central Europe has had a significant impact on international security in Europe. The region’s states of increasing significance have the capability potential to forge their own concepts of close regional political and economic cooperation.
EN
An accumulation of glacial sediments is located near Písečná village in the depression between the Sokol Ridge and Zlaté Hory Highlands NNE of Jeseník town (Eastern Sudetes). The accumulation lies at the lateral side of the mountain valley of the Bělá River and fills a preglacial palaeovalley of this river. Research combining facies analysis of outcrops, ground penetrating radar survey, interpretation drilling survey, and modelling of the preglacial relief was undertaken at the site. According to the results obtained, the upper part of the sedimentary accumulation represents a coarse-grained terminoglacial glaciofluvial delta of the Gilbert type. The development of the accumulation has dominantly been driven by the preglacial morphology. Facies typical for foresets of coarse-grained deltas represented mainly by high-density flows, cohesionless debris flows, debris falls and less common low-density flows were found in the outcrops. The delta near Písečná prograded into a lake dammed by the ice-sheet front in the north. The lake was bounded by the slopes of Sokol Ridge, Zlaté Hory Highlands and Góry Parkowe on other sides. The lake level reached an altitude of up to 430 m a.s.l., as the coarse-grained delta plain base lies at this level.
EN
During fieldwork in the early 1990s at the then still active quarry near Nasiłów, on the left bank of the River Vistula (Wisła), accompanied by Professor Andrzej Radwański, some lobster remains were collected. A fragmentary anterior portion of a decapod crustacean carapace, recovered from a level about 2 m below the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, in a siliceous chalk unit locally referred to as ‘opoka’, constitutes the oldest record of the thaumastocheliform genus Dinochelus Ahyong, Chan and Bouchet, 2010, D. radwanskii sp. nov. The other, more complete, individual is from c. 3 m above the K/Pg boundary, coming from marly gaizes or ‘siwak’; this is ascribed to a new species of Hoploparia M’Coy, 1849, H. nasilowensis sp. nov., the first to be recorded from Danian (lower Paleocene) strata. Although both ‘opoka’ and ‘siwak’ facies in the Nasiłów area are very rich in diverse biota, including some brachyurans, no macruran remains had so far been recorded from the region.
EN
We describe a new echinoid assemblage, composed of specimens of Bolbaster sp., Cyclaster danicus (Schlüter, 1897), Diplodetus vistulensis (Kongiel, 1950) and Linthia? sp. in a distinctive phosphatic preservation, from the so-called Greensand, a marly glauconitic sandstone horizon at the base of the Danian succession in the Kazimierz Dolny area (central Poland). This assemblage presumably is of early Danian age, with Cyclaster danicus occurring in the lower Danian of Denmark and southern Sweden. The specimens are preserved as internal moulds, composed of phosphatised glauconitic sandstone, occasionally with some test material adhering. The genesis of these moulds involved the following steps: (1) infilling of tests of dead echinoids with glauconitic sand; (2) penetration of the infills by coelobiotic deposit-feeding organisms that produced burrows along the inner test surface; (3) early-diagenetic cementation of infills by calcium phosphate; and (4) exhumation and intraformational reworking of specimens, leading to abrasion, fragmentation and loss of test material in some individuals. Co-occurring are unphosphatised moulds of Echinocorys ex gr. depressa (von Eichwald, 1866) and Pseudogibbaster cf. depressus (Kongiel in Kongiel and Matwiejewówna, 1937), which may represent a younger (middle to late Danian) assemblage. Additionally, the presence of derived late Maastrichtian echinoids, e.g., Temnocidaris (Stereocidaris) ex gr. herthae (Schlüter, 1892), Pleurosalenia bonissenti (Cotteau, 1866) and Hemicara pomeranum Schlüter, 1902, is confirmed for the Greensand, based on new material and re- examination of previously recorded specimens. In summary, members of three echinoid assemblages of different age and preservation occur together in the Greensand. Our results are compatible with former interpretations of this unit as a condensed, transgressive lag with mixed faunas of different age and provenance. However, they are incompatible with the hypothesis that phosphatised Danian fossils preserved in the Greensand are derived from a facies equivalent, now gone, of the lower Danian Cerithium Limestone in eastern Denmark, because all moulds are composed of phosphatised glauconitic sandstone that is utterly different from the calcareous dinocyst-dominated, fine crystalline matrix of the Cerithium Limestone.
PL
Mobilność jest niezwykle ważna dla rozwoju gospodarczego oraz dla jakości życia obywateli, którzy mogą swobodnie podróżować zarówno w celach turystycznych i rekreacyjnych, jak i służbowych czy też szkoleniowych. W niniejszym artykule, będącym kolejnym w cyklu publikacji dotyczących konkurencji na rynku międzynarodowych przewozów pasażerskich, przedstawiono wyniki analizy ofert przewozów z Warszawy do stolic państw Europy Centralnej. Porównano przewozy realizowane indywidualnymi środkami transportu oraz transportem zbiorowym. Pod uwagę wzięto dostępność danego środka transportu, czas podróży oraz cenę.
EN
Mobility is extremely important for economic development and for the quality of life of citizens who are free to travel both for leisure and leisure purposes and for business purposes or training. In this article, being the next in a series of publications on international competition passenger transport, results are presented analysis of transport offers from Warsaw to the capitals of the countries of Central Europe. Comparisons were made with individualized transport and public transport. Considered taken availability of the means of transport, travel time and price.
EN
Assessing habitat naturalness belongs to the most current issues in conservation biology. It has been recognized that plants are able to indicate the naturalness of their habitat. Thus, species may be given relative naturalness indicator values (i.e. scores on an ordinal scale), reflecting their different tolerances against habitat degradation. In the present study, our first goal was to test whether relative naturalness indicator values are able to reveal known differences in naturalness levels. Our second purpose was to compare four different methodological approaches in order to identify which is the most reliable when analyzing habitat naturalness. We compared near-natural and degraded plots on the bases of (1) unweighted plot means, (2) plot medians, (3) unweighted naturalness indicator value populations, and (4) frequency-weighted naturalness indicator value populations. We found that relative naturalness indicator values performed well in differentiating among near-natural and degraded vegetation. Unweighted mean indicator values were the most reliable, but frequency-weighted indicator value populations were nearly as efficient as unweighted means. We conclude that relative naturalness indicator values provide a simple but reliable tool for estimating habitat deterioration.
9
Content available remote Precast concrete architecture in Central Europe
PL
Mobilność jest niezwykle ważna dla rozwoju gospodarczego oraz dla jakości życia obywateli, którzy mogą swobodnie podróżować zarówno w celach turystycznych i rekreacyjnych, jak i służbowych czy też szkoleniowych. W niniejszym artykule, będącym kolejnym z cyklu publikacji dotyczących konkurencji na rynku międzynarodowych przewozów pasażerskich, przedstawiono wyniki analizy ofert przewozów z Warszawy do stalic państw Europy Centralnej. Porównano przewozy realizowane indywidualnymi środkami transportu oraz transportem zbiorowym. Pod uwagę wzięto dostępność danego środka transportu, czas podróży oraz cenę.
EN
Mobility is extremely important for economic development and for the quality of life of citizens who are free to travel both for leisure and leisure purposes and for business purposes or training. In this article, being the next in a series of publications on international competition passenger transport, results are presented analysis of transport offers from Warsaw to the capitals of the countries of Central Europe. Comparisons were made with individualized transport and public transport. Considered taken availability of the means of transport, travel time and price.
11
Content available remote Strategic importance of the seaport of Koper, Slovenia
EN
Presented is the development of the city and the port of Koper in the Upper Adriatic and its role as a regional transport node. Koper is in fact a substitute port-city; it developed after the decline of Trieste in the post-WW2 period because of the needs of Slovenian economy within ideologically polarized Europe during the 1950s. Favourable economic connections between Slovenia and the wider hinterlands in Central Europe facilitated the development of this port into an important North Adriatic transport node, with over 20 million tons of cargo per year and specialization for transportation of cars, timber, containers and finer commodities.
EN
The impact of biological invasions should be considered from ecological and economic perspective. To understand the influence of the invader, both its range and abundance should be known. Even if the range of invaders is well-known, the problem of assessing their abundance still occurs very often. In this study we report the results of an assessment of the area covered by stands of alien Solidago species in Silesia (Central Europe, south-western Poland, area ca. 30 000 km2), and estimated costs of the invaded areas recultivation. The results of field survey show that the stands of invasive Solidago species cover an area of about 130 000 hectares in S-W Poland, which is ca. 4.5% of the total area of the studied region. It was also found that the cadastral data and Corine land cover maps underestimate the area of fallowed agricultural lands. The cost of removing stands of invasive Solidago species in S-W Poland ranges from 123.24 to 266.17 million PLN, depending on the method. The method that balances reasonable costs, low environmental impact and efficiency of grassland establishment costs 180.7 million PLN for S-W Poland.
EN
Stromatoporoids of the family Actinostromatidae are common constituents of Givetian to Frasnian (Devonian) organic buildups. The species-level structure of actinostromatid assemblages from the Devonian of southern Poland is described in the present paper, with special emphasis on ecological factors that influenced species composition of the communities. Nine species of the genera Actinostroma and Bifariostroma are distinguished. Members of the family Actinostromatidae predominated in stromatoporoid assemblages within lower Frasnian carbonate buildup margins. The most diverse actinostromatid faunas were found within the middle Givetian Stringocephalus Bank, in the upper Givetian–lower Frasnian biostromal complex and in the lower Frasnian organic buildups. Species-level biodiversity was lowest within detrital facies which surrounded the Frasnian carbonate buildups. Species of Actinostroma with well-developed colliculi are commonest within the middle Givetian to early Frasnian coral-stromatoporoid biostromal complexes, whereas species with strongly reduced colliculi predominate early-middle Frasnian organic buildups. The skeletal structure of actinostromatids reflects environmental changes, documenting a transition from species with thin, close-set pillars and widely spaced laminae (common in the middle Givetian) to those with long, thick pillars and megapillars (in Bifariostroma), which were predominant during the early and middle Frasnian. The distribution of growth forms among species reveals a significant intraspecific variation. Species of Actinostroma can be either tabular or low domical, depending on the palaeoenvironmental setting. Thus, the present study confirms that stromatoporoid morphology was influenced by environmental conditions.
EN
The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.
EN
Petrophysical investigations are fundamental to natural resource exploration. In order to recognise the geothermal potential of sedimentary rocks in central Poland, 259 samples were collected from prospective deep-lying geothermal reservoirs. Parameters measured include bulk density, skeletal density, effective porosity, permeability, average pore diameter and specific surface. Results indicate that at great depths (mostly > 3,000 m below surface) sedimentary rocks show low values of porosity (mainly less than 5%) and permeability (only sporadically in excess of 1 md). These values call for a petrothermal use of reservoirs, for which an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) was developed. Reservoirs suited for the EGS are Carboniferous and Lower Triassic sandstones in the central part of Poland (Mogilno-Łódź Trough region and a small part of the Kujawy Swell and Fore-Sudetic regions). In addition, Carboniferous limestones in this area are potentially prospective.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwój kartografii geologicznej Sudetów i Dolnego Śląska począwszy od wydanej w 1791 r. pierwszej mapy geologicznej Karkonoszy, opracowanej przez J. Jiraska, poprzez mapy L. von Bucha, C. von Raumera i A. Kalužy z początku XIX w., przez liczne wydania atlasowe ukazujące się w całym XIX w., kończąc na szczegółowych mapach w skali 1 : 25 000, opracowywanych już w XX w. Były one później bazą do opracowania map reambulowanych, powstających po 1945 r.
EN
The paper presents the development of the geological mapping of in the Sudetes and Lower Silesia, starting from issuing in 1791 the first geological map of the Karkonosze Mountains, developed by J. Jirasek and issued in 1791, through maps of L. von Buch, C. von Raumer and A. Kaluža from the beginning of the 19th century, through and numerous editions of atlases published throughout the 19th century, ending with the detailed maps produced at the scale of 1 : 25,000 in at the beginning of the 20th century. The latter maps were the basis for the geological maps prepared after 1945.
EN
The detailed sedimentological study of the 150-m-thick Muschelkalk succession, deposited on a small (~200 by 80 km), morphologically diverse Upper Silesian carbonate platform during four major marine-transgressive pulses of the Tethys Ocean, enhanced the understanding of the depositional history, palaeogeography, and facies distribution. A total of thirty-five lithofacies types were identified, described and interpreted in terms of depositional settings. These different lithofacies represent various shallow-marine environments along the platform transect, from peritidal to offshore areas. The vertical and lateral organization of the lithofacies delineated was caused by the interplay of platform morphology, third-order eustasy and the long-term tectonic evolution of the area. Accordingly, the carbonate system studied is a good example of the influence of large-scale processes on the facies architecture of carbonate platforms. In general, all of the four Transgressive Systems Tracts are characterized by similarity in lithofacies composition and vertical succession and by minor lateral change, indicating only limited influence of the three large-scale factors mentioned on lithofacies development and distribution during transgressions. In contrast, each of the four associated Highstand Systems Tracts comprises an individual (unique) lithofacies assemblage displaying substantial regional and local variation, which indicates that the filling of accommodation space during highstands strongly depended on the extrinsic processes.
PL
W artykule opisano system oceny stanu bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego, który został stworzony w ramach realizacji projektu europejskiego SOL – Save Our Lives – Kompleksowa Strategia Bezpieczeństwa Ruchu Drogowego dla Europy Środkowej. System oceny obejmuje cztery najważniejsze elementy: ocenę stanu brd w regionie, analizę interesariuszy, ocenę kompetencji instytucji oraz badanie opinii społecznej przeprowadzone wśród uczestników ruchu drogowego. Ten ostatni element został szerzej przedstawiony w artykule.
EN
The paper describes road safety assessment system, developed within European project SOL – Save Our Lives – A Comprehensive Road Safety Strategy for Central Europe. System is composed of four crucial elements: road safety assessment, stakeholders analysis, institutions competence analysis and public opinion poll. This last element is presented in the article more extensively.
PL
Problem międzynarodowych połączeń kolejowych Małopolski oraz sąsiednich regionów podjęty został ze względu na niekorzystne zmiany w ofercie przewozowej, powodujące rezygnację pasażerów z transportu kolejowego. Celem zobrazowania zmian zachodzących w ofercie pociągów międzynarodowych oraz lokalnych pociągów transgranicznych w południowej Polsce szczegółowej analizie poddano ofertę przewozową, na podstawie sieciowych rozkładów jazdy pociągów na przestrzeni ostatnich 20 lat. Stwierdzono, że w ostatnich latach nastąpiło istotne pogorszenie liczby i jakości połączeń z krajami sąsiednimi, zwłaszcza ze Słowacją. Dokonano także przeglądu zapisów ustawowych oraz rządowych dokumentów planistycznych wyznaczających ramy organizacji przewozów międzynarodowych. W szczególności zwrócono uwagę na konsekwencje zapisów Planu zrównoważonego rozwoju publicznego transportu zbiorowego w zakresie sieci komunikacyjnej w międzywojewódzkich i międzynarodowych przewozach pasażerskich w transporcie kolejowym. Wykazano, że jednym z powodów spadku atrakcyjności oferty jest pogarszający się stan infrastruktury kolejowej. Na podstawie przeglądu trwających prac modernizacyjnych i rewitalizacyjnych na wybranych liniach kolejowych zaproponowano kierunki rozwoju sieci połączeń pomiędzy Polską a Czechami i Słowacją. Wskazano na konieczność podjęcia działań o charakterze systemowym, w tym umożliwiających finansowanie sieci międzyregionalnych połączeń przyspieszonych, które mają szansę wypełnić lukę pomiędzy pociągami kwalifikowanymi a siecią połączeń aglomeracyjnych i mogą odegrać rolę w kształtowaniu oferty przewozowej pociągów transgranicznych przez południową granicę Polski.
EN
The problem of international connections between Małopolska and neighbouring regions has been brought up due to the unfavourable changes of the offer, resulting with resignation of passengers from the railway transport. In order to illustrate the changes in the offer of long-distance and local passenger trains crossing the south border of Poland, the timetables of the last 20 years have been analyzed. It has been noted that during last few years the number of connections between Southern Poland and neighbouring countries, especially Slovakia, has been dramatically decreased. Review on law acts and government documents determining frames organisation of international railway transport services in Poland has been carried out. In particular, the consequences of the Plan of sustainable development of the public transport in the range of communication network in interregional and international passenger railway transport have been outlined. It has been proven, that one of the reasons of the decrease of the offer quality is deteriorating condition of the Polish railway infrastructure. Basing on results of inspection of current modernisation and revitalisation processes conducted on selected railway lines, some opportunities of the international connections development between Poland and the Czech Republic, as well as Slovakia have been proposed. The improvement of the current situation needs comprehensive solutions, e.g. wide subsidizing of domestic and trans border interregional express connections have been indicated.
20
Content available remote Wintering Farmland Bird Assemblages in West Hungary
EN
Farmland bird populations declining rapidly all over Europe. Most of the knowledge is, however, from the breeding season, and much less is known about the winter period, especially from Central and Eastern Europe. We censused wintering farmland bird assemblages in West Hungary, in 2011/2012. The censuses covered semi-natural and seeded grasslands, plough fields and wheat fields. The available winter seed food was estimated for each field from the top soil and from the vegetation. We recorded 25 species with 844 individuals on the fields. Semi-natural grasslands were the most important habitats for species richness of all, granivorous, and resident species, with seeded grasslands as the second best habitat. Abundance showed similar pattern, although with no significant effect for granivorous species and for short-range migrants. Seed mass was significantly different among the habitat types, higher on seeded grasslands and seminatural grasslands than on ploughed sites and winter wheat fields. Date had a significant effect on species richness and abundance with highest values in December. There was a positive significant correlation between bird species richness and seed mass only in December. Our results strengthen former findings that changes and drivers of wintering farmland bird populations may differ between Central and West Europe, and highlight the need for further, large scale studies to provide evidence base to guide agrienvironmental programs.
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