Surgery is the most basic treatment in case of breast cancer: it involves a complete or partial removal of the mammary gland. The aim of the study was to assess the body image distress and self-esteem in a group of women with breast cancer undergoing various surgical procedures. The material was collected in a group of 229 women with breast cancer who were divided into subgroups based on the surgery criterion (mastectomy, breast-conserving therapy - BCT and mastectomy with breast reconstruction). The study used the Body Image Scale by Hopwood, Fletcher, Lee and Al Ghazal (2001; Polish adaptation by Brandt-Salmeri and Przybyła-Basista), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale - SES (Polish adaptation by Łaguna, Lachowicz-Tabaczek and Dzwonkowka, 2007) and an original survey. Analyses showed, among other things, significant differences in the assessment of discomfort associated with a change in body image depending on the type of surgery. The research also revealed that the assessment depended on differences between the women in terms of age and the time elapsed since the onset of treatment. Negative body image was adversely associated with self-esteem in all studied groups. Body image was significantly related to age and time elapsed since the treatment in the post-mastectomy group. At the same time, it was related only to age in the BCT group and with regards to the breast reconstruction group, the relationship concerned only elapsed time.