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EN
By reviewing the current state of the art, this paper opens a Special Section titled “The Internet of Things and AI-driven optimization in the Industry 4.0 paradigm”. The topics of this section are part of the broader issues of integration of IoT devices, cloud computing, big data analytics, and artificial intelligence to optimize industrial processes and increase efficiency. It also focuses on how to use modern methods (i.e. computerization, robotization, automation, machine learning, new business models, etc.) to integrate the entire manufacturing industry around current and future economic and social goals. The article presents the state of knowledge on the use of the Internet of Things and optimization based on artificial intelligence within the Industry 4.0 paradigm. The authors review the previous and current state of knowledge in this field and describe known opportunities, limitations, directions for further research, and industrial applications of the most promising ideas and technologies, considering technological, economic, and social opportunities.
2
Content available remote Kreatywne miejsca pracy w Przemyśle 4.0
PL
Celem badań było określenie rozwojowych trendów w zakresie projektowania architektonicznego kreatywnych miejsc pracy w przemyśle czwartej generacji. Zakres badań obejmował szereg aspektów projektowych, począwszy od aspektów lokalizacji, aż po szczegółowe rozwiązania funkcjonalne fabryki oraz detale projektu architektonicznego. Z uwagi na aplikacyjny charakter badań zastosowano metodę badań przez projektowanie (ang. research-by-design), w czym wykorzystano zajęcia dydaktyczne. Wyniki badań wykazały wielopłaszczyznowy wpływ koncepcji Przemysłu 4.0 na projektowanie architektoniczne zakładów przemysłowych. Scharakteryzowano najważniejsze cechy funkcjonalno-przestrzenne nowych modeli fabryki w odniesieniu do scenariusza organizacji pracy. Wyniki badań podkreśliły także kluczowe znaczenie umiejętności analitycznych w projektowaniu architektonicznym, co znajduje przełożenie na wdrażanie wniosków w praktyce oraz na polu dydaktycznym.
EN
This paper aims to identify the most influential trends in the design of creative workplaces in the fourth-generation industry. The scope of research covered several design aspects, ranging from location issues to detailed functional solutions of the factory and details of the architectural design. Due to its applicable nature, the research-by-design method was combined with didactic classes. The research results showed the multifaceted influence of Iindustry 4.0 concept on the architectural design of industrial plants. The new factory models' most important functional and spatial features were characterized in relation to the work organization scenario. The research results also highlighted the critical importance of analytical skills in architectural design, translating into applying conclusions in practice and the didactic field.
3
Content available The concept of descriptive analytics
EN
Purpose: The goal of the paper is to analyze the main features, benefits and problems with the descriptive analytics usage. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: The paper discusses the concept of descriptive analytics, which involves collecting, cleaning, and summarizing historical data from various sources to provide a clear and concise summary that can aid in decision-making. The paper explains the importance of descriptive analytics as the foundation for other types of data analytics, and highlights the steps involved in its implementation, including data collection, cleaning and preparation, exploration and visualization, analysis, interpretation, and reporting. The paper also mentions the advantages of descriptive analytics, such as identifying trends and patterns, optimizing processes, improving decision-making, and simplifying communication, while cautioning businesses about the potential pitfalls and challenges of this approach, such as limited predictive power, incomplete data, data privacy concerns, biased results, and overreliance on historical data. The paper emphasizes the importance of understanding these issues to ensure that the insights generated are relevant, accurate, and useful. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with the descriptive analytics.
4
EN
Purpose: The publication presents the results of an analysis of the popularity of technologies used in logistics based on published technical literature. The aim of the work was to determine the participation of individual types of technologies in the development of Logistics 4.0. In the Industry 4.0 policy implemented in highly developed countries, logistics development is referred to as “Logistics 4.0”. Methodology: The work is based on the analysis of empirical data describing the topics of the application of the latest information technology and other technologies related to the fourth industrial revolution. The scope of the analysis covers technologies developed between 2014-2022. Findings: Based on the investigation, the major technological subfields of Big Data, Cloud computing and networking, Business Intelligence and other, Internet of Things, and Hardware have been proposed as the core utility categories of technologies in Logistics 4.0. Originality/value: The analysis can be useful for practical aims, e.g., while planning logistics 4.0 trainings, enterprising technical investments, but also for scientific and educational objectives.
5
Content available Team innovations
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the team innovation processes in industrial enterprise. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: The publication concentrate on problems connected with various aspects of team innovations. In the paper we presented the system of interactions which exist between negotiators in team especially from innovativeness point of view. Also we analyzed problems connected with team creativity and boasting it because team creativity is indispensable to boast innovativeness in industrial company. On the basis of the literature analysis it can be pointed out that the satisfying level of innovativeness can be achievable without appropriate level of creativity. To enhance it within company we need to give the people enough freedom and appropriate leadership adjusted to the culture of people. Also it is important to integrate creativity concepts and methods enhancing creativity into day-to-day operation of the organization. The organization should careful plan the division of the resources between innovative tasks. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with team innovation in an industrial enterprise.
EN
Purpose: The fourth industrial revolution has a strong influence on changes in enterprises towards smart manufacturing. Technological progress and digital economies created new conditions for business. Currently producers aiming at digitalization of processes and smart manufacturing based on key technologies (pillars) of Industry 4.0. In transformation process, the question arises, from what to start the changes and which path to choose to smart manufacturing (SM). Apart from big projects of SM, changes need the concept of Kaizen based on small steps of changes on workstations towards smart production. The purpose of the paper is the presentation of links between Smart Manufacturing (SM) projects and Kaizen. Design/methodology/approach: The paper was realized based on literature review and examples of SM projects. Findings: The study found that Kaizen is evolving with the automation and digitisation of production. IC technologies facilitate Kaizen improvements. The automation of production processes provides insight into historical data through process monitoring. Fully autonomous equipment is equipped with systems for transferring data to a central decision-making system. The machine operator's job is to collaborate with robots and control machine operation in real time using simple data visualisation and warning systems. Research limitations/implications: The work prepared is of a high degree of generality. Kaizen is implemented at workplaces and is concerned with practical improvements. These improvements are many, following the principle of small steps. The publication focuses on presenting the idea of Kaizen in SM projects. Practical implications: The paper can have an impact on the practical application of Kaizen in SM projects as it presents examples of Kaizen improvements. Originality/value The topic of adapting Kaizen to SM projects is a new area of research that will be strongly built upon due to the utility of Smart Kaizen.
7
Content available Innovations in Industry 4.0 conditions
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the innovations in Industry 4.0 conditions. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: The publication concentrate on problems connected with various aspects of relations between Industry 4.0 and innovativeness. In the paper we presented the main presumptions of Industry 4.0 concept and it’s nowadays usage. In the second part of the paper there is an analysis of main trends of today Industry 4.0 implementation approaches and innovativeness. Especially there is an description of main innovative trends of 2021 described from Industry 4.0 relations point of view. Also the paper deals with the social innovation aspect of Industry 4.0. There are very interesting and innovative concepts that can be used in today business environment and also governments. Some of them like universal basic income are a bit controversial but it needs to further more detailed analysis if it is possible and could benefit to the society. Other trends can be for example: new forms of employment or new types of organizational culture. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with the innovations in Industry 4.0 conditions.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the Industry 5.0 concept and compare it with Industry 4.0. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: Industry 5.0 offers several benefits that make it worth adopting in manufacturing industries, including improved efficiency, greater quality control, sustainability, enhanced worker safety, improved customer experience, cost savings, competitive advantage, increased innovation, and positive social impact. By integrating human creativity and intuition with advanced machinery and technology, Industry 5.0 promises to create a more sustainable, flexible, and socially responsible manufacturing environment that delivers higher quality products and more meaningful jobs. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with the Industry 5.0.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the paper was the need to systematise the digital professions of Industry 4.0. With the development of new technologies, the demand for new employees is increasing. Companies need more and more employees with digital skills. The question arises: who do companies need for their Industry 4.0 strategy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of two parts: an overview of the competences of the Industry 4.0 workforce and a list of IT professions. The list of occupations is based on a review of government websites: www.praca.gov.pl; www.prace.cz. The paper presents occupations according to the innovative technologies of Industry 4.0. Findings: Demand for employees is driven by the key technologies of Industry 4.0. The analysis of IT professions is presented by the following technologies: ITC systems and networks, automation and robots online, AI, Big Data, Big Data Analytics, IoT, Cloud Computing, Cybersecurity. Research limitations/implications: The list of professions included in the paper is not complete, but exemplary (it was made on the basis of job offers posted on the websites in December 2022). The list was created during a review of Polish and Czech government websites, which are both job listings and encyclopedias of occupations. Practical implications: This paper is an overview of IT professions that are particularly needed in Industry 4.0. The prepared description of professions according to the innovative technologies of Industry 4.0 can help companies plan the development of human resources. Originality/value: The topic of the human factor in Industry 4.0 is important and topical. Technologies are constantly changing and industrial concepts are evolving (currently Industry 4.0 is changing into Industry 5.0). In the technological and industrial innovations taking place, the question of the competence of the modern company's employee is still relevant.
10
Content available Functioning of real-time analytics in business
EN
Purpose: The goal of the paper is to analyze the main features, benefits and problems with the real-time analytics usage. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: The paper focus on the advantages and disadvantages of real-time analytics. The ability to process and analyze data in real-time allows organizations to quickly identify trends and patterns, optimize their operations, and allocate resources more efficiently. Additionally, real-time analytics helps businesses identify new revenue opportunities and optimize their pricing strategies, monitor user behavior, detect security threats, and react without delay. However, real-time analytics can be expensive to implement, require technical expertise, and generate false positives. Proper data quality, security measures, and system scaling are also essential for effective implementation. The vague definition of real-time and the requirement to collect detailed requirements from all stakeholders can also present challenges to businesses. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with the real-time analytics.
EN
Purpose: This article presents the limitations and opportunities for implementing Industry 4.0 solutions in cluster enterprises in the context of the results of studies of their digital maturity. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article uses the following research methods: the analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the subject, the analysis of secondary sources (the results of research by other authors, the results of a study of digital maturity of enterprises belonging to several clusters in Poland and enterprises outside the clusters, the data of the Digital Economy and Society Index 2022 report), induction and deductive reasoning. Findings: Compared to EU countries, companies in Poland (especially SMEs) show a low level of digital maturity necessary to implement Industry 4.0 solutions (including big data technologies, cloud solutions, and artificial intelligence). In fact, this is a solid barrier to improving and maintaining the competitiveness of companies in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution. Moreover, it stems from certain exo- and endogenous barriers. The research on behalf of the Future Industry Platform among companies participating in clusters revealed that their members show a higher degree of digital maturity than those outside such forms of network cooperation. It indicates more significant opportunities for cluster companies to implement Industry 4.0 solutions. Membership in a cluster represents an opportunity for them to reduce barriers to digitisation. The research results confirm that companies that are members of clusters are more innovative and competitive entities that can function more effectively and efficiently in the digital economy. Practical implications: The article discusses a unique methodology for measuring the digital maturity of enterprises from several clusters in Poland, which business entities can use and apply for self-assessment. The presented research results and information on the barriers and limitations of digitisation will allow government representatives and other institutions to choose appropriate tools to support enterprises in Poland (especially in the SME sector), facilitating the implementation of Industry 4.0 solutions. Originality/value: The study presents research results on cluster enterprises’ digital maturity using an innovative method. It discusses them in the context of existing limitations in implementing Industry 4.0 solutions in Poland. It highlights the importance of clusters for improving the ability of enterprises to effectively use digital technologies for the success of the enterprise in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution.
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Content available Design thinking and its use to boast innovativeness
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the innovations in design thinking. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: It could be pointed out that exist the relationship between design thinking and the organizational innovativeness. Design Thinking began it’s important role especially when start-ups were start to increase in the global market. Nowadays this method plays important role as a part of dynamic, agile action on the world stage and in various sectors of business from teaching to building IT systems. Because of that method can be used as a boast in innovative activities in many sectors. The publication describes main relations between design thinking and innovations and give an overview of the tools used in design thinking to boast innovativeness. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with the innovations and design thinking.
EN
Nowadays, modern production processes are undergoing intensive technological development, according to Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 assumptions. Despite the separate differentiation and numbering of these terms, the assumptions of the two approaches do not contradict each other. Industry 5.0 is a type of an extension of the drive for the highest possible degree of integration of automated systems (along with the pillars assumed in Industry 4.0) by finding a place where humans prove to be irreplaceable and their needs are identified as the most essential, central aspect. This leads to the implementation of semi-automated processes in which the cooperation between human and machine is the key. The paper presents an analysis and the results of the studies performed in company that produces vehicle control systems in automotive. The research includes quarter-a-year of studies and observation of production process. The studies aimed identifying waste in production process and proposing improvement methods, with particular reference to automated operations. Implementation of proposed improvements was mainly based on re-programming automated systems, but also on adding new process of cleaning brakes, that allowed to reduce the number of scrapped parts. Moreover, the implicated solutions allowed to achieve reduction of production process cycle time, financial savings and risk of the defects.
PL
W dzisiejszych czasach nowoczesne procesy produkcji przechodzą intensywny rozwój technologiczny, powiązany z wdrażaniem założeń Industry 4.0 i Industry 5.0. Pomimo odrębnego rozróżniania i numerowania tych terminów, założenia obu tych podejść nie są ze sobą sprzeczne. Industry 5.0 jest niejako poszerzeniem dążenia do możliwie wysokiego stopnia zintegrowania zautomatyzowanych systemów (wraz z filarami zakładanymi w Industry 4.0) o odnalezienie miejsca, w którym człowiek okazuje się być niezastąpiony, a jego potrzeby identyfikowane są jako najistotniejszy, centralny aspekt. Prowadzi to do powstawania procesów pół-automatycznych, w których znaleźć można miejsce na współpracę pomiędzy człowiekiem i maszyną. W artykule przedstawiono analizę i wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w firmie produkującej systemy sterowania pojazdami w branży motoryzacyjnej. Badania obejmują kwartał-rok badań i obserwacji procesu produkcyjnego. Badania miały na celu identyfikację marnotrawstwa w procesie produkcyjnym oraz zaproponowanie metod usprawnień, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem operacji zautomatyzowanych. Wdrożenie zaproponowanych usprawnień polegało głównie na przeprogramowaniu systemów automatycznych, ale także na dodaniu nowego procesu czyszczenia hamulców, który pozwolił na zmniejszenie liczby złomowanych części.
14
Content available Wpływ e-commerce na Przemysł 4.0
PL
Artykuł koncentruje się na specyfice modeli biznesowych przedsiębiorstw Przemysłu 4.0 w kontekście konkurencji w e-commerce uwzględniając popularne modele sprzedaży internetowej, takie jak sklepy internetowe i marketplace. Komponent technologiczny e-commerce oraz nacisk na innowacyjność w Przemyśle 4.0 stwarza ogromny potencjał biznesowy i rozwojowy, co implikuje znaczące korzyści w postaci m.in. zwiększenia efektywności produkcji, poprawy jakości obsługi klienta oraz wzrostu sprzedaży. Celem artykułu jest podkreślenie kluczowej roli danych jako łącznika oraz logistyki jako wspólnego elementu między branżą e-commerce a Przemysłem 4.0.
EN
An increasing number of exploiters (users and maintainers) of technical means requires taking action aimed at providing such people with appropriate living space, including in the workplace, which will be adapted to their needs and in which these means will fulfill their tasks in accordance with their intended use. The aim, as a result of which these activities are undertaken, should be to ensure appropriate conditions for functioning in the space in question. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods and techniques for assessing the quality of life that will enable the collection, processing and analysis of spatial data. This need prompted the author to review in the literature model solutions in the discussed area, taking into account the aspect of space, and to propose a concept of using the above-mentioned methods in improving the quality of life of the older people.
PL
W artykule omówiono wiele aspektów związanych z Przemysłem 4.0. W wstępie przytoczono definicję Przemysłu 4.0, a następnie poruszono tematy związane z inżynierią utrzymania ruchu i eksploatacją maszyn, diagnozowaniem maszyn z wykorzystaniem AI, wykorzystaniem AI do utrzymania ruchu zakładu przemysłowego, układami sensorycznymi, przetwarzaniem danych pomiarowych w chmurze, redystrybucją informacji krytycznych oraz integracją systemów. Przeanalizowano także wymierne efekty Przemysłu 4.0, takie jak poprawa wydajności produkcji, skrócenie czasu przestoju maszyn, redukcja kosztów utrzymania ruchu, zwiększenie bezpieczeństwa pracowników oraz optymalizacja procesów logistycznych. Wszystkie te elementy wskazują na to, jak wiele korzyści przynosi Przemysł 4.0 dla przedsiębiorstw przemysłowych. Jest to jednak proces wymagający dużego nakładu pracy i inwestycji w nowe technologie, a także odpowiedniego przeszkolenia pracowników, którzy będą obsługiwać te nowoczesne urządzenia.
EN
The article discusses many aspects of Industry 4.0. In the introduction, the definition of Industry 4.0 was quoted, followed by topics related to maintenance engineering and machine operation, machine diagnosis using AI, the use of AI to maintain industrial plant operation, sensor systems, cloud measurement data processing, redistribution of critical information and system integration. The measurable effects of Industry 4.0 were also analyzed, such as improving production efficiency, reducing machine downtime, reducing maintenance costs, increasing employee safety and optimizing logistics processes. All these elements show how many benefits Industry 4.0 brings to industrial enterprises. However, this is a process that requires a lot of work and investment in new technologies, as well as appropriate training of employees who will operate these modern devices.
PL
W referacie przedstawiono wyzwania branży odlewniczej, wynikające z transformacji energetycznej związanej z koniecznością ograniczenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych podczas produkcji odlewów. Scharakteryzowano przyszłościowe, potencjalne źródła energii. Zamieszczono prognozy rozwoju rynku odlewów ciśnieniowych oraz wskazano nowe trendy w produkcji odlewów dla branży samochodowej.
EN
The paper presents the challenges of the foundry industry due to the energy transition associated with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during casting production. Future potential energy sources were characterized. Forecasts for the development of the die casting market were included, and new trends in the production of castings for the automotive industry were identified.
EN
The consequences of Industry 4.0 have adverse side effects on cybercrime growth, which requires creating an effective cybersecurity system for companies. Therefore, this study aims to develop a composite indicator of company cybersecurity to assess its development needs. For this purpose, the authors modified Porter's method by constructing a superposition matrix based on the growth rates of cyber threats and risks, calculating their quantitative characteristics and a composite indicator. The computations are based on indicators for 2016-2022 characterizing cybersecurity vulnerabilities and the consequences of cyber threats: the share of companies experiencing one, six or more successful cyberattacks, considering the likely and very likely success of cyberattacks on them in the next 12 months, security threat and concern indices, the share of companies with a growing security budget affected by ransomware and experiencing a shortage of skilled IT security personnel, the cost of stolen or compromised credentials. As a result, cybersecurity needs increased significantly for 2020-2022, mainly due to digital transformation and the cyber threats growth after the COVID-19 pandemic. A comparative analysis of the proposed indicator with those characterizing the development of Industry 4.0 showed that the need for a reliable cybersecurity system is much more important than the active development of modern technologies. Spending on IT is also increasing, but not enough to meet the needs of cybersecurity development, except for the 2022 results. The proposed indicator is defined for companies worldwide, but its versatility allows the methodology to be applied to enterprises of various industries and sizes.
EN
This paper presents the results of computer simulations related to the selection and optimisation of parameters for a robotic yoghurt mixing process. The authors proposed a station configuration using the RobotStudio environment for off-line robot programming and virtual controller technology and determined the performance of the robotised production line. The main component of the study was a computer simulation of the station based on the Picking PowerPac package and Pick Master 3 program. As a result of the simulations, numerical values were obtained informing about the number of handled and rejected products, filled containers and the times of production cycles of the station.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki przeprowadzonych symulacji komputerowych związanych z doborem i optymalizacją parametrów zrobotyzowanego procesu miksowania jogurtów. Autorzy zaproponowali konfigurację stacji przy użyciu środowiska RobotStudio do programowania robotów w trybie off-line oraz w technologii wirtualnego kontrolera i wyznaczyli wydajność zrobotyzowanej linii produkcyjnej. Głównym elementem badań była symulacja komputerowa stanowiska w oparciu o pakiet Picking PowerPac oraz Pick Master 3. W wyniku przeprowadzonych symulacji uzyskano liczbowe wartości informujące m. in. o liczbie obsłużonych i odrzuconych produktów, zapełnionych kontenerów oraz czasach cykli produkcyjnych stacji.
EN
In this paper, a survey of the applications of digital twins (DTs) in removal and additive machining operations performed in smart manufacturing is presented. Some representative examples of virtual modelling in these manufacturing areas at different scales and complexity, including tools, fixtures, machines, equipment and manufacturing/production systems are presented and overviewed. Current experiences of research centres and machine tools companies, which develop and implement of DT technology in the context of control and optimization of machining processes performed on CNC machine tools, are highlighted. According to the author’s opinion this comprehensive survey would encourage to undertake this important manufacturing problem to implement new virtual tools for developing the I4.0 strategy.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano przegląd zastosowań cyfrowego bliźniaka (DT) w skrawaniu i obróbce przyrostowej. Podano przykłady o różnym poziomie złożoności, z uwzględnieniem oprzyrządowania, maszyn, procesów i systemów wytwórczych/produkcyjnych. Omówiono doświadczenia ośrodków badawczych we wdrażaniu technologii DT w kontekście sterowania procesami obróbkowymi na obrabiarkach CNC i ich optymalizacji. Zdaniem autora artykuł powinien zachęcić do podjęcia problematyki wprowadzania nowych narzędzi informatycznych w rozwoju strategii Przemysłu 4.0.
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