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1
Content available remote Co warto wiedzieć o wodzie i jej działaniu na dachach
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki ilościowej analizy dyfuzji nieizobarycznej przez materiały makroporowate. Na podstawie uogólnionego modelu gazu zapylonego dokonano oceny udziału przepływu lepkiego. Zaobserwowano zjawisko odwrócenia strumieni molowych, pojawiające się dla pewnej średnicy porów, nawet wówczas gdy dyfuzja następuje przy ustalonej różnicy ciśnień pomiędzy obydwiema stronami membrany. Podano sposób określenia tej średnicy. Zaproponowano uproszczoną metodę obliczania średniej lepkości gazów i dokonano jej oceny. Przedstawione równania modelu są słuszne dla dyfuzji K-składnikowej. Metodę zilustrowano na przykładzie roztworu dwuskładnikowego: argon, metan.
EN
Numerical studies of mass diffusion through porous materials were carried out for a two-component mixt. of Ar and CH4 gases. Using the generalized dusty gas model, an assessment of viscous flow contribution was performed. Reversing of molar fluxes were obsd. for certain pore diam. even at fixed transmembrane pressure difference. A method for detg. the diam. was given. A simplified method for detg. av. viscosity of gaseous mixts. was proposed and assessed. Presented model equations are valid for multicomponent diffusion.
3
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia dotyczące transportu (wymiany) wilgoci pomiędzy powietrzem a higroskopijnymi materiałami budowlanymi i wyposażenia wnętrz. Opisano właściwości higroskopijne materiałów porowatych oraz uproszczony model wzajemnego oddziaływania materiału porowatego z otaczającym go powietrzem. Następnie scharakteryzowano wpływ materiałów wyposażenia wnętrz i przegród budowlanych na wilgotność powietrza wewnętrznego. Stanowi to podstawę do określenia możliwości wykorzystania pojemności higroskopijnej budynku do kształtowania warunków wilgotnościowych w pomieszczeniach.
EN
In the paper the issues the regarding transport (exchange) of moisture between air and hygroscopic building materials and interior furnishings have been presented. The hygroscopic properties of porousmaterials and a simplified model of interaction of porous material with the surrounding air have been described. Then, the influence of interior furnishing materials and building partitions on indoor air humidity has been characterized. This set the basis for determining the possibility of using the hygroscopic capacity of the building to shape the humidity conditions in the rooms.
4
Content available remote Response surfaces in the numerical homogenization of non-linear porous materials
EN
The paper deals with the numerical homogenization of structures made of non-linear porous material. Material non-linearity causes a significant increase in computational costs for numerical homogenization procedure. An application of the response surface methodology allows a significant reduction of the computational effort providing good approximation precision. Finite element method commercial software is employed to solve the boundary-value problem in both scales. Due to the significant reduction in computing time, the proposed attitude may be applied for different optimization and identification tasks for inhomogeneous, non-linear media, especially with the use of global optimization methods.
EN
Multilayer structures allow obtaining good performance in acoustic insulation to eliminate unwanted noise in the medium and high frequencies in many applications such as building and transport industry. In this paper, the sound transmission of multilayer systems is studied using the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The studied multi-layered panels include elastic, viscoelastic and porous materials. Several configurations of multilayer systems are studied, and their corresponding transmission loss T L is computed. Also, the effects of porous material characteristics are studied to evaluate the impact of each parameter.
6
Content available remote Bone tissue loads around titanium femoral implant and coated with porous layer
EN
Purpose: Difference in the mechanical properties of bone and stiffer femoral implant causes bone tissue resorption, which may result in implant loosening and periprosthetic fractures. The introduction of porous material reduces the stiffness of the implant. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of porous shell of femoral revision implant on bone tissue loading distribution with use the finite element method. Design/methodology/approach: Load transfer in the femur has been investigated using the finite element method (Ansys). Cementless implant models were placed in the anatomical femur model. Femur model included sponge bone and cortical bone. The solid implant was compared with the implant containing porous material in 70% in outer layer with a thickness of 2 mm. Load of 1500 N during gait was simulated. In addition, the forces of the ilio-tibial band and the abductor muscles were implemented, as well as the torque acting on the implant. Findings: Increase of stress for the porous model was found. The underload zones in bone have been reduced. Loading distribution was slightly more favourable, albeit rather in cortical bone. Stress value in cancellous bone around cementless implant margin has increased to a level that is dangerous for bone loss. Stress in the implant was not dangerous for damage. The stress distribution was different in the implant neck zone where the porous shell borne a little less load and high stress was shifted to the stiffer core. Research limitations/implications: Variable conditions for fitting the stem to the bone as well as the friction conditions were not investigated. Practical implications: Stress values in the spongy bone around the insertion edge of the cementless implant are consistent with long-term clinical results of the bone atrophy in 1 and 2 Gruen`s zones around the fully porous implants. Originality/value: The advantage of fully porous coated implant was the decrease of risk of trabecular bone tissue resorption around the implant tip and the increase of risk of trabecular bone tissue resorption around insertion edge of the implant.
7
EN
Purpose: At thermal power plants the fly ash (FA) is stored either through dry or wet disposal systems. These storage practices result in different features for fly ashes, such as their interaction with alkalis and hence the potential of zeolite synthesis will be different. With the aim to demonstrate this, it was conducted some investigations to study the physical, chemical, morphological and mineralogical characteristics of the fly ash residues, then were used to synthesis zeolites by a double stage fusion-hydrothermal method. Design/methodology/approach: The raw and converted fly ash samples were characterized with respect to their composition, crystallinity and morphology, by SEM and XRD analysis. The effects of environment conditions and process parameters on the zeolitization process were studied and analysed. Findings: The analysis of these residues showed that dry ash attains a high cation exchange capacity (CEC) and SiO2 /Al2O3 ratios, which is in agreement to the formation of fly ash zeolites as compared to its counterpart. The experimental results indicate that the fusion temperature does not influence on the synthesis mechanism in range of 500-800 (°C) having only an effect of acceleration. The increasing of alkaline activator/fly ash ratio enhances the zeolitization degree. Research limitations/implications: The scientific basis for the issues on the zeolitization characteristics of fly ash and its use to manufacture porous materials calls yet for further elucidation and development. Practical implications: This study helps to establish the superiority of dry ash over wet ash for synthesizing porous materials and their enhanced quantity and quality. Originality/value: A new route for the fly ash use is demonstrated and this can become an unavoidable task for porous material manufacturing, a viable way to manage this industrial waste and to protect the environment.
EN
A through scale investigation of a porosity shape and morphology after sintering of the Distalloy AB powder is the goal of the paper. First, the classical two dimensional analysis of porosity geometrical aspects is presented with the use of the systematic scanning technique (SST) and the light microscopy (LM). Then, a three dimensional investigation is realized with the non-destructive computed tomography (CT) technique. Advantages and limitations of the approach are evaluated within the work. Finally, to investigate small pores which are beyond the computed tomography resolution, the destructive serial sectioning technique was applied. The developed three dimensional reconstruction algorithm of two dimensional images of obtained cross sections is also presented. Finally, an example of possible practical application of obtained three dimensional digital representation of porosity in sintered samples, during the finite element (FE) modelling of deformation conditions is presented.
EN
In this paper, we define a resolution method to study the effect of a porous material on vibro-acoustic behavior of a geared transmission. A porous plate is coupled with the gearbox housing cover. The developed model depends on the gearbox characteristic and poroelastic parameters of the porous material. To study the acoustic effect of the housing cover, the acoustic transmission loss is computed by simulating numerically the elastic-porous coupled plate model, and the numerical implementation is performed by directly programming the mixed displacement-pressure formulation. To study the vibration effect, the bearing displacement is computed using a two-stage gear system dynamical model and used as the gearbox cover excitation. Numerical implementation is performed by direct programming of the Leclaire formulation.
EN
Carbon materials represent difficult chemical compounds [1, 2]. They demand not only dispergating (crushing), and dehydration (removal of moisture) [3], but also cleanings of harmful impurity which negatively influence the environment at their further use in the industry. Now there are many installations and techniques of dehydration and dispergating of rheological material, including coals of different types. Comparative analysis of standard technologies and technology of thermal vacuum dehydration and dispergating of brown coal carried out. The experimental technique of dehydration and dispergating of brown coal described. Temperature, pressure, time of dehydration and dispergating of brown coal are determined. The physical model of simultaneous dehydration and dispergating of fine porous material offered. Dispergating of the dried-up material described by means of two models of disintegration of a part in the course of drying: discrete and continuous. It shown that at the initial stage of drying the maximum difference on the mass of the extracted water calculated on two models makes size about 7%. On big times of drying dependence of amount of the extracted water on time for the models considered above is almost identical. Calculations show that rapid withdrawal of water from a sample explains rather intensive process of crushing of the dried-up material at the initial stage of drying. At the same time with excess of temperature of the heater by 1.68 times over temperature of boiling of water with the lowered part pressure in the same number of times are crushed quicker. Comparison of theoretical calculations with experimental data shows adequacy of the offered models of dehydration and dispergating of fine rheological material.
EN
This paper deals with the identification of material parameters at a microscale on the basis of measurements at a macroscale. Inhomogeneous materials such as composites and porous media are considered. Numerical homogenization with the use of a representative volume element is performed to obtain a macroscopically homogenized equivalent material. The evolutionary algorithm is applied as the global optimization method to solve the identification task. Modal analysis is performed to collect data necessary for the identification. Different ranges of measurement errors are considered. A finite element method is employed to solve a boundary-value problem for both scales.
12
Content available remote Modelowanie przepływu cieczy przez materiały porowate o różnej mikrostrukturze
PL
W pracy przedstawiono sformułowania modeli transportu w ośrodku porowatym w skali mikro i makro. Jako model mikro ośrodka porowatego przyjęto układ nieruchomych kul reprezentujący ziarna, o rozkładzie dwumodalnym. Na podstawie obliczeń w skali mikro, stosując stacjonarne równanie Stokesa dla cieczy nieściśliwej, wyznaczono maksymalne prędkości oraz przepływy dla poszczególnych mikrostruktur w funkcji promienia małego ziarna oraz porowatości. Obliczono również krętość poszczególnych mikrostruktur. Przedstawiono metodę wyznaczania przepuszczalności układu, która jest uśrednionym parametrem opisującym ośrodek porowaty w skali makro. Zaprezentowana metoda może być stosowana w modelowaniu procesów transportu dla materiałów o rzeczywistej mikrostrukturze.
EN
In the paper authors present the formulation of transport models in porous medium in both micro and macro scale. System of spheres, representing grains, with bimodal radius distribution were used as a model of porous medium in micro scale. Based on calculation in micro scale, using stationary Stokes' equation for incompressible fluid, the maximum velocity and flows were calculated for each microstructure as a function of small grains size as well as porosity. Tortuosity for each microstructure was also calculated. Method for permeability determination, which is an average parameter describing porous medium in macro scale, was presented. Presented method might find application in modelling of transport for materials with real microstructure.
PL
Dokonano oceny wpływu struktury powierzchni granulatu skrobi termoplastycznej (TPS) wytworzonej na bazie skrobi pszennej, kukurydzianej i ziemniaczanej na kinetykę adsorpcji pary wodnej. Strukturę tę modyfikowano poprzez zmianę prędkości obrotowej ślimaka ekstrudera, zmieniając gęstość pozorną (objętościową), gęstość rzeczywistą, porowatość całkowitą i względną objętość porów. Badanie prowadzono przez 72 h w środowisku o wilgotności względnej 75,3% w temp. 20°C, wyznaczając przebieg kinetyki adsorpcji pary wodnej w funkcji czasu oraz zmian szybkości adsorpcji pary wodnej w funkcji zawartości wody. Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy wykazano wpływ rodzaju użytej skrobi oraz parametrów technologicznych procesu ekstruzji na adsorpcję pary wodnej przez granulat TPS.
EN
Wheat, maize and potato starches were converted to thermoplastic starch (TPS) with glycerol by extrusion, pelletized at changing the speed of extruder screw and studied for apparent d., true d., total porosity, and sp. pore vol. The TPS pellets were studied for water adsorption from air at 20°C and relative humidity 75.3% for 72 h to det. the adsorption kinetics. The lowest hydrophilicity of TPS was found for the pellets extruded at highest speed of extrusion screw (120 rpm).
EN
The results of experimental research concerning the assessment of the permeability of porous materials with respect to gas flow are presented in this paper. The conducted research applied to, among others, chars (acquired from the UCG thermal process) with an anisotropic gap-porous structure and - for comparative purposes - model materials such as pumice and polyamide agglomerates. The research was conducted with the use of a special test stand that enables the measuring of gas permeability with respect to three flow orientations compared with symmetric cubic-shaped samples. The research results show the explicit impact of the flow direction on the permeability of chars, which results from their anisotropic internal structures. The suitability of calculation methods employed to calculate the hydrodynamics of the gas flow through porous materials was also evaluated.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych oraz symulacji numerycznych procesu oczyszczania polimerowych materiałów porowatych przy użyciu płynów w stanie nadkrytycznym. Zbadano wpływ parametrów operacyjnych na przebieg procesu oraz opracowano i wstępnie zweryfikowano model matematyczny, który może być wykorzystany do symulacji i optymalizacji procesu oraz do projektowania aparatury wysokociśnieniowej. Wykazano, że płyny w stanie nadkrytycznym stanowią efektywne rozpuszczalniki w procesach oczyszczania polimerowych materiałów porowatych.
EN
Experimental results and numerical simulations of porous polymer material cleaning process using supercritical fluids are presented in the paper. An influence of process parameters on the process course was investigated and a mathematical model was developed and validated. The model can be used for process investigation and optimization, and also for high pressure equipment design. It was proven that supercritical fluids are effective solvents in porous polymer material cleaning processes.
16
Content available remote Gazoprzepuszczalność materiałów porowatych o anizotropowej strukturze
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych w zakresie oceny przepuszczalności materiałów porowatych w odniesieniu do przepływu gazu. Badaniom podano karbonizaty o anizotropowej strukturze szczelinowo-porowatej, a także - celem porównania - materiały modelowe typu pumeks i spieki poliamidowe. Badania wykonano na specjalnie do tego celu przygotowanym stanowisku pomiarowym, umożliwiającym pomiar gazoprzepuszczalności względem trzech orientacji przepływu, odniesionych do symetrycznych próbek o kształcie sześciennym. Wyniki pomiarów wskazują na wyraźny wpływ kierunkowości przepływu na przepuszczalność karbonizatów, co wynika z anizotropowej ich struktury wewnętrznej. Zdefiniowano współczynnik przepuszczalności tego typu materiałów oraz dokonano eksperymentalnej oceny wartości tego współczynnika względem strumienia gazu oraz całkowitego spadku ciśnienia na porowatym złożu. Dokonano oceny przydatności metod obliczeniowych charakteryzujących hydrodynamikę przepływu gazu przez porowate materiały oraz wskazano na możliwość numerycznego odwzorowania geometrii przepływowej materiałów o krętej strukturze szkieletowej.
EN
The paper presents results of experimental studies dealing with the assessment of porous materials permeability with respect to the gas flow. The study was carried out for coal-char material with an anisotropic slotted structure, and for comparison, for model materials such as pumice and sintered polyamide. The tests were performed in a specially prepared measuring setup allowing the measurement of gas permeability at three flow directions with respect to porous samples of cubic shape. The measurement results demonstrated an effect of gas flow direction on chars permeability caused by their anisotropic internal structure. The permeability coefficient was defined, its value with respect to gas flux was experimentally evaluated and the total pressure drop across the porous bed was determined. An assessment of usefulness of computational methods characterizing the hydrodynamics of gas flow through porous materials is presented. Additionally, the possibility of numerical mapping of flow geometry of backbone tortuous structure materials is considered.
17
Content available remote Pomiary sorpcyjne współczynnika dyfuzji wilgoci różnego rodzaju zapraw
PL
W referacie przedstawiono możliwość wykorzystania niestacjonarnych pomiarów sorpcyjnych do określenia współczynnika dyfuzji Dm porowatych materiałów budowlanych. Badaniami objęto trzy różne zaprawy: cementową, cementowo-wapienną i modyfikowaną. Eksperyment zrealizowano w 18 klimatach – przy trzech temperaturach: 5, 20, 35°C i przy sześciu poziomach wilgotności względnej powietrza φ. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników badań sorpcyjnych wyznaczano dla poszczególnych zapraw wartości współczynnika dyfuzji wilgoci odpowiadające różnym temperaturom i różnym poziomom sorpcyjnego zawilgocenia. Przedstawione w referacie obliczenia współczynników dyfuzji Dm bazowały na procedurach typu √t i typu logarytmicznego. Otrzymane rezultaty pozwoliły ocenić użyteczność obydwu procedur w odniesieniu do testowanych materiałów. We wszystkich cyklach i w przypadku każdej z zapraw uzyskiwano zbliżone wartości współczynników Dm( √t) i Dm(ln), co pozwala rekomendować obydwie procedury jako porównywalne. Przeprowadzone badania pozwoliły ponadto ocenić wpływ zawartości wilgoci na wielkość współczynników dyfuzji. Stwierdzono występowanie jednoznacznej tendencji w odniesieniu do każdej temperatury i każdej z badanych zapraw. Zaobserwowano wzrost wartości Dm wraz ze zwiększaniem się wilgotności względnej do poziomu 50%. Dla tego poziomu zawilgocenia materiału współczynnik dyfuzji osiągał wartość maksymalną. Następnie wartość tego współczynnika spadała stopniowo w miarę wzrostu wilgotności. Stwierdzono, że w najszerszym zakresie wilgotności, tj. przy φ ≈ 96% współczynniki dyfuzji osiągają wartość minimalną, odpowiadającą zakresowi najniższych wilgotności. Przeprowadzone badania pozwoliły ocenić nie tylko wpływ wilgotności, ale także wpływ temperatury na wyznaczane współczynniki dyfuzji. Obydwie zastosowane metody wykazały znaczący wpływ tego czynnika na wyznaczane wartości współczynników dyfuzji Dm.
EN
The paper presents possibilities of application of non-stationary sorption measurements to determine the diffusion coefficient Dm of porous building materials. The research covers three different mortars: cement mortar, cement-lime mortar and modified mortar. The experiment was conducted in 18 different types of climate, at the three following temperatures: 5°C, 20°C and 35°C, and at six relative humidity levels φ. Basing of the results of sorption measurements, values of diffusion coefficient Dm were calculated for different mortars, and the particular values obtained referred to various temperatures and various levels of sorption moisture. Calculations of coefficient Dm shown in this paper were based on √t-type and logarithmic-type procedures. The obtained results allowed to evaluation the usability of two procedures for the tested materials. In all cycles and for each of the mortars, similar values of coefficients Dm(√t) and Dm(ln) were observed, which enables to recommend the both procedures as comparable ones. Moreover, the research allowed to assess the influence of moisture content on diffusion coefficient values. A clear tendency appeared for each temperature and each of the mortars researched. There was observed increase of the Dm value together with the rise of relative humidity up to the level of 50%. For this level of moisture in the material the diffusion coefficient reached the maximum value. After that, the value of the coefficient was gradually decreasing together with increase of moisture. It was concluded that in the broadest humidity range, i.e. at φ ≈ 96%, diffusion coefficients reach the minimum values referring to the range of lowest level of moisture. The conducted research allowed to assess not only the influence of moisture but the impact of temperature as well. The both methods showed considerable influence of this factor on Dm values.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the main results of own research in 3 principal aspects indicating that the research is up to date and modern. This relates to nanotechnologies, modern biomedical materials and rapid manufacturing techniques used for the production of, in particular, microporous materials applied for medical and dental purposes. The paper comprises the explanation of structural mechanisms and phase transformations taking place in newly created engineering nanostructural and microporous materials under the influence of the applied, advanced technological processes newly developed, and especially nanotechnological processes, using the most modern scientific and research equipment being at disposal of modern materials engineering, in particular with the common use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of investigations into the formation of the structure and surface properties results according to a different thickness scale of coatings or surface zone, from several hundred nanometres to several millimetres, are presented in the paper, including PVD and CVD coatings and laser treated surface on the steels and light alloys substrates. The paper also describes the nanostructural effects in solid materials, and especially the counteraction of cracking of new-developed high-manganese austenite steels Fe-Mn-Si-Al by twinning or/and martensitic transformation induced by the cold plastic deformation. The article also outlines the results of research of the development of special micro and nanocomposite materials designed mainly for use in regenerative medicine and regenerative dentistry. The studies of the structure and the properties of newly obtained materials and originally developed technologies are included to present the author’s contribution into materials science, nanotechnology, surface engineering and biomedical engineering including the usefulness of the newly developed nanoengineering materials and their applicability, in particular, in regenerative medicine, as well as tissue engineering. The described outcomes of the research constitute a basis for creating, apart from rigid porous implant-scaffolds, an innovative generation of rigid and elastic biological-engineering composite materials for regenerative medicine. Design/methodology/approach: The article discusses the key aspects of own research performed over the last decade in scope of nanotechnologies, modern biomedical materials and rapid manufacturing techniques used for the fabrication of, in particular, microporous materials applied for medical and dental purposes. The conditions for the performance of the research according to the scope mentioned were ensured by implementation of investment projects for constructing and equipping research and didactic laboratories in scope of nanotechnology, technologies of material processes and computational materials science, including LANAMATE (2010-2014) and MERMFLEG (2010-2013), and also BIOFARMA (2010-2012). Practical implications: The obtained materials and technologies are of high practical importance, which was confirmed in many cases with the results of laboratory tests and investigations at a semi-technical scale, and in some cases with the initiation of implementation works. The results of research in scope of bioengineering and dental engineering may find their applications in tissue engineering, in bone surgery, for threedimensional tissue scaffolds and in dentistry or oncology, to replace the natural tissue removed because of a cancer with the possibility of applying a therapeutic agent. Originality/value: The present paper is the original report from a personal own research and explains the concept, scope and results of own research of a new obtained microporous and nanostructural materials and coatings, including hybride solid-porous products and newly obtained materials processing and additive technologies. Some of the mentioned research results are protected by patents or patent applications, and many of them were awarded over 60 prizes and medals at international fairs of innovation, invention and rationalisation in many countries.
EN
Porous materials are used in many vibro-acoustic applications. Different models describe their performance according to material’s intrinsic characteristics. In this paper, an evaluation of the effect of the porous and geometrical parameters of a liner on the acoustic power attenuation of an axisymmetric lined duct was performed using multimodal scattering matrix. The studied liner is composed by a porous material covered by a perforated plate. Empirical and phenomenal models are used to calculate the acoustic impedance of the studied liner. The later is used as an input to evaluate the duct attenuation. By varying the values of each parameter, its influence is observed, discussed and deduced.
PL
Jedną z zalet wysokotemperaturowych ogniw paliwowych ze stałym elektrolitem tlenkowym SOFC jest elastyczność w doborze paliw, w szczególności możliwość wykorzystania węglowodorów. Dla ogniw paliowych zasilanych węglowodorami możliwa jest konwersja paliwa na drodze reformingu zewnętrznego bądź wewnętrznego. W przypadku systemu z połączeniem wewnętrznym ciepło pochodzące z pracującego stosu ogniw paliwowych może zostać efektywnie wykorzystane w endotermicznej reakcji reformingu. Opracowanie tegoż systemu zależy od rozmieszczenia elementów pod kątem optymalizacji transportu ciepła w układzie, stresu termicznego wywieranego na poszczególne elementy, osadzania węgla, stopnia polaryzacji elektrod, kosztów oraz efektywności systemu. W pracy przedstawiono badania eksperymentalne na podstawie których zbudowano matematyczny model procesu reformingu, a także przeprowadzono analizę numeryczną wpływu warunków brzegowych oraz parametrów procesu na rozkład pola temperatury w reaktorze podczas reakcji parowego reformingu metanu.
EN
One of the advantages of high-temperature fuel cells with a solid oxide electrolyte SOFC is flexibility in the selection of fuels and in particular the use of hydrocarbons. For fuel cell powered by hydrocarbons it is possible to convert the fuel using external or internal reforming. For a internal system heat from the fuel cells stack can be effectively used in the endothermic reforming reaction. The development of that system depends on the arrangement of elements to optimize heat transfer in the system, thermal stress exerted on the individual elements, the carbon deposition, the degree of electrodes polarization, the cost and effectiveness of the system. The paper presents experimental studies on the basis of which a mathematical model of the reforming process was built. Furthermore, a numerical analysis of the influence of the boundary conditions and process parameters on the distribution of temperature field in the reactor during the steam reforming reaction of methane has been carried out.
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