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1
Content available Green logistics in e-commerce: goals and challenges
EN
Amidst the booming e-commerce industry, the issue of its environmental impact is increasingly being raised. The fight for green solutions has become a hot topic in the wider e-commerce industry. The aim of this article is to determine the goals and challenges of green logistics taking into account the specificity of the e-commerce industry and to formulate conclusions for business practice in terms of green solutions. The research method used in this paper is the literature review, documentary method, the analysis of statistical data and desk research, analysis of industry reports and analysis of legal acts. The research material consisted of scientific publications, as well as Eurostat statistics, domestic and foreign reports, and expert opinions of national and international institutions. The obtained data and ex post results were the basis for own considerations. The results concern the comparison of traditional trade and e-commerce and their impact on the natural environment, the goals and challenges facing current green logistics. Next, the possible solutions for business practitioners are indicated.
PL
W dobie dynamicznie rozwijającej się branży e-commerce coraz częściej podnoszona jest kwestia jej wpływu na środowisko. Dziś przedsiębiorstwa nie mogą działać wyłącznie dla zysku kosztem środowiska, społeczeństwa, gospodarki, konsumentów i pracowników. Wśród przedsiębiorstw i konsumentów można zauważyć niewątpliwą potrzebę podejmowania ekologicznych działań, które mają znacznie mniejszy wpływ na środowisko naturalne. Z tego powodu walka o ekologiczne rozwiązania stała się gorącym tematem w szeroko rozumianej branży e-commerce. Artykuł poświęcony jest określeniu celów i wyzwań zielonej logistyki z uwzględnieniem specyfiki branży e-commerce. Sformułowano w nim wnioski dla praktyki biznesowej w zakresie „zielonych” rozwiązań. Zastosowaną metodą badawczą jest przegląd literatury, metoda dokumentacyjna, analiza danych statystycznych i desk research, analiza raportów branżowych i aktów prawnych. Materiał badawczy stanowiły publikacje naukowe, statystyki Eurostatu, raporty krajowe i zagraniczne, a także ekspertyzy instytucji krajowych i międzynarodowych. Uzyskane dane oraz wyniki ex post były podstawą do sformułowania własnych rozważań. Zaprezentowane w artykule wyniki dotyczą celów i wyzwań stojących przed współczesną „zieloną” logistyką. W artykule wskazano też możliwe rozwiązania dla praktyków biznesu.
2
Content available Environmental impact of noise from mining operations
EN
The article presents the results of measurements of environmental noise caused by devices operating in the surface facilities of hard coal mines and by the technological processes related to the loading and transport of spoil and materials necessary for production. The research results are part of the program “Consequences of excessive noise in the mining environment of hard coal mines”, the overarching goal of which is to reduce the emission of industrial noise. A sampling method was used to determine the actual values of noise levels emitted to the external environment from mines and mining plants as well as to identify the acoustic power levels of devices and processes constituting the main sources of noise in mines. The results showed that mines and mining plants are often not fully aware of the scale of the environmental impact of the undesirable noise they emit. Therefore, the current periodic measurements of environmental noise should be replaced with permanent monitoring, which will be beneficial not only for the environment and residents of housing estates located near mines but also for the mining plants themselves.
EN
The Arctic region is aprospective areafor ore mining and urbanization progress. The areas of Europe located beyond the Arctic Circle have unique features of the natural environment. Conducting mining works in this place is associated with certain difficulties resulting from weather conditions (numerousrains, long winters, polar night) anddue to the high riskof permanent environmental pollution. An example of the specificity of arctic mining is Kvalsund in northern Norway, where there is a copper mine that is currently under development. Another example is the Monchegorsk region in Russia, which is currently no longer mining. Both of these places are associated with sulphide deposits of non-ferrous metals and the resulting consequences. The purpose of this text was to show the differences and similarities of these mining plants, andon this basis to demonstrate the complexity of the issues of exploitation and reclamation of mining areas in the Arctic.
PL
Cel: Celem niniejszego artykułu jest ukazanie możliwości realizacji programów ESG przy zastosowaniu istniejących znormalizowanych systemów zarządzania. Projekt badania/metodyka badawcza/koncepcja: W celu zapoznania się ze stanem dotychczasowych badań wykorzystano przegląd literatury. Zastosowana procedura była zgodna z zasadami badań prowadzonych w obszarach zarządzania i biznesu. W opracowaniu wykorzystano przykładowe programy ESG realizowane przez wiodące firmy z branży przemysłowej. Wyniki/wnioski: Firmy posiadające systemy zarządzania jakością i/lub systemy zarządzania środowiskowego zdecydowanie lepiej radzą sobie w realizacji programów ESG. Dzieje się tak, ponieważ w systemach tych zawartych jest wiele kryteriów, które w bezpośredni sposób można wykorzystać do realizacji takich programów. Szczególnie pomocne są badania kontekstu zewnętrznego i wewnętrznego, potrzeb i oczekiwań interesariuszy, dokonywanie przeglądu wymagań i przeglądów zarządzania, realizacja planów jakości i środowiska, stosowanie pełnego podejścia procesowego i nadzorowanie procesów zewnętrznych. Ograniczenia: Przegląd literatury nie jest doskonałym sposobem pozyskiwania informacji. W artykule przedstawiano jedynie ogólne wytyczne realizacji programów ESG, które muszą być dostosowane do potrzeb konkretnych organizacji. Zastosowanie praktyczne: Wyniki badań mogą być przydatne do wdrażania programów ESG na podbudowie znormalizowanych systemów zarządzania. Oryginalność/wartość poznawcza: Łączenie systemów zarządzania z programami ESG jest rozwiązaniem stosunkowo nowym.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this article is to show the possibilities of implementing ESG programs using existing standardized management systems Design/methodology/approach: To get acquainted with the current state of research a literature review was used. The procedure used was consistent with the principles of research conducted in the areas of management and business. The study uses exemplary ESG programs implemented by leading companies from the industrial sector. Findings/conclusions: Companies with quality management systems and/or environmental management systems are much better at implementing ESG programs. This is because these systems contain many criteria that can be directly used to implement such programs. Particularly helpful are studies of the external and internal context, stakeholder needs and expectations, reviewing requirements and management reviews, implementing quality and environmental plans, applying a full process approach and supervising external processes. Research limitations: A literature review is not a perfect way to obtain information. The article presents only general guidelines for the implementation of ESG programs, which must be adapted to the needs of specific organizations. Practical implications: The research results may be useful for implementing ESG programs based on standardized management systems. Originality/value: Combining management systems with ESG programs is a relatively new solution.
EN
After the rapid economic growth through reform and opening-up over 40 years, Chinese governments are seeking transformation for high-quality and sustainable development currently. Regional economic development is related to internal and external environments as well as local government’s character behaviors. Employing Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) and Consciousness-Context-Behavior (CCB) theory, we construct a theoretical framework to measure the relationships between regional development environment (RDE), local government’s character behavior (LGCB), and regional sustainable capability (RSC). We collect the data of 30 provinces in mainland China from 2001 to 2020 to conduct hypothesis testing and empirical analysis. The results show that both RDE and LGCB are associated with RSC, and LGCB significantly mediates the relationship between RDE and RSC. However, the effects of different RDE elements on RSC are heterogeneous. Our study enriches regional sustainable development theory. It arouses us to better understand LGCB and attach importance to the roles of RDE and LGCB in regional sustainability. The enlightenment is important to global developing countries.
PL
Po szybkim wzroście gospodarczym poprzez reformy i otwarcie w ciągu 40 lat, chińskie rządy dążą obecnie do transformacji w celu zapewnienia wysokiej jakości i zrównoważonego rozwoju. Regionalny rozwój gospodarczy jest powiązany z otoczeniem wewnętrznym i zewnętrznym oraz charakterem zachowań samorządu terytorialnego. Wykorzystując teorię programowania neurolingwistycznego (NLP) i świadomość-kontekst-behawior (CCB), konstruujemy ramy teoretyczne do pomiaru relacji między środowiskiem rozwoju regionalnego (RDE), zachowaniem charakteru samorządu lokalnego (LGCB) a zrównoważonym potencjałem regionalnym (RSC). Zbieramy dane z 30 prowincji w Chinach kontynentalnych od 2001 do 2020 roku, aby przeprowadzić testowanie hipotez i analizę empiryczną. Wyniki pokazują, że zarówno RDE, jak i LGCB są powiązane z RSC, a LGCB znacząco pośredniczy w relacji między RDE i RSC. Jednak wpływ różnych elementów RDE na RSC jest niejednorodny. Nasze badanie wzbogaca regionalną teorię zrównoważonego rozwoju. Pobudza nas to do lepszego zrozumienia LGCB i przywiązania wagi do roli RDE i LGCB w zrównoważonym rozwoju regionalnym. Oświecenie jest ważne dla globalnych krajów rozwijających się.
EN
The article examines the respondents’ opinions on issues related to sustainable development and environmental protection. The analysis is based on the data from the International Social Survey Program, Environment 2022, which covers 14 countries (mainly in Europe and Asia). The findings show that health care, economy and the natural environment are the most important issues for the respondents. Environmental problems that are most frequently selected include: climate change, air pollution, chemicals and pesticides, and using up natural resources. The view that economic growth is necessary to protect the natural environment is relatively common (although those who disagree with this opinion also constitute a large group).
PL
Artykuł analizuje opinie respondentów na tematy związane ze zrównoważonym rozwojem i ochroną środowiska. Analiza opiera się na danych z Międzynarodowego Programu Badań Społecznych (ISSP), Środowisko 2022, który obejmuje 14 krajów (głównie w Europie i Azji). Z przeprowadzonych badań wynika, że najważniejsze dla respondentów kwestie to ochrona zdrowia, ekonomia i środowisko naturalne. Najczęściej wybierane problemy środowiskowe to: zmiany klimatyczne, zanieczyszczenie powietrza, chemikalia i pestycydy oraz zużywanie zasobów naturalnych. Stosunkowo powszechny jest pogląd, że wzrost gospodarczy jest niezbędny dla ochrony środowiska naturalnego (choć niemałą grupę stanowią również ci, którzy nie zgadzają się z tą opinią).
EN
The awareness of sustainable development principles is becoming increasingly widespread, but the implementation of this idea into economic, social, and political life is associated with numerous difficulties and still constitutes a complex problem. This paper aims to assess the stimulants and destimulants of implementing sustainable development principles. A survey questionnaire was conducted between March and May 2021, and the data was analyzed using Canonical Correspondence Principal Components Analysis (CCPCA) and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) methodology to discern the relationships among variables. Fisher's test was employed to assess the strength of the relationships between the identified factors. The results revealed that the main opportunities associated with sustainable development include access to EU programs and funds, tourism development, city and region promotion, and job creation through attracting foreign and domestic investments. On the other hand, the most significant threats identified were unstable financial policies, increased tasks without ensuring financial resources, and lack of suport for eco-friendly business activities. These factors contribute to potential social, economic, and environmental problems, such as air pollution, low environmental awareness among residents, and inadequate road infrastructure. The findings emphasize the need for to consider both internal and external factors when implementing sustainable development measures.
PL
Świadomość zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju staje się coraz bardziej powszechna, jednak wdrożenie tej idei do życia gospodarczego, społecznego i politycznego wiąże się z licznymi trudnościami i wciąż stanowi złożony problem. Celem artykułu jest ocena czynników stymulujących i destymulujących wdrażanie zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju. Kwestionariusz ankiety został przeprowadzony w okresie od marca do maja 2021 r., a dane zostały przeanalizowane przy użyciu kanonicznej analizy głównych składowych (Canonical Correspondence Principal Components Analysis - CCPCA) oraz metodologii drzew klasyfikacyjnych i regresyjnych (Classification and Regression Trees - CART) w celu wykrycia zależności między zmiennymi. Do oceny siły związków między zidentyfikowanymi czynnikami zastosowano test Fishera. Wyniki ujawniły, że główne możliwości związane ze zrównoważonym rozwojem obejmują dostęp do programów i funduszy UE, rozwój turystyki, promocję miasta i regionu oraz tworzenie miejsc pracy poprzez przyciąganie inwestycji zagranicznych i krajowych. Z drugiej strony, najważniejszymi zidentyfikowanymi zagrożeniami były niestabilna polityka finansowa, zwiększone zadania bez zapewnienia środków finansowych oraz brak wsparcia dla proekologicznych działań biznesowych. Czynniki te przyczyniają się do powstawania potencjalnych problemów społecznych, gospodarczych i środowiskowych, takich jak zanieczyszczenie powietrza, niska świadomość ekologiczna mieszkańców i nieodpowiednia infrastruktura drogowa. Wyniki podkreślają potrzebę uwzględnienia zarówno czynników wewnętrznych, jak i zewnętrznych przy wdrażaniu działań na rzecz zrównoważonego rozwoju.
8
Content available remote Nano- i mikroplastik – zanieczyszczenia XXI wieku
PL
Tworzywa sztuczne są ważnym materiałem w naszej gospodarce i życiu codziennym. Dzięki niskim kosztom produkcji oraz możliwości formowania ich w różne kształty, stały się najbardziej uniwersalnym materiałem na świecie. Tworzywa sztuczne są masowo produkowane do zastosowań w opakowaniach, przemyśle budowlanym, przemyśle elektrycznym i elektronicznym, tekstyliach, transporcie i rolnictwie. Światowa produkcja tworzyw sztucznych w 2021 roku wyniosła 391 mln ton. W wyniku procesów fizycznych, biologicznych, chemicznych lub termicznych, materiały te ulegają rozpadowi tworząc cząstki zwane mikroplastikiem (MP) i/lub nanoplastikiem (NP), które w ostatnim dziesięcioleciu stały się istotnym zanieczyszczeniem środowiska. Ksenobiotyki te odnajdywane są w powietrzu, wodzie, glebie, a także w organizmach żywych. Mogą również wywoływać niekorzystne skutki dla zdrowia człowieka.
EN
Plastics are an important material in our economy and everyday life. Thanks to low production costs and the ability to form them into various shapes, they have become the most universal material in the world. Plastics are mass-produced for applications in packaging, construction, electrical and electronics, textiles, transportation and agriculture. Global plastic production in 2021 amounted to 391 million tonnes. As a result of physical, biological, chemical or thermal processes, these materials decompose, forming particles called microplastics (MP) and/or nanoplastics (NP), which have become a significant environmental pollutant in the last decade. These xenobiotics are found in the air, water, soil, as well as in living organisms. They may also cause adverse effects on human health.
EN
This study analyses key successful factors (KSFs) affecting health supply chains using a novel ISM-MICMAC methodology. Initially, KSFs were collected from past articles, which were later analyzed through the ISM-MICMAC methodology. Healthcare technologies (HCTs) are regarded as innovative and fastest-growing technologies and have seen advancement in the last few decades. Successful and sustainable delivery of health services is only possible through an effective supply chain and logistics network. However, HCTs confront pressure in healthcare supply chains due to different issues. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate KSFs affecting the successful delivery of HCTs supply chains. After obtaining data from experts, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) results indicated that initial capital, top management commitment, training & experience, new technology and information, information quality, and strategic partnership with suppliers are the most crucial KSFs HCTs supply chain in the Pakistani context. Furthermore, MICMAC analysis categorized KSFs with the help of their driving and dependence power. These results support health strategists and policymakers to understand the severity of the identified top five KSFs and act as a moderator to take care of these KSFs, which would ultimately contribute to the successful delivery of the health care supply chain and improvement of critical health services. This study's results would also be helpful for the supply chain managers of the manufacturing industry in the Pakistani context. This research is one of the initial studies to precisely explore KSFs affecting health supply chains using a novel ISM-MICMAC and categorize KSFs with the help of their driving and dependence power by applying MICMAC analysis in the Pakistani SCM context.
EN
Since March 11, 2020, the global community has faced the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, numerous countries, including the Republic of Lithuania, mandated the wearing of face masks to curb the virus’s spread. Yet, a section of the Lithuanian populace resisted this move, voicing concerns about the inconvenience of mask-wearing and potential privacy infringements. These concerns endured, even amidst debates on the masks’ effectiveness. This article explores how the Lithuanian public responded to mask-wearing protocols during the pandemic. Survey analysis highlighted a troubling trend: many individuals dispose of face masks with their regular trash, often without proper packaging. Most masks are sourced from pharmacies or are provided by employers and are typically thrown away after just one day of use. The data underscores a significant knowledge gap in correct mask disposal, as a significant portion ends up mingled with general household waste, without proper containment. Moreover, many people keep used masks in pockets or bags. Notably, during the pandemic, an estimated 2 mln adult Lithuanians may have generated roughly 15.24 Mg of hazardous plastic waste through mask disposal.
EN
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill.) yielding potential depends on environmental conditions (precipitation, temperature, soil). The aim of the work was to evaluate stability of yielding (and other traits) of three soybean cultivars (Abelina, SG Anser, Merlin) grown under the climatic conditions of central-eastern Poland. The studied material was obtain in a field experiment conducted at Łączka (52°15' N, 21°95' E) during the growing seasons of 2017-2019. Trait stability was determined based on Shukla’s genotype stability variance and Wricke’s ecovalence describing the genotype-by-environment interaction. For all the examined parameters, there were found significant differences between successive growing seasons, cultivars, and cultivars within study years. The greatest influence of environmental conditions (years) was determined for plant height (64%) and first pod height (54.2%). Stability parameters indicated that cv. Abelina was the most stable in terms of yielding, 1000 seed weight, seed number per pod and average seed number per pod, cv. SG Anser being the least stable in this respect.
EN
Snow removal and deicing using snowplow trucks assist transportation agencies to enhance roadway safety and mobility. However, due to slower travel speeds during these operations, motorists often end up in crashes for poor visibility and disturbance of the snow. Despite the risk associated with snowplows, no previous study was found that exclusively investigate the factors associated with injury severity in snowplow-involved crashes. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive exploratory analysis and fills this knowledge gap by identifying the significant contributing factors affecting the occupant injury severity from the aspects of crashes with snowplow involvement. The study utilized eleven years (2010-2020) of historical snowplow-related crash data from Wyoming. Both the binary logit model and mixed binary logit model were developed to investigate the impacts of the various occupant, vehicle, crash, roadway, and environmental characteristics on the corresponding occupant injury severity. As one of the important findings from this research concludes that other vehicle drivers are more responsible than snowplow drivers contributing to more severe injuries in crashes involving snowplows. Recommendations suggested based on the modeling results are expected to help transportation agencies and policymakers take necessary actions in reducing snowplow-involved crashes by targeting appropriate strategies and proper resource allocation.
EN
The global world and individual countries, which are influenced by the economic, financial crises, and pandemics that occur in one way or another, have a major impact on business and its performance. Declining consumption, disrupted settlements, limited or unavailable sources of finance, and other economic and financial reasons may cause business failures. Efficient and rational financial management is crucial for companies to survive and operate successfully under various conditions of the economic cycle, especially in times of crisis. It can be argued that, under modern conditions of market economy, making economically sound decisions about the structure of funding sources is one of the most important tasks for business companies, since the formation of a capital structure establishes the company's ability to maximise its return, manage risks effectively, and operate successfully in a competitive environment to meet the needs of a wide range of stakeholders. The maritime sector is strategically important and economically significant for any country. Companies in this sector make a significant socio-economic contribution across the entire state. When forming the capital structure in the maritime sector companies, certain exceptions are encountered since the operation of these companies requires a large amount of borrowed capital. Increasing the business value of maritime sector companies has a positive meaning nationally and internationally.
EN
The article deals with the current issues of interconnection between public health and the quality of water resources. It was proposed to determine environmental safety areas in the basins of small rivers based on environmental morbidity valuation. Four phases are herewith determined: hazard identification, exposure assessment, environmental mortality rate assessment, decision-making regarding the need for implementation and water protection measures. In order to assess the influence of the state of river quality on the health status of the population in the certain administrative region, the impact factor of recreational water use was introduced. The risks related to organoleptic, sanitary and toxicological properties of water; epidemiological water hazard are considered.
EN
The constant discharge of large quantities of toxic substances due to human activities has led to a global environmental issue. Numerous industrial sectors’ effluents, which include coal-based power plants, mineral extraction activities, electroplating processes, as well as battery manufacturing, release metallic ions towards different ecosystems, such as Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Chromium (Cr). Heavy metals pose a significant danger to living organisms, humans, and environments because of their properties, mainly severe toxicity, and strong accumulation ability. Metallic ions are not subject to breakdown towards final components when contrasted with organic contaminants, which are significantly impacted by biochemical and chemical decomposition. Consequently, eliminating these elements has been regarded as a significant task within the water treatment sector. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literature related to heavy metals in terms of different issues. The heavy metals expression is explained. The natural sources and human activities responsible for releasing metallic ions into the environment are comprehensively discussed. In addition, heavy metals toxicity and potential risks to humans and different ecosystems are included. Various approaches for removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater, along with their associated advantages and drawbacks, are further evaluated.
EN
The major goal of this research was to employ honey as a bio-indicator to identify the heavy metal levels in bee honey in the Istog, Drenas, and Kastriot regions. As a result, honey was purposely tested in these locations, and two industrial specific areas were chosen for examination and analysis: Kastriot (Graboc) and Drenas (Vrboc), as these are considered to be among the most industrial polluted areas. A honey sample was also taken in the Istog (Vrell, as a clean area) region in order to compare not just honey, but also the area where the bee obtains nectar, as well as the sources of pollution discharge into the environment. Concentrations of heavy metals in honey, (min. and max.) amounted to: Zn (8.705–9.804 mg/kg), Mn (5.620–5.718 mg/kg), Fe (3.635–3.745 mg/kg) and Cu (2.295–2.299 mg/kg). In contrast, lower concentrations of metals, have been observed for: Ni (0.640–1.126 mg/kg), Pb (0.235–0.268 mg/kg), As (0.107–0.199 mg/kg), Cd (0.040–0.058 mg/kg) and Cr (0.025–0.036 mg/kg) while elements such as; Hg, and Co, are almost undetected. The study of hierarchical clusters revealed several groupings of elements with geogenic and anthropogenic origins. The concentrations of heavy metals selected for honey were compared to standards of other countries, such as Poland and other European Union countries. Samples were taken in October 2020 and September 2021. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, ICP OES.
EN
This study analyses the role of the circular economy (CE) and renewable energy sources (RES) in bringing human activity to a climate-neutral state. At the same time, it was pointed out that achieving this neutrality allows to achieve a net-zero level of CO2 emissions, as well as significantly reduces the emission of other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In order to more fully illustrate the issue of climate change inhibition adopted for analysis in this article, the basic concepts, characteristics of the essence of circular economy and individual types of RES were defined, and it was also shown that the use of these methods in broadly understood human activity is necessary to achieve zero net CO2 emissions, which creates opportunities to stop "extreme climate madness". The purpose of this article is to present the role of circular economy and renewable energy sources in achieving climate neutrality of human activity, as well as the influence of Putin's imperial policy on the course of this process.
EN
A hardware-software system has been implemented to monitor the environmental state (EnvState) at the site of railway (RY) accidents and disasters. The proposed hardware-software system consists of several main components. The first software component, based on the queueing theory (QT), simulates the workload of emergency response units at the RY accident site. It also interacts with a central data processing server and information collection devices. A transmitter for these devices was built on the ATmega328 microcontroller. The hardware part of the environmental monitoring system at the RY accident site is also based on the ATmega328 microcontroller. In the hardwaresoftware system for monitoring the EnvState at the RY accident site, the data processing server receives information via the MQTT protocol from all devices about the state of each sensor and the device's location at the RY accident or disaster site, accompanied by EnvState contamination. All data is periodically recorded in a database on the server in the appropriate format with timestamps. The obtained information can then be used by specialists from the emergency response headquarters.
19
Content available remote Możliwości zastosowania LCA w technologiach inżynierii środowiska
PL
Środowiskowa Ocena Cyklu Życia - LCA (Life Cycle Assesement) opisana w normach ISO serii 14000 stanowi jedną z najważniejszych i najbardziej wiarygodnych technik oceny oddziaływania na środowisko technologii i produktów. Obecnie ma ugruntowaną pozycję jako narządzie badawcze w obszarach nauki i praktyki, związanych ze środowiskiem. Wpływ nowych lub istniejących technologii oraz produktów na środowisko jest jednym z kluczowych problemów w państwach członkowskich Unii Europejskiej, w których dążymy do maksymalizacji odzysku materiałowego oraz powtórnego wykorzystania odpadów. Technologicznie i ekonomicznie uzasadnione jest prowadzenie recyklingu odpadów albo wykorzystanie ich jako surowców wtórnych, a także unieszkodliwianie odpadów w miejscu powstawania. Jednym z innowacyjnych rozwiązań jest modyfikacja chemiczna odpadów polimerowych w kierunku uzyskania flokulantów zastosowanych w procesach oczyszczania ścieków przemysłowych. Obecnie prowadzona jest ocena oddziaływania procesów technologicznych i by-produktów na środowisko w ich cyklu życia. Analizy LCA potwierdzają efektywne zastosowanie nowych polimerów, a w perspektywie ich bezpieczną dla środowiska produkcję. Przedstawione przykłady pozwalają na prześledzenie procedury oceny wpływu cyklu życia technologii produkcji i produktów na środowisko.
EN
Environmental Life Cycle Assessment - LCA described in the ISO 14000 series standards is one of the most important and reliable techniques for assessing the environmental impact of technologies and products. Currently, it has an established position as a research tool in areas of science and practice related to the environment. The impact of new or existing technologies and products on the environment is one of the key problems in the Member States of the European Union, where we strive to maximize material recovery and reuse of waste. It is technologically and economically justified to recycle waste or use it as secondary raw materials, as well as neutralize its waste at the point of generation. One of the innovative solutions is the chemical modification of polymer waste to obtain flocculants used in industrial wastewater treatment processes. Currently, an assessment of the impact of technological processes and by-products on the environment in their life cycle is being carried out. LCA analysis confirms the effective use of new polymers and, in the long run, their environmentally safe production. The examples presented make it possible to follow the procedure for assessing the impact of the life cycle of production technologies and products on the environment.
PL
Artykuł nakreśla problematykę zróżnicowania zasobów wodnych oraz przedstawia cele budowania zapór i zbiorników zaporowych. Skupia się na rozwinięciu pojęcia zrównoważonego rozwoju i odniesieniu go do budowli hydrotechnicznych. Przedstawiono przykłady rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych i doświadczeń eksploatacyjnych zapór i zbiorników zaporowych w Polsce, uwzględniając ich wpływ na środowisko, gdzie przez środowisko należy rozumieć nie tylko przyrodę, ale również problematykę społeczno-gospodarczą. Rozważaniu poddaje się celowość budowy nowych przedsięwzięć o podobnej skali oraz sposoby i konieczność wdrażania kompensacji przyrodniczych w istniejących obiektach.
EN
The paper presents the issue of water resources diversification and presents the purposes for building dams and dammed reservoirs. It focuses on explanation of the notion of sustainable development and on how it refers to the construction of hydro-engineering structures. The authors present examples of construction solutions and operational experience with regard to dams and dammed reservoirs in Poland, taking into account their impact on the environment, whereas it should be understood not only as natural, but also as social and economic environment. The article discusses the purposefulness of constructing new facilities of a similar scale, as well as methods and necessity to implement ecological compensations in the existing facilities.
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