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1
Content available remote Wpływ aplikacji pulpy siarkowej na plonowanie i skład chemiczny kukurydzy
PL
Doświadczenie polowe prowadzono w latach 2018-2019 w Stacji Doświadczalnej Uniwersytetu Rolniczego w Krakowie. W pierwszym roku doświadczenie obejmowało 5 obiektów: obiekt kontrolny bez nawożenia, obiekt z nawożeniem pulpą siarkową oraz obiekty z nawożeniem pulpą siarkową w połączeniu z materiałami organicznymi. W drugim roku doświadczenie kontynuowano celem oceny dwóch strategii nawożenia: ponownego zastosowania materiałów i nawozów wprowadzonych w pierwszym roku badań i wyłącznego nawożenia mineralnego NPK, w celu określenia następczego działania materiałów wykorzystanych w pierwszym roku badań. W odniesieniu do obiektu kontrolnego zastosowane nawożenie prowadziło do istotnego zwiększenia plonu suchej masy części nadziemnych kukurydzy. Rośliny nawożone badanymi materiałami cechowały się porównywalną lub większą zawartością azotu ogółem i porównywalną lub mniejszą zawartością siarki ogółem niż rośliny obiektu kontrolnego.
EN
In a two-year field expt., corn was grown and fertilized with S pulp or mixts. of S pulp with org. substances or without fertilizer in order to det. the yield efficiency of the dry matter of the aboveground part. In the second year of the expt., the assessment of re-fertilization using materials and fertilizers introduced in the first year of the study and exclusive NPK mineral fertilization was continued in order to det. the residual effect of the materials used in the first year. The applied fertilization significantly increased the dry matter yield of the above-ground parts of corn compared to the control treatment. Plants treated with S materials showed comparable or higher total N content and comparable or lower total S content compared to control plants.
EN
Grasses are often used to recultivate areas contaminated during shale gas extraction. This is due to the fact that they adapt very well to unfavorable soil conditions such as: high pH, salinity, water deficit or the presence of harmful substances. Additionally, the grass root system releases enzymes into the soil that increase the activity of microorganisms and bacteria that decompose polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are the main component of drilling waste. In turn, assessment of initial growth and development (germination tests) is a cheap and quick method to assess the sensitivity of the tested plants to pollutants. Young plants are more susceptible to harmful substances. The study aimed to determine the effect of drilling waste, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the initial growth and development of selected grass species, with a specific focus on germination energy and capacity, as young plants are more sensitive to harmful substances compared to older plants. Among the tested species, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra showed the highest energy and germination ability, while Poa pratensis showed the lowest. The experiment showed that of the tested grass species, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra were the least sensitive to the effects of PAHs, with the smallest reductions in root length and seedling height observed in these species. Additionally, the highest concentration of PAHs was found in soil seeded with Lolium perenne, while the lowest was found in soil seeded with Poa pratensis.
EN
A systematic review was conducted in this study with the aim of analyzing soil salinization in Latin America. Manuscripts published in the region over the past ten years in both English and Spanish that had undergone blind peer review in journals indexed in the databases of Copernicus Publications, Nature, Science Direct, Scielo, and Redalyc were taken into consideration. Soil salinity was discovered to be a growing environmental limitation in at least 9 of the 32 countries that make up the Latin American region. Secondary salinization spreads as a result of changes in land use brought on by the expansion of the agricultural frontier, poor irrigation management using low-quality water, and excessive use of chemical fertilizers, among other things.
EN
The costs of fertilising the soil with sewage sludge were reduced to the operating time of the equipment and the working time of the labourers operating the equipment in the two main operations (manure spreading and ploughing), for three sewage sludge application doses, namely 50, 100 and 200 Mg·ha-1. The costs were calculated using the Katalog Nakładów Rzeczowych nr 2-21: Tereny zielone/Ministerstwo Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Budownictwa (2009) and the current prices from Sekocendbud (2023). The effectiveness of fertilisation was assessed by studying the level and change in heavy metal content after the soil was fertilised with sewage sludge at three proportional doses, namely 50, 100 and 200 Mg·kg-1. The sewage sludge used for fertilisation complied with the sanitary requirements for sludge to be utilised for natural purposes (Regulation, 2015). The estimated total cost of sludge application ranged from PLN 12646.19 to PLN 20456.73 per 1 ha for doses from 50 to 200 Mg per 1 ha. The results of the estimation confirmed the hypothesis that the unit cost of fertilisation with stabilised sewage sludge increases with the dose of sludge in relation to the area of fertilised soil and decreases with the increase of the mass of sludge deposited in the soil. Optimising fertiliser costs, therefore, requires selection - increasing the sludge dose per unit area. No contamination of the soil with copper, cadmium, lead and zinc was found despite an obvious increase in the content of these metals when mixed into the soil. The application of sewage sludge, even in multiple doses, did not result in exceeding the permissible limit for the content of these elements in the soil, as defined in the Minister of the Environment Regulation of 2015 (Regulation, 2015).
PL
Celem artykułu było określenie zawartości metali ciężkich w glebach po aplikacji do nich osadu ściekowego jako źródła i sposobu nawożenia oraz próba oszacowania kosztów tego procesu. Koszty związane z nawożeniem gleby osadami ściekowymi, sprowadzono do czasu pracy sprzętu oraz robotników obsługujących sprzęt w dwóch podstawowych etapach prac (rozrzucanie obornika i orka), dla trzech wysokości dawek osadów ściekowych: 50, 100 oraz 200 Mg·ha-1. Kalkulacja kosztów została wykonana na podstawie Katalogu Nakładów Rzeczowych nr 2-21: Tereny zielone / Ministerstwo Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Budownictwa (2009) oraz aktualnych cen z bazy danych Sekocendbud (2023). Skuteczność nawożenia została oceniona przez zbadanie poziomu i zmiany zawartości metali ciężkich po zasileniu gleby osadami ściekowymi w proporcjonalnych, trzech dawkach: 50, 100, 200 Mg·ha-1. Zastosowane do nawożenia osady spełniały wymagania sanitarne stawiane osadom, które mają być wykorzystane w celach przyrodniczych (Regulation, 2015). Oszacowane koszty całkowite aplikacji osadu, wyniosły od 12646,19zł do 20456,73zł na 1 ha, odpowiednio dla dawek od 50 do 200 Mg na 1 ha. Wyniki szacunku potwierdziły założoną tezę, a mianowicie: koszty jednostkowe nawożenia ustabilizowanymi osadami ściekowymi rosną wraz z dawką osadu w odniesieniu do powierzchni nawożonej gleby a maleją wraz ze wzrostem masy zdeponowanych w glebie osadów. Optymalizacja kosztów nawożenia wymaga zatem doboru – zwiększania dawki osadu na jednostkę powierzchni. Nie stwierdzono skażenia gleby miedzią, kadmem, ołowiem i cynkiem pomimo oczywistego zwiększenia zawartości tych metali po ich zmieszaniu z glebą. Stosowanie osadu, nawet dawki wielokrotnej, nie wpłynęło na przekroczenie dopuszczalnego progu zawartości tych pierwiastków w glebie, określonej w Rozporządzeniu Ministra Środowiska z 2015 r. (Regulation, 2015).
EN
According to the data given in the article, the soil around the Samarkand chemical plant is strongly contaminated with heavy metals. The greatest pollution is noted within a radius of 1500–2000 meters from a chemical plant in the western and northern directions. In areas subject to the influence of heavy metals and arsenic, the use of mineral and organic fertilizers reduced the content of mobile forms of these elements in the soil and improved the growth and development of plants. As a result, crop yields increase, and the transfer of heavy metals into plants is reduced. The use of mineral and organic fertilizers in soils contaminated with these elements, along with increasing the yield of cotton, reduced the amount of element removed by the crop by 25–80% compared to the control variant. That is, in the variant where mineral and organic fertilizers were applied together (N250P175K125+ cattle manure, 30 t/ha), the largest reduction in the removal of these elements by the cotton crop was found in the cobalt (80%) and the lowest in the copper (25%).
EN
Clay content is an important parameter governing hydrodynamics property of soils and consequently crucial to environmental management and agricultural development. The present study aims to use the textural middle infrared index (MID index) product of Landsat-8 Operational Land Images to map clay content over the Haouz plain (Central Morocco). The clay content was mapped at 30 m grid spatial resolution based on the relationship between the MID index and a large set of soil samples. Over the areas covered by green vegetation, the clay content was predicted using the ordinary cokriging technique. Then, this information was used to derive soil hydraulic properties such as the field capacity (θfc), the wilting point (θwp) and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) by using different pedotransfer functions. The validation of the maps was performed by using independent soil samples and measurements. The results showed that the clay content is significantly correlated to MID index. The ordinary cokriging improved mapping of clay content over the Haouz plain (R2= 0.70, RMSE = 3.5%). The obtained maps of θfc, θwp and Ksat revealed a good correlation between the simulated values and the measured values.
PL
Aparat trójosiowego ściskania jest jednym z najbardziej rozpowszechnionych w laboratoriach geotechnicznych urządzeń badawczych służących do określania parametrów charakteryzujących zachowanie się gruntów pod względem wytrzymałości i sztywności. Urządzenie to ma możliwość pomiaru szeregu kluczowych parametrów, wśród których zasadniczą rolę odgrywa pomiar siły osiowej, odkształcenia osiowego oraz ciśnienia wody porowej w gruncie. Wskazane w normie europejskiej (Eurokod 7) podejście w zakresie projektowania geotechnicznego i sprawdzania stanów granicznych wymaga korzystania z parametrów efektywnych. Tym samym ich oznaczanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych wymaga prawidłowej (w zakresie procedury nasycania) i poprawnej (w zakresie lokalizacji pomiaru) rejestracji ciśnienia wody w przestrzeni porowej gruntu w trakcie badania. Standardowo pomiar tego ostatniego parametru wykonywany jest w dolnej części próbki lub w bardziej zaawansowanej formie, w połowie wysokości próbki. To drugie podejście jest bardziej miarodajne, ale wprowadza jednak wymóg przerwania ciągłości membrany otaczającej próbkę gruntu, co może prowadzić do niekontrolowanej penetracji wody z komory do wnętrza próbki. Rozwiązaniem tej niedogodności było opracowanie autorskiego projektu czujnika objętego postępowaniem patentowym. Zapewnienie pomiaru bezpośredniego na próbce przy jednoczesnym uniknięciu potencjalnej nieszczelności było możliwe poprzez zastosowanie nowatorskiego czujnika, który mierzy ciśnienie wody w porach gruntu i w sposób bezprzewodowy przesyła wyniki na zewnątrz komory. W artykule przedstawiono opis tego rozwiązania oraz sposób integracji nowego czujnika z rejestratorem i pozostałymi komponentami zestawu aparatu „trójosiowego” ściskania. Skuteczność zaproponowanego rozwiązania wykazano poprzez przeprowadzenie pełnej kalibracji wyników uzyskiwanych z czujnika. Uzyskane wyniki wykazały skuteczności zastosowanego bezprzewodowego czujnika do bezpośredniego pomiaru ciśnienia wody w gruncie.
EN
The triaxial compression apparatus is one of the most popular research devices in geotechnical laboratories used to determine the parameters characterizing the behavior of soils in terms of strength and stiffness. This device has the ability to measure a number of key parameters, among which the measurement of axial force, axial deformation and pore water pressure in the ground plays an essential role. The approach to geotechnical design and limit state verification indicated in the European standard (Eurocode 7) requires the use of effective parameters. Thus, their determination in laboratory conditions requires correct (in terms of the saturation procedure) and correct (in terms of measurement location) recording of water pressure in the soil pore space during the test. As a standard, the measurement of the latter parameter is performed in the lower part of the sample, or in a more advanced form, in the middle of the sample’s height. The latter approach is more reliable, but it introduces a requirement to break the continuity of the membrane surrounding the soil sample, which may lead to uncontrolled penetration of water from the chamber into the sample. The solution to this inconvenience was the development of a proprietary sensor design covered by patent proceedings. Providing direct measurement on the sample while avoiding potential leakage was possible by using an innovative sensor that measures the water pressure in the soil pores and wirelessly sends the results outside the chamber. The article presents a description of this solution and the method of integrating the new sensor with the recorder and other components of the triaxial compression apparatus set. The effectiveness of the proposed solution was demonstrated by carrying out a full calibration of the results obtained from the sensor. Validation of the results was performed on several series of tests carried out on several types of soils with different filtration properties. The obtained results showed the effectiveness of the wireless sensor used for direct measurement of water pressure in the ground.
EN
Soil degradation occurs as a result of the ingress and accumulation of excessive amount of pollutants in the soil. The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the complex effect of soil contamination (concentration of petroleum products, toxic salts, dense residue, sodium ions, sulfate ions, magnesium ions, calcium, chloride ions, bicarbonate ions) on the content of nutrients (alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, humus). A detailed analysis of scientific papers has been carried out, based on which the main scientific tasks solved in the article have been formulated. It has been established that soil-salt processes are insufficiently studied and are the object of scientific research in recent years. At the first stage of research, sampling was carried out and the content of nutrients and pollutants in the soil was determined. Determination of element concentrations was performed by collecting soil samples and their subsequent laboratory testing. At the second stage, a correlation-regression analysis of the obtained data was performed and multiple linear regressions were established. The interaction of substances in the soil was determined by analyzing the obtained multiple linear regressions. Two types of soils were studied: with chloride and with sulfate type of salinization. For soils with chloride type of salinity, dependences have been established for the content of humus, alkaline nitrogen and potassium, while in case of phosphorus multiple linear regression does not exist. For soils with sulfate type of salinization, multiple linear regression dependences of concentrations of alkaline nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium have been determined. It is established that the complex influence of the studied elements is decisive. No regression dependence was found for the humus content, which indicates that the concentration of the studied elements has almost no effect on the humus content in the soil. Comparison of the obtained multiple linear regressions with the results of laboratory studies showed a good correlation between these data series. The obtained regularities of pollutant and nutrient interactions in soils are expected in future to enable creation of scientific bases for development of new methods of desalination of soils polluted by formation waters as well as for planning effective reclamation actions.
PL
W wyniku wnikania i gromadzenia się w glebie nadmiernych ilości zanieczyszczeń następuje degradacja gleby. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań teoretycznych i eksperymentalnych złożonego wpływu zanieczyszczenia gleby (stężenie produktów naftowych, toksycznych soli, gęstego osadu, siarczanow, jonów sodu, magnezu, wapnia, chlorków, wodorowęglanów), na zawartość składników pokarmowych (hydrolizowanego alkalicznie azotu, fosforu, potasu, humusu). Przeprowadzona została szczegółowa analiza prac naukowych, na podstawie której sformułowano główne zadania badawcze rozwiązane w artykule. Stwierdzono, że procesy glebowo-solne zbadane są w stopniu niedostatecznym i stanowią one przedmiot badań naukowych w ostatnich latach. W pierwszym etapie badań pobrano próbki i wyznaczono zawartość składników pokarmowych i zanieczyszczeń w glebie. Wyznaczenia stężeń pierwiastków dokonano poprzez pobranie próbek gleb i ich późniejsze badania laboratoryjne. W drugim etapie wykonano analizę korelacyjno-regresyjną uzyskanych danych i ustalono wielokrotne regresje liniowe. Oddziaływanie substancji w glebie określono poprzez analizę otrzymanych wielokrotnych regresji liniowych. Badano dwa rodzaje gleb: o zasoleniu chlorkowym i siarczanowym. Dla gleb o zasoleniu chlorkowym ustalono zależności w odniesieniu do zawartośći humusu, azotu hydrolizowanego alkalicznie i potasu, natomiast dla fosforu regresja liniowa wielokrotna nie wystapiła. Dla gleb o zasoleniu siarczanowym wyznaczono zależności wielokrotnej regresji liniowej stężeń azotu alkalicznego, fosforu, potasu. Ustalono, że decydujące znaczenie ma kompleksowe oddziaływanie badanych pierwiastków. Dla zawartości humusu nie stwierdzono zależności regresji, co wskazuje, że stężenie badanych pierwiastków prawie nie wpływa na zawartość humusu w glebie. Porównanie uzyskanych wielokrotnych regresji liniowych z wynikami badań laboratoryjnych wykazało dobrą korelację między tymi seriami danych. Uzyskane prawidłowości oddziaływania zanieczyszczeń i składników pokarmowych w glebach pozwolą w przyszłości stworzyć naukowe podstawy rozwoju nowych metod odsalania gleb zanieczyszczonych wodami złożowymi, jak również planować efektywne prowadzenie prac rekultywacyjnych.
9
Content available remote Mathematical modelling technique to assess soil conditions
EN
This paper analyzes the results of studying contaminated soil samples from a combat zone (Sumy region, Ukraine). The authors proposed a mathematical model for simulating and assessing the impact of military operations on soil and groundwater. The mathematical model will make it possible to predict the occurrence of environmental emergencies and reduce the frequency of expensive experimental studies of soils contaminated with heavy metals.
EN
Among a number of climate-related factors, moisture has the greatest impact on crop productivity. In recent years, certain changes have been observed under conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine with regard to precipitation – from low to in some cases – abnormally high, which requires the study of their impact on the yield and safety of cereal grain for its forecasted production. The article examined the effect of a high level of soil moisture (256.2–272.5 mm) and a low level (47.4–52.3 mm) during the growing season (germination→earing) of spring barley grain on the accumulation of heavy metals in it and its productivity under the conditions of gray forest soils of the Right Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. Spring barley varieties Helios and Caesar were selected for the research. A decrease in the accumulation coefficient at a high level of soil moisture (256.6–272.5 mm) in spring barley grain Pb from 8.3% to 11.3%, Cd – from 35.0% to 35.5%, Zn was established – by 15% and Cu – from 11.2% to 16.6% compared to the low level of soil moisture (47.1 mm – 53.3 mm). At the same time, it was found that with a high level of soil moisture, there is a decrease in the yield of Helios and Caesar spring barley by 18.0% and 14.1%, respectively.
EN
The Coastal Chaouia region is located south of the Casablanca city (Morocco). Since the 1970s, groundwater has been used intensively for irrigation, previously for growing citrus and currently for vegetables and forages. The increase of irrigated soils by pumping has induced environmental problems such as the degradation of groundwater quality and salt water intrusion. For these reasons, this work aimed to study the impact of the irrigation water quality upon the agricultural soils. During the study, 71 samples of well water and soil were taken to represent the whole considered area, which comprised 3 different zones (0–1.8 km, 1.8–4.5 km, and 4.5–11 km from the coast). The analyzed parameters were salinity and pH. The results showed firstly that the soil pH average values decrease for the three zones with 7.73, 7.57, and 7.52, respectively. However, the water pH averages vary from 7.24 to 7.49. For the soil electrical conductivity, it represents a light decrease moving from the nearest zone to the sea to the far one (average of 3.54, 2.66, and 2.33, respectively). A similar result is for observed water electrical conductivity with average of 6.83, 5.30, and 2.06, respectively, for the three zones. The analyses of the soil and water salinity show that both salinities decreased moving from the coast to inland. Richard and Wilcox charts have confirmed the strong mineralization and the poor quality of most of the well water which are close to the sea.
12
EN
Toxic pollutants of industrial origin can be dangerous for professionals who come into contact with them at work, and also for the people who live near the sources of environmental hazards. There is a known relationship between the soil pollution with heavy metals and the morbidity of the population. This paper reports a study of the soil pollution with ions of heavy metals in the Turkestan region, Kazakhstan. The study found technogenic geochemical anomalies of various size, intensity and origin in the soils of the Turkestan region. The distribution of lead, copper, barium, zinc, molybdenum, phosphorus and arsenic was mapped based on the ecological and geochemical survey of the upper soil layer. The most polluted city is Kentau, where concentrations of Pb, Mo, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Mn, Cr, Ni in the soil exceed the allowable level. The cause of pollution is erosion that occurs in the areas of technogenic waste storage. In some communities, the concentration of only one metal exceeded its MAC or the Clarke number, for example, only scandium exceeded its Clarke number by 1.1 in Lenger and only exceeded its Clarke number by 2.75 in Sholakkorgan.
EN
Generally, pesticides are the products containing at least one chemical substance which should protect plant or plant products against pests/diseases. Among them, the most important ones are herbicides, followed by insecticides and fungicides. As a result of intensive agriculture techniques, large amounts of pesticides are applied on agricultural soil. They remain and degrade in soil, but they can enter water bodies and negatively affect water quality and the aquatic ecosystem. The article deals with the level of pesticide load in soil, bottom sediment and surface water in chosen agriculture catchments in the Czech Republic. Results revealed that the main general problem is glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, although their application has been constrained for several years. Furthermore, the difference in contents of chosen parent pesticide substances and their metabolites in soils and waters were pointed out.
EN
The accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant was one of the most serious nuclear incidents in human history. A radioactive plume covered a whole strip of northeastern Europe. The consequences of this catastrophe are still being felt, both in Ukraine and around the world. The article is devoted to the assessment of the consequences of radiocesium contamination of agricultural lands and irrigated waters during a possible accident at the Zaporizhzhia NPP and the associated Cs137 contamination of sunflower products in the Zaporizhzhia region. The studies were carried out using a dynamic mathematical model for the formation of radionuclide activity in the "water-soil-plant-product" system, ECOSIS-87 (Ecoplant). The article presents the results of studies of possible contamination of the environment by radiocesium according the Chornobyl NPP-86 scenario and sunflower production by the method of mathematical dynamic modeling. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the results of an agrochemical and agroecological survey of the state of soils in Ukraine and the Dnipro cascade of reservoirs. If an explosion occurs at the Zaporizhzhia NPP, the power of which will be equal to the Chornobyl NPP, then 100,000 hectares of agricultural land in the region will be taken out of the agricultural production of the Zaporizhzhia region. On agricultural lands where soil contamination with radiocaesium will be more than 5 Ci/km2, and the concentration in irrigated waters will reach 2 Bq/dm3, sunflower, which was grown for seeds to produce oil will need to be replaced with an industrial crop, which will also lead to loss of seed yield sunflower. Crop losses will lead to a decrease in the volume of sunflower oil. It should also be taken into account that the purification of soil and water does not occur in one year. At least in 5 years the situation will begin to improve.
EN
Coal mining in Donbas is a global problem as it causes the destabilization of ecological landscapes. Spoil tips, covering almost 52% of the territory, alter the topography of the land, affect the ecosystem, and decrease soil fertility. The soils become degraded and are unsuitable for agricultural use. The occupation of the Donetsk region by the Russian Federation has suspended the observation and research of man-made influence on this territory, which is a major concern for the scientific community. To reduce the negative impact of spoil tips, it is necessary to slow down the process of pyrite oxidation and the formation of toxic substances, as well as the migration of heavy metals due to erosion. Biological reclamation with grass and woody plants can help in achieving this goal. Another urgent issue is the constant supervision and assessment of the suitability of the bedrock of coal mines for agricultural use. The study investigated the total and mobile content of heavy metals in the rock samples from the “South Donbaska-1” mine, ordinary chernozem (background soil), and vegetation growing on the spoil tip. The results showed that the content of Co, Cr, Cu, and Fe in the rock of the spoil tip is higher than in the background soils. The content of heavy metals gradually decreases as the distance from the spoil tip increases. The content of Pb in ordinary chernozem and rock is practically the same, indicating its active migration. An analysis of the biomass of plant samples growing on the spoil tip showed that the content of Co, Cu, and Zn was within the limits of the threshold limiting values. However, the content of other studied elements exceeded the permissible norms. The research results provide information on the ecological state of the spoil tip and can be used for recreational as well as reclamation works in these areas.
EN
The article reports on a study that examined the impact of agrochemicals on the levels of surfactants in soil. Specifically, the study found that the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides led to an increase in the levels of anionic surfactants (ASA) in the soil. Furthermore, the simultaneous application of fertilizers and pesticides had a greater effect on ASA levels than either factor alone. The use of pesticides also led to an increase in non-ionic surfactants (NSA), while the use of fertilizers resulted in a decrease in NSA levels. The study also found that the increase in the levels of mobile forms of key nutrients in the soil was associated with the accumulation of ASA in lower layers of the soil profile.The amount of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen under the low protection system increased by 3.0–23.2 mg kg-1 soil, mobile phosphorus by 14.0–144.0 mg P2O5, and exchangeable potassium by 9.0–222.0 mg K2O per kg soil, compared to the control. With the complex use of fertilizers and pesticides in one block, a trend of increasing mobile forms of nutrients in the soil was observed. The distribution of ASA amount in the soil profile is descending. The clear presence of ASA was established only in the soil layer of 0–40 cm. An increase of ASA content in the soil due to the use of agrochemicals and fertilizers is observed up to a depth of 60–80 cm. Using biological elements in agriculture significantly reduces the amount of these substances in the soil profile.
EN
The aim of this study was to scientifically substantiate the peculiarities of the formation of lawn cultural phytocenoses of the Podillia zone of Ukraine based on the analysis of the qualitative state of the existing grass stand. The conducted research is devoted to biodiversity, namely soil conservation, as well as modern trends in the development of adaptive technologies for growing lawn grasses, which are based on a number of basic directions, taking into account both the features of innovative changes and the technological renewal of mechanization tools, and the main trends in the development of green farming aimed at ensuring the environmental friendliness of the products obtained, soil conservation while ensuring the appropriate levels economic and energy efficiency. The use of lawn grasses as an integral aesthetic decorative element of landscape design is at the same time an ecological and remedial factor of influence on the surrounding natural environment, which is quite widely used in Ukraine and the world. Dense lawn coverings trap dust, increase air humidity, improve the microclimate of the environment due to the phytoncides released by them, thereby improving the air, preventing erosion and improving the agrophysical properties of the soil. Determination of agrophysical soil parameters of total porosity, capillary porosity and aeration porosity was carried out. It was established that the highest quality lawns form a grass stand with a density of more than 120 vegetative shoots per 1 dm-2. The use of all types of plants contributed to the general growth of both the general sparability, including its subcategories, and the sparability of aeration. At the same time, the specified feature of the formation of spar was noted for gray forest soils under the conditions of the experimental field. This ultimately contributed to a decrease in soil density.
EN
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coal mining waste and its mixtures with municipal sewage sludge and waste rock wool from cover crops on the formation of selected properties of degraded anthropogenic soil. Under the conditions of a pot experiment, coal mining waste and its mixtures with 2.5 and 5% sewage sludge and mixtures supplemented with 1% addition of waste rockwool from cover crops were introduced (in a ratio of 1:1) into the degraded anthropogenic soil. White mustard was grown on the substrates in the first year and maize in the second year. The pH, EC, and sorption properties were determined in soil samples taken before of the plants and after their harvest. The results showed that the addition of coal mining waste and its mixtures with municipal sewage sludge and waste rock wool improved the soil pH and sorption properties. The management of coal mining waste and waste optimising its properties for the production of fertilizing agents can be an effective strategy within a circular economy, which at the same time will increase the efficiency of the management of degraded and poor-quality soils.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine the heavy metal content of soils after sewage sludge application and to calculate the costs associated with fertilising the soil with sewage sludge, which have not been analysed in the available literature so far. The soil for the pot experiments came from villages where the soil was contaminated with heavy metals. Sewage sludge was proposed as a material for the reclamation of land degraded by the mining industry in the aforementioned settlements, and its effect on improving the physical and chemical properties of the soil after application was demonstrated. The cost of applying three doses of municipal sludge to restore areas damaged (degraded) by human activity was estimated. The calculation was carried out on the basis of KNR (National Contractors Estimator) No. 2–21 Tereny Zieleni (Green Areas) and the current prices from Sekocendbud Bulletin 5/2023 (2145), 1st quarter 2023. The cost of fertilising with stabilised sewage sludge for category II land is relatively low. The cost difference between the lowest sludge application of 50 Mg•ha-1 and the highest of 200 Mg•ha-1 is 85%. Therefore, it is cost-effective to apply the highest possible sludge dose per unit area. The study used sewage sludge that was suitable for natural purposes, including agricultural use, and that met the requirements [Journal of Laws 2015, item 257]. In Karniowice, no contamination of the soil with copper, cadmium, zinc and lead was found, although the content of these metals clearly increased after sludge application at the aforementioned sludge doses. The application of sludge, even in multiple doses, had no influence on exceeding the permissible concentration for these metals according to the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 2015, which allowed the area to be classified as uncontaminated after sludge application. In Lgota, soil contamination standards were exceeded for cadmium, lead and zinc after sludge application. In the case of copper after sludge application, the results were in line with the regulation.
EN
For this study, an electro kinetic method used to eliminate cadmium from the polluted soil. This method is useful at low permeability medium. Several experiments were conducted with variable operating circumstances, using different pH purging solutions. Rice husks were used in this work as an adsorbent medium available and free of charge to counteract the reverse osmosis process that occurs and affects the work efficiency. The final results after the end of the practical experiments of this process showed that the percentages of the removal process began to increase after the pH gradually decreases. The pH of the solution for the three experiments conducted was 3, 6 and 9, respectively. The best removal rate was 68% in this process at pH 3 ; when compared with the second and third tests at pH 6 and 9, the removal ratios were 58% and 51.5%, respectively. It was discovered that the cadmium removal rate began to decrease along with voltage. At 30 volts the removal rates were 68%, whereas 20 volts they were 66%. Rice husks have been shown to be an effective adsorbent for counteracting reverse osmosis. Therefore, it can be successfully used as an adsorbent medium.
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