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EN
Lithological and palynological studies of Paleogene siliciclastic deposits from the Yantarny P-1 borehole located on the western coast of the Sambian Peninsula (Kaliningrad region, Russia) show that the succession is characterized by numerous sedimentary discontinuities related to lithification horizons and erosional surfaces. Sedimentary gaps are emphasised by hardgrounds. Palynological data suggest the Selandian-Priabonian age of the succession and indicate a number of significant stratigraphic gaps. An important change in heavy mineral composition is recognized between the Paleocene and Eocene deposits in the area studied. A significant number of reworked Cretaceous microfossils is observed in the Selandian part of the succession studied.
EN
In the present study, data on the diversity of acritarch and prasinophyte microphytoplankton were collected from Ordovician-Silurian transitional strata at three different geological localities in Poland: southern part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Małopolska Block, southern Poland), East European Platform (Baltica), and Koszalin-Chojnice Zone (NW Poland). The material represents the mucronata (trilobite) to vesiculosus (graptolite) biozones. The Ordovician microphytoplankton assemblages are characterized by low frequency and low diversity: up to 110 specimens and 12 genera per slide, in contrast to Silurian ones that are more frequent and more diverse - >3000 specimens and 16 genera per slide (diversity at the species level is also higher). Throughout the Ordovician part of the succession, typical Ordovician genera occur, such as Acanthodiacrodium, Ordovicidium, Orthosphaeridium and large Baltisphaeridium, together with isolated occurrences of typical Silurian genera, especially in the upper part of the Hirnantian (e.g., Diexallophasis). The Silurian assemblages are typified by high frequency of prasinophytes followed by typical Siluran acritarchs: Tylotopalla, Ammonidium, Domasia and Oppilatala. The palynological material from Poland is compared with material known from other localities: the Rapla and Valga boreholes (Estonia) and Anticosti Island (Canada), as well as others placed in different palaeocontinents and different bathymetric zones. Palynological assemblages obtained from Polish material confirm that bathymetry played the key role in taxonomic diversification of the microphytoplankton assemblage. This supports the existing models of distribution: dominance of prasinophytes (leiospheres) and cryptospores is characteristic for shal low-water environments. In deeper water, dominance of acanthomorphs is observed. In the deepest-water zones - mixed assemblages occur. For the Holy Cross Mountains, microphytoplankton frequency is compared with a TOC curve in the same interval.
EN
Palynological investigation of the Vrabchov dol locality (Western Bulgaria) which recently yielded fragmentary dinosaur bones attributed to the clade Titanosauria, reveals well-preserved sporomorph assemblages dominated by angiosperm pollen from the Normapolles group, spores and rare gymnosperms. The age assessment of the studied sequence is based on the diagnostic Normapolles species, such as Oculopollis orbicularis Góczán, 1964, Oculopollis zaklinskaiae Góczán, 1964, Krutzschipollis spatiosus Góczán in Góczán et al., 1967 and Krutzschipollis crassus (Góczán, 1964) Góczán in Góczán et al., 1967. The concurrent presence of these pollen species suggests a late Santonian–early Campanian age for the succession. The sporomorph association is encountered in a palynofacies dominated by continental elements, including translucent phytoclasts (tissues, wood remains and plant cuticles). The sedimentary succession shows no evidence of marine elements and a very low proportion of AOM that attests to deposition within a lagoonal to foreshore marine environment, with high continental input and short transportation. The vegetation in the studied area was primarily composed of a range of Normapolles-producing angiosperms and secondarily of pteridophyte spore-producing plants. Gymnosperms were rare. Such a vegetation pattern reflects a warm, seasonally dry climate during the late Santonian–earliest Campanian in the studied area. The dinosaurs inhabited a wet lowland area, probably rich in herbaceous plants.
EN
The succession of bioevents in planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannoplankton communities is reviewed and summarized for the Carpathian Foredeep and northern Pannonian Basin in the time interval between ~16 and 13.5 Ma. This succession can be subdivided into three principal intervals: (1) an interval with rare Praeorbulina sicana and P. glomerosa. It was characterized by a limited immigration of index taxa linked to the lack of a warm surface water layer in the Central Paratethys. This interval can be correlated with the first Badenian transgression near the Burdigalian/Langhian boundary. The rare occurrence of biostratigraphical markers does not allow its precise dating and interregional correlation; (2) a brief interval of the first occurrences of Praeorbulina circularis, Orbulina suturalis and Helicosphaera waltrans. This can be related to the formation of a warm surface water layer suitable for the survival of orbulinas and praeorbulinas and a change from estuarine to anti-estuarine circulation. This interval can be correlated with the second Badenian transgression, which, however, was not isochronous over the area as inferred from different successions of these first occurrences; (3) a limited appearance of new index taxa in the Central Paratethys prior to the Wielician Salinity Crisis. This time interval was characterized by increased seasonality and salinity oscillations followed by climate cooling. A “reverse” migration of the stress-tolerant species Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis from the Central Paratethys to the Mediterranean is suggested. Several local bioevents with limited stratigraphic correlation potential have been recognized in this interval.
EN
Litho-, pedo- and palynological analyses constrained by radiometric dating of two loess-palaeosol sequences, Nahirne and Velyka Andrusivka, exposed in a cliff at the eastern edge of the Dnieper Upland, Ukraine, document regional environmental changes in the western marginal zone of the Dnieper lobe. The postglacial loess sedimentation cycle was initiated during MIS 8, immediately after the ice sheet recession. On the basis of palaeorelief analysis, subsequent morphogenetic stages of the original postglacial relief, associated with the modifying and masking role of the loess, and destructive slope processes were reconstructed. Periglacial steppe with consistently present scattered trees formed the Pleistocene landscape in the Middle Dniester area during the last three glacial periods. In such an environment, the following loess beds, correlated with marine isotope stages (MIS), were deposited: Dnieper (dn) - MIS 8, Tyasmyn (ts) - MIS 6, Uday (ud) - MIS 4 and Bug (bg) - MIS 2. During the last two warm periods: Kaydaky (kd) - MIS 7 and Pryluky (pl) - MIS 5, the landscape was not fully forested. As a result, the individual palynological features of these soils show a diverse character. The TL and OSL dates form a sequence with numerous inversions that are difficult to interpret. Although these data do not significantly influence the interpretation, they show that: 1) there are loesses that undoubtedly formed after the maximum extent of the ice sheet by short-distance transport of dust material from local fresh glacial deposits and the underlying Paleogene rocks; 2) date distortions result from the activities of an exceptionally rich pedofauna that has contaminated the material not only in the soil sections of the profile but also in the adjacent loess. It is possible to delimit a few stages of pedofaunal activity in each of the soil units.
EN
A palynological study of a 30 m borehole within the Akoka campus of the University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria revealed Late Quaternary paleo-vegetational, climatic and environmental changes. Sixteen samples at a regular interval of 2 m were subjected to standard palynological and sedimentological techniques. Six pollen zones representing six paleoclimatic phases within the Late Quaternary period were recognized. The age model is based on two radiocarbon dates (6 m: 5,495 ± 25 ¹⁴C yr and 12 m: 15,660 ± 40 ¹⁴C yr) and, by extrapolation, the sequence spans approximately the last 35,000 yr BP. The African maximum transgression and the African Humid Period (wet paleoclimate maximum) – the Nouaktchottian, and Pre-Nouaktchottian respectively – were recognized, while the Ogolian II (Erg II) was stratigraphically recognized and the Upper Inchirian extrapolated. Recovered diatom frustules with other proxies were employed for paleoclimatic and paleoecological deductions. Four hydrological cycles and three paleoecological settings were identified. Results from this work indicate the co-eval record of paleoclimatic events across Africa, suspected cooling during the African maximum transgression in Nigeria and the usefulness of coastal freshwater swamp sediments for paleoclimate studies.
EN
Palynological analysis was carried out on twenty (20) ditch cutting samples from a section (1284.73–1496.57 m) of the Amansiodo-1 well, Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria with the aim of determining the age, biozone, and depositional environment of the sediments within the depth interval. The laboratory techniques of digesting sediments in hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids for silicates and carbonates removal were followed to process the samples for the recovery of palynomorphs. Fifty two (52) palynomorph specimens were recovered. An assemblage zone of Echitriporites trianguliformis Zone has been established. The section was dated to the upper Maastrichtian due to the occurrences of age diagnostic marker species such as: Cingulatisporites ornatus, Distaverrusporites simplex, Proteacidites sigalii, Dinogymnium cf auclaense, Echitriporites trianguliformis and Retidiporites magdalensis. Based on the palynomorph marine index and environmental indicator flora, the section was inferred to be deposited in marine to brackish (coastal) environments with little influence of fresh water.
EN
The paper presents the results of the latest radiocarbon dating and the palynological analyses of organic sediments found in the alluvia of the Wisłok River valley between the towns of Łańcut and Przeworsk. The study conducted in the gravel pit made possible the dating of several alluvial fills of the 7–8 m high Holocene terrace and the 5–6 m high floodplain. The oldest channel alluvia and palaeochannel sediments of the 7–8 m high terrace were dated at 10 100–9300 BP (11 960–10 500 cal BP). According to the anthracological analysis the top cover of clay overbank alluvia, which bears charcoal fragments, was deposited in the Subboreal and/or the Subatlantic Phases. In the sequence of the 5–6 m high floodplain, the bottom fills of palaeochannels, dated at 10 195–9885 cal BP (probability level: 68.2%; GdS-3233: 8900 ± 95 BP ) and 11 095–10 755 cal BP (probability level: 68.2%; GdS-3228: 9575 ± 95 BP), were truncated by erosion and covered by alluvia of palaeomeanders, which were active in the 19th century. Preservation of the erosional bench of the Early Holocene organic sediments indicates the predomination of lateral migration of the river channel during the last 200 years and the formation of wide erosional floodplain that has been aggraded with recent flood alluvia. In the 20th century the floodplain aggradation was simultaneous with the deepening of the Wisłok riverbed.
EN
The wooden structures unearthed in 2012 during archaeological excavation in the courtyard of the Museum of Archaeology and History in Elbląg have been dated using the dendrochronological method to the period between 1245 and 1302, which allows them to be considered to be parts of a Teutonic fortress. The remains of the wooden building located directly on the prehistoric lacustrine sediments created a unique opportunity to reconstruct the near-shore sedimentation of the Drużno Lake. Geological, malacological and palynological methods were applied during the investigation. The results, compared with the ranges of both the Drużno Lake and the Vistula Lagoon, known from previous studies of the region, allowed the correlation of a phase of a deep lake with the “Roman Period”. Rapid shallowing of the lake occurred in the “Migration Period”. The final disappearance of the lake in the area of modern Elbląg occurred in the early Middle Ages.
10
Content available remote Towards an integrated Jurassic biostratigraphy for eastern Greenland
EN
The thick and relatively complete Jurassic succession of eastern Greenland provides a unique biostratigraphic record for the North Atlantic region. The main biostratigraphic control for the succession has been provided by molluscs, especially ammonites and to a lesser extent by bivalves and belemnites. The late John Callomon and colleagues recognised 93 Boreal ammonite-bearing horizons in the Mid to Late Jurassic. This provides a reliable backbone to the biostratigraphy of these strata, prompting a palynological colleague to comment that they are the “Policemen of Jurassic Stratigraphy”. Other biostratigraphically significant microfossil and palynological groups, can be calibrated against this standard, but on their own cannot achieve the same precision. The Early Jurassic of eastern Greenland does not have such fine control as later parts of the period. No single biostratigraphic group can be used successfully throughout the interval, and there are only three significant ammonite faunas during this period. Reliance on various different organisms is necessary to cope with the changing range of marine to non-marine environments. CASP field-work from 1990 to 2012 has resulted in the collection of much biostratigraphic material. In this article, published data are summarised together with previously unpublished data in the form of a unified table. The integrated chart shows detailed columns for the whole eastern Greenland Jurassic. It demonstrates the ammonite, palynological and microfossil events/biozones and horizons which are correlated by time. More limited information is available on belemnites, bivalves and macroflora. This is the first time such an integrated biostratigraphic scheme has been assembled for the Jurassic of eastern Greenland. It will be of value to the offshore oil-industry in the northern North Atlantic and on the Barents Shelf as well as to field geologists in Greenland.
EN
In order to reconstruct regional vegetation changes and local conditions during the fen-bog transition in the Borsteler Moor (northwestern Germany), a sediment core covering the period between 7.1 and 4.5 cal kyrs BP was palynologically investigated. The pollen diagram demonstrates the dominance of oak forests and a gradual replacement of trees by raised bog vegetation with the wetter conditions in the Late Atlantic. At ~ 6 cal kyrs BP, the non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP) demonstrate the succession from mesotrophic conditions, clearly indicated by a number of fungal spore types, to oligotrophic conditions, indicated by Sphagnum spores, Bryophytomyces sphagni, and testate amoebae Amphitrema, Assulina and Arcella, etc. Four relatively dry phases during the transition from fen to bog are clearly indicated by the dominance of Calluna and associated fungi as well as by the increase of microcharcoal. Several new NPP types are described and known NPP types are identified. All NPP are discussed in the context of their palaeoecological indicator values.
PL
Badawczy otwór wiertniczy w Wysokiej Wsi, zlokalizowany w centrum Wzgórz Dylewskich (NE Polska), osiągnął głębokość prawie 490 m, z czego na ponad 400 m przewiercono utwory paleogenu i neogenu. W wyniku badań palinologicznych 47 próbek wyróżniono 13 zespołów palinomorf (sporomorfy, fitoplankton i zoomorfy) i datowano osady. Stwierdzono dwu- i trzykrotne powtarzanie się podobnych zespołów palinomorf w paleogeńskim i neogeńskim odcinku profilu, co wskazuje na silne glacitektoniczne zaburzenie osadów. Udokumentowana w wyniku badań palinologicznych skomplikowana budowa geologiczna odnacza się kilkoma strefami odkłucia i przemieszczenia pakietów skalnych. Najniższy, paleogeński kompleks znajduje się w położeniu pierwotnym, datowano w nim zespoły pyłkowo-fitoplanktonowe: D3–D4 – środkowy paleocen, utwory górnego paleocenu w facji lądowej i D8 – dolny eocen. Na głębokości ok. 455 m występuje pierwsza powierzchnia nieciągłości, gdzie w osady paleogeńskie został wprasowany ponad 100-metrowej miąższości pakiet osadów środkowego miocenu z poziomami sporowo-pyłkowymi V, VI, VIII, IX, XI. Kolejną powierzchnię odkłucia stwierdzono na głębokości ok. 339 m. Na osadach mioceńskich ponownie występuje ok. 60-metrowej miąższości pakiet utworów paleogeńskich, stratygraficznie młodszych od leżących w spągu, datowanych na podstawie poziomów pyłkowo-fitoplanktonowych – górnoeoceński poziom D12 i wykształcone w facji lądowej utwory dolnego oligocenu. W te paleogeńskie osady jest wprasowana kilkumetrowej miąższości seria osadów mioceńskich reprezentująca poziom sporowo-pyłkowy IX. Na głębokości ok. 240 m znów pojawiają się osady środkowomioceńskie ok. 150-metrowej miąższości z poziomami sporowo-pyłkowymi V, VII i IX. Stwierdzone mozaikowe następstwo warstw odzwierciedla skomplikowane procesy glacitektoniczne, które doprowadziły do powstania łusek glacitektonicznych budujących jądro moreny spiętrzonej Wzgórz Dylewskich. W wyniku badań palinologicznych uzyskano unikatowe dane, pozwalające na lokalizację stref odkłuć glacitektonicznych. Brak osadów czwartorzędowych w jądrze moreny spiętrzonej wskazuje na wczesnoplejstoceński wiek deformacji.
EN
The Wysoka Wieś borehole located in the center of Dylewskie Hills (NE Poland) reached a depth of almost 490 metres, with more than 400 metres of the Paleogene and the Neogene deposits. Palynological studies were designed to determine whether this huge Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary complex is located in situ or it has been glacitectonically redeposited. Forty-seven samples were analysed for all palynological matter components, i.e. palynomorphs (sporomorphs, phytoplankton, zoomorphs), palynoclasts (phytoclasts) and inorganic debris. Among the palynomorphs, 13 assemblages have been distinguished. Describing these assemblages from the bottom to the top of the section, dual or triple repetition of the same palynomorph zones indicates a strong glacitectonic deformation of the sediments. Palynological data evidence several disengagement zones and displacement of rock packages. The lowest sedimentary complex occurs in the primary position and it contains the pollen and phytoplankton assemblage D3–D4 of the Middle Paleocene to the Upper Paleocene (terrestrial facies), and the Lower Eocene assemblage D8. At a depth of ca. 455 m there is the first discontinuity zone, along which the over 100-metres thick package of Middle Miocene sediments, containing pollen zones V, VI, VIII, IX and XI, became intruded/ pressed into the Paleogene deposits. The next disengagement zone occurs at a depth of ca. 339 m, where the Miocene sediments are overlain by a about 60-metres thick package of Paleogene deposits dated with the stratigraphically younger pollen and phytoplankton zones D12 of the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene (terrestrial facies). These Paleogene deposits were intruded by the Miocene series, a few metres thick, representing pollen zone IX. Then, at a depth of 240 m, occurs the Middle Miocene sedimentary complex, ca. 150 m thick, with pollen zones V, VII and IX. The complicated glacitectonic processes caused such mosaic succession, reflecting the slice structure of glaciotectonic thrust moraines. Palynological studies provided unique data to define the glaciotectonic disengagement zones. The absence of Quaternary deposits in the internal moraine structure indicates the Early Pleistocene age of deformation.
EN
The Lubuskie Lake District played an important part in recolonisation of the Polish Plain due to its location and the character of the terrain. Despite that, it is and especially its northern part, poorly explored regarding both history of Late Glacial and early Holocene settlements, and the natural environment. The paper presents results of multidisciplinary research in this area. The most spectacular discoveries were connected with remains of settlements of the Hamburgian culture societies at Myszęcin currently the richest site of this culture over the entire North European Plain. In the vicinity of this site several Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic settlements of varied functions were recorded. First palynological records came from the Younger Dryas sediments in this area. In a log with a palynological spectrum comprising Younger Dryas and the beginning of the Holocene, a charcoal dust was found and it could indicate human activity as humans lived at a lake shore. An important complement to the image of the Late Glacial settlement at the Lubuskie Lake District was provided by the research near Lubrza that resulted in data regarding settlements of the Federmesser and Swiderian culture societies. This region was not typical in a palynological spectrum of deposits during Allerod but also indicated highly diversified thickness of basal peat in a small area.
EN
The Zoloushka Cave belongs to a group of the largest gypsum caves in Western Ukraine (Bukovina region), developed in the middle Miocene (upper Badenian) evaporite series (Tyras Formation) on the SW periphery of the East European Platform. It is developed in the lower part of the evaporite series composed of gypsum, which is covered by a carbonate layer (Ratyn Limestone). The uneven upper surface of the gypsum at the contact with the limestone, the frequent occurrence of palaeokarst forms, and the presence of karstified fissures filled with allochthonous material indicate a sedimentation break between the gypsum and the overlying limestone. To support this thesis and to add new data on the age and palaeoenvironmental conditions of palaeokarst formation in the Bukovina region, palynological studies were carried out on material from the Zoloushka Cave. Palynofacies, sporomorphs and dinoflagellate cysts were studied. In total, over 70 sporomorph taxa and over 25 dinoflagellate cyst taxa have been identified in four samples collected from the filling of the palaeokarstic forms in the cave. The results of the analysis of sporomorphs and dinoflagellate cysts point to the formation of the palaeokarst during the sedimentation break that took place at the end of the late Badenian evaporitic cycle in the Western Ukraine region. The subsequent marine transgression led to the filling of the karst forms in gypsum with chemogenic carbonate material, precipitated from marine water (draperies) and with fine-grained, clastic material (pockets and fissures).
EN
This study from the Szczerców field of the Bełchatów open-cast mining complex, central Poland, reveals the local geomorphic and stratigraphic history of the Krasówka river palaeovalley – a major western tributary of the river Widawka. The data are from the western flank of the N-trending palaeovalley and the study combines detailed lithofacies analysis of outcrop sections, sediment petrology, AMS measurements and palynological evidence. Radiocarbon dates are of crucial importance for the reconstruction of the palaeovalley history. The study contributes to a better understanding of the response of the Central European river systems to the Vistulian Pleniglacial conditions. The Vistulian Pleniglacial sedimentation in the study area commenced with the accumulation of the latest Eemian to earliest Weichselian (≥45 ka) deposits by sheetwash processes in a local karstic topographic depression. The Krasówka river then formed to the east and shifted farther eastwards, but later approached twice the study area with a net aggradation prior to 43 ka BP – flooding it with overbank deposits. The river subsequently incised by nearly 20 m around 40 ka BP and began to fill in its valley by aggradation around 35 ka BP, while migrating eastwards and markedly decreasing its flooding capacity from 33 to 24 ka BP. The fluvial system was rejuvenated around 21 ka BP, with some initial erosion, and kept filling its valley by aggradation while flooding the valley flank. The river after filling its valley continued to aggrade, but gradually ran out of vertical accommodation and migrated westwards. The fluvial activity at this stage was increasingly accompanied by aeolian sedimentation. Once the Mid-Weichselian Pleniglacial came to an end around 14.5 ka BP, the Krasówka river had re-incised by nearly 5 m and assumed its present-day altitude in response to the post-glacial regional isostatic rebound of crustal basement.
16
Content available remote Cambrian phytoplankton of the Brunovistulicum : taxonomy and biostratigraphy
EN
The paper presents the results of detailed palynological studies carried out on the Cambrian deposits of the Brunovistulicum, a characteristic regional unit distinguished in sub-Devonian geology in southern Poland and NE Czech Republic. The material studied consists of drillcore samples collected from 22 boreholes that have penetrated Cambrian in southern and north-eastern parts of the Upper Silesian Block (USB) and 3 boreholes located in the Moravia region (Czech Republic). Within those boreholes, complexes of lithologically differentiated clastic rocks have been encountered below Jurassic, and Lower or Middle Devonian deposits. The age of these sediments, apart from the Goczałkowice IG 1 profile, was determined only on the basis of palynological studies. Majority of the investigated rock samples yielded very rich usually well preserved microfloristic material that allowed to make taxonomic revisions of analysed acritarch associations. Five new genera, nineteen new species and eleven species new combinations are proposed. The new and revised taxa include mainly those that appear in the Cambrian Series 2 and forms characteristic for the Cambrian Series 3. These are the following important new genera as: Ichnosphaera, Lechistania, Eklundia, Parmasphaeridium and Turrisphaeridium. The taxonomic revision and systematic analysis of acritarch associations described from the Cambrian of Brunovistulicum allowed to establish the succession of microfloral assemblages. As a result of the present studies nine distinct regional assemblage acritarch zones have been recognised – BAMA I to BAMA IX, correlated with the Cambrian series: Terreneuvian, Series 2, and Series 3. The BAMA I – Pulvinosphaeridium antiquum–Pseudotasmanites and the BAMA II Asteridium tornatum–Comasphaeridium velvetum zones are distinguished in the oldest Cambrian deposits of the Brunovistulicum and are correlated with the Platysolenites Zone. Acritarch assemblages characteristic for the older one were documented in the Borzeta Formation in the eastern margin of the Upper Silesian Block. The acritarch association of the BAMA II constrains the biostratigraphic position of the Mogilany Member of Goczałkowice Formation in the USB area. The BAMA III–VI acritarch assemblage zones: Ichnosphaera flexuosa–Comasphaeridium molliculum, Skiagia–Eklundia campanula, Skiagia–Eklundia varia and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana are recognised in the Goczałkowice Formation of both the Upper Silesian and Brno blocks and comprise deposits of Schmidtiellus, Holmia and Protolenus trilobite zones in the studied area. The BAMA VII to BAMA IX zones are correlated with Series 3 of the Cambrian System and were established in the Sosnowiec Formation known only from the Sosnowiec IG 1 borehole in the Upper Silesian Block area. The BAMA VII Ammonidium bellulum–Ammonidium notatum Zone is here correlated with trilobite Acadoparadoxides oelandicus Zone, while BAMA VIII Turrisphaeridium semireticulatum and BAMA IX Adara alea–Multiplicisphaeridium llynense zones are regarded as equivalents of the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Zone. The present study indicates that the oldest Cambrian (Terreneuvian) sediments containing BAMAI Zone assemblages were deposited only in the eastern part of the Upper Silesian Block. Younger sediments, from the Terreneuvian and Series 2 with BAMA II–VI Zones assemblages were developing over much larger areas of the Upper Silesian and Brno blocks. Sediments of the Series 3 with BAMA VII–IX assemblages are known only from the northern part of the USB. The Furongian sediments, not yet found in the study area, potentially may occur in the northern part of the Block, where the Ordovician strata were found. Nevertheless, a reliable reconstruction of the Early Palaeozoic deposition within the Brunovistulicum still remains an open question, which can be solved only by new borehole data.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki szczegółowych badań palinologicznych wykonanych dla utworów kambryjskich rozpoznanych na obszarze Brunovistulicum, regionalnej jednostki tektonicznej położonej na południu Polski i w północno-wschodnich Czechach. Materiał do badań stanowiły próbki skał z 22 otworów wiertniczych zlokalizowanych w obszarze bloku górnośląskiego oraz z 3 wierceń wykonanych na Morawach (blok Brna). W wierceniach tych pod utworami jury, dewonu dolnego lub środkowego nawiercono zróżnicowane litologicznie kompleksy skał klastycznych, które poza jednym profilem - Goczałkowce IG 1 - pozbawione są przewodnich mikroskamieniałości, a ich kambryjski wiek został ustalony na podstawie badań palinologicznych. Uzyskany w trakcie badań bogaty i w większości dobrze zachowany materiał mikroflorystyczny umożliwił przeprowadzenie rewizji wielu taksonów akritarch, w tym wykreowania 5 nowych rodzajów oraz wyróżnienia 19 nowych gatunków i 11 nowych kombinacji gatunkowych. Nowe i rewidowane taksony to głównie gatunki występujące w utworach oddziału 2 i formy charakterystyczne dla oddziału 3 systemu kambryjskiego. Do najważniejszych należą następujące nowe przewodnie rodzaje: Ichnosphaera, Lechistania, Eklundia, Parmasphaeridium i Turrisphaeridium. Przeprowadzone analizy taksonomiczne zespołów akritarch udokumentowanych w utworach kambru Brunovistulicum pozwoliły na wyznaczenie w tym obszarze 9 regionalnych poziomów mikroflorystycznych - BAMA I do BAMA IX, które datują trzy kolejne oddziały kambru: terenew, oddział 2i3. Poziomy BAMA I Pulvinosphaeridium antiquum-Pseudotasmanites i BAMA II Asteridium tornatum-Comasphaeridium velvetum rozpoznano w najstarszych utworach kambru Brunovistulicum, gdzie zostały skorelowane z poziomem Platysolenites. Zespoły akritarch charakterystyczne dla poziomu BAMA I stwierdzono w utworach formacji z Borzęty udokumentowanych we wschodniej brzeżnej części bloku górnośląskiego. Kolejna asocjacja BAMA II datuje wiek kompleksu skalnego wyróżnionego w obszarze bloku górnośląskiego jako ogniwo piaskowców skolitusowych z Mogilan formacji z Goczałkowic. Zespoły akritarch charakterystyczne dla poziomów BAMA III-VI: Ichnosphaeraflexuosa-Comasphaeridium molliculum, Skiagia-Eklundia campanula, Skiagia-Eklundia varia i Volkovia dentifera-Liepaina plana, które korelowane są z poziomami Schmidtiellus, Holmia i Protolenus udokumentowano w osadach formacji z Goczałkowic, rozpoznanych w obszarach bloku górnośląskiego i bloku Brna. Utwory odddziału 3 kambru w analizowanym obszarze dokumentują trzy poziomy akritarchowe BAMA VII-IX, stwierdzone w osadach formacji z Sosnowca, udostępnionych otworem wiertniczym Sosnowiec IG 1 na bloku górnośląskim. Poziom BAMA VII Ammonidium bellulum-Ammonidium notatum należy wiązać z poziomem Acadoparadoxides oelandicus, natomiast dwa pozostałe poziomy BAMA VIII Turrisphaeridium semireticulatum i BAMA IX Adara alea-Multiplicisphaeridium llynense z poziomem Paradoxidesparadoxissimus. Z przeprowadzonych badań wynika, że najstarsze osady kambryjskie - terenewu - zawierające zespoły BAMA I tworzyły się tylko w części wschodniej bloku górnośląskiego. Osady młodsze, terenewu i oddziału 2 z zespołami BAMA II-VI rozwijały się na znacznie większym obszarze bloku górnośląskiego i bloku Brna. Osady oddziału 3 z zespołami BAMA VII-IX tworzyły się w północnej części bloku górnośląskiego. Obecność osadów furongu w analizowanym obszarze jest wielce prawdopodobna, mogą one występować w północnej części bloku, tym bardziej, że zostały tam już udokumentowane utwory ordowiku. Wiarygodne i prawidłowe odtworzenie rozwoju sedymentacji osadów dolnopaleozoicznych na obszarze Brunovistulicum pozostaje zagadnieniem otwartym, które można rozwiązać jedynie za pomocą nowych otworów wiertniczych pozwalających na poznanie pełniejszych profili tych utworów.
PL
Przedmiotem badań są osady wypełniające zagłębienie wytopiskowe w Dzikowie, we wschodniej części Kotliny Toruńskiej, około 20 km na południowy wschód od Torunia. Analizowane wytopisko oraz sąsiadujące z nim Jezioro Dzikowskie usytuowane są na terasie Wisły. W celu odtworzenia ewolucji środowiska przyrodniczego tego obszaru przeprowadzono badania multidyscyplinarne. Badania geologiczne pozwoliły na określenie maksymalnej miąższości osadów biogenicznych w obrębie analizowanego wytopiska na około 10 m. Szczegółowe analizy paleoekologiczne (geochemiczne, palinologiczne i makroszczątków roślinnych) dostarczyły informacji o zmianach środowiska przyrodniczego w późnym glacjale i holocenie oraz umożliwiły wyodrębnienie kolejnych etapów rozwoju paleojeziora.
EN
The object of current research is core of the bottom sediments of a kettle-hole at the Dzikowo site. Study area is located in the eastern part of the Torun Basin, in the area of the Vistula terrace, approximately 20 km southeast of Toruń. In order to reconstruct the environmental history of this region, multidisciplinary research was carried out. Geological research allowed to determine the maximum thickness of biogenic sediments to approximately 10 m. Detailed paleoecological analyses (palynological, plant macroremains, geochemical) provided information about environmental changes in the Late Glacial and the Holocene and helped to identify stages in the evolution of the paleolake basin.
EN
This paper describes sedimentology and palynology of freshwater plant-bearing late Cenozoic (Pliocene sensu lato) deposits drilled at Mizerna, the eastern part of the Nowy Targ Intramontane Depression, West Carpathians, South Poland. Our data were obtained from a newly-analysed 39-m thick succession from the Mizerna-Nowa borehole, containing spores, pollen and freshwater organic-walled algal micro-remains. They shed light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions of the Nowy Targ Intramontane Depression, where the Mizerna palaeolake once formed.
EN
An investigated area is located in the middle reach of the WartaRiver valley. During drillings in the Bór site organic deposits such as detritous calcareous gyttja and calcareous detritous gyttja has been documented in a depth between 14,9 and 16,6 m. The organic deposits are covered by mineral, mostly sandy deposits. The accumulation took place in the small lake formed as an abandoned channel. Palynological analysis led to conclusion that biogenic accumulation began at the end of Wartanian and took place at least to the Eemian Interglacial optimum. Results of palynological, Cladocera and geochemical analysis inform about water level changes and increasing of trophy status of the reservoir. Presence of Mesozoic substratum very close to the palaeolake bottom influenced significantly chemical features of the organic deposits. As Eemian organic deposits are uncommon in the Warta River valley, the Bór site seems important for palaeogeographical reconstructions of the Warta River valley during Eemian Interglacial.
EN
The Białowice site is situated in the north-west of the Nowa Sól Depression which is part of the Central Poland Lowlands. Palynological analysis shows that lake and swamp accumulations took place in the Early Vistulian. Two warm interstadial-rank oscillations (Brörup and Odderade) and a stadial (Rederstall) have been distinguished during the Early Vistulian. The sequence of changes at Białowice is similar to the sequences in profiles from other parts of Poland and Western Europe. Until now, in that region of Poland the vegetation succession of the Brörup and Odderade had remained unknown. The lithology of the profile at Białowice shows rapid changes of sedimentation which have been observed in the younger part of the Brörup and at the Brörup/Rederstall transition. Geological and palynological data suggests that the maximum limit of the Vistulian Glaciation to the south of the Żary Hills.
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