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EN
The development of smart sustainable megapolises is associated with the formation of city multifloor manufacturing clusters (CMFMCs) in them directly in the residential area in order to reduce the supply chain from the manufacturer to consumers. Additive technologies (ATs) belong to green technologies because they are considered environmentally sustainable due to less production waste and the ability to reuse of product materials within the circular economy concept. Sustainable development of ATs and additive manufacturing management has become a priority sphere for scientific research, and the use of ATs in the city manufacturing has become any daily reality. Nevertheless, the issues of additive manufacturing management within the CMFMCs have not yet been sufficiently studied. The primary goal of this study was to examine the possibilities of additive manufacturing management in the CMFMCs of the megapolis due to the rational facilities multi-floor layout in production buildings, considering the structure of city manufacturing and business process reengineering related to the needs of the production services market. This paper presents a novel model of facilities multi-floor layout in the production buildings of the CMFMCs, considering the structure of city manufacturing, morphological analysis of the additive manufacturing equipment (AME) used, the balance of material and energy flows under infrastructure capacity limitations of megapolis. The model was verified based on a case study for various options of the floor-by-floor grouping of AME in a building of the CMFMCs. Management solutions for maintaining the flow balance of material, energy and water resources in the CMFMCs are discussed. The results may be useful for additive manufacturing management in an urban environment, taking into account the needs of the production services market in the megapolis.
2
Content available Industry 4.0 and socio-economic evolution
EN
The ongoing revolutionary socio-economic changes are particularly evident in the context of implementing the principles of Industry 4.0, aiming to enhance two categories: the efficiency of actions taken and productivity, influenced by the increasing level of process automation. The utilization of robots, automation, and virtual reality are elements that not only characterize the economic practice environment but also the daily life of individuals. The observed situation provided the impetus for conducting survey research, focusing on exploring the functioning of individuals in the environment of new technologies. Information was obtained regarding the knowledge of selected technological solutions among Poles, their understanding of their essence, and the predicted further evolution/regression in this domain by the respondents. The acquired empirical data, reflecting the researched reality, appear to align well with the results of literary studies concerning technological processes and their associated social consequences. Poles have shown awareness of the existence of advanced technologies in various sectors of the economy and daily life, and they more often expressed favorable positions towards the utilization of innovative solutions-recognizing them as convenient and facilitating various tasks. This study provides an opportunity to present the initial and selected conclusions regarding the gathered material.
PL
Trwające rewolucyjne zmiany społeczno-gospodarcze są szczególnie widoczne w kontekście wdrażania zasad Przemysłu 4.0, którego celem jest zwiększenie efektywności podejmowanych działań oraz produktywności, pod wpływem rosnącego poziomu automatyzacji procesów. Wykorzystanie robotów, automatyzacji i rzeczywistości wirtualnej to elementy, które charakteryzują nie tylko otoczenie praktyki gospodarczej, ale także codzienne życie jednostek. Obserwowana sytuacja stanowiła impuls do przeprowadzenia badań ankietowych, skupiających się na badaniu funkcjonowania jednostek w środowisku nowych technologii. Uzyskano informacje dotyczące znajomości wybranych rozwiązań technologicznych wśród Polaków, ich zrozumienia istoty tych rozwiązań oraz przewidywanej dalszej ewolucji/regresu w tej dziedzinie według respondentów. Uzyskane dane empiryczne, odzwierciedlające badaną rzeczywistość, zdają się dobrze korespondować z wynikami studiów literaturowych dotyczących procesów technologicznych i ich związanych z nimi konsekwencji społecznych. Polacy wykazali świadomość istnienia zaawansowanych technologii w różnych sektorach gospodarki i życia codziennego, a także coraz częściej wyrażali pozytywne stanowiska wobec wykorzystywania innowacyjnych rozwiązań, uznając je za wygodne i ułatwiające różne zadania. Niniejsze badanie daje możliwość przedstawienia wstępnych i wybranych wniosków dotyczących zebranego materiału.
EN
The article presents the preliminary results of research in the field of preparing employees aged forty or over to the challenges of industry 4.0. Based on literature research and the results of own research, an assessment of the current human resources in the automotive industry was presented, with a particular emphasis on the age structure and digital competences. The main barriers in the process of preparing forty-plus employees to the requirements of the work environment 4.0 were identified. Existing training methods were assessed. It was indicated that PBL in the field of acquiring digital competences in the group of forty-plus employees has great potential to achieve the success rate of bridging the digital competency gap.
EN
The main problem of modern entrepreneurs is the adequate recognition of customer expectations based on current products. The purpose of the study is to propose the concept of a model to predict the qualitative-cost level of this modified product. The idea of the concept depends on determining the product that will be satisfactory for the customer, i.e., satisfied simultaneously in turn of quality and cost of purchase. A questionnaire is used to obtain customer expectations. Then, according to the DEMATEL method, the relations between these criteria are determined. Next, the weights (importance) of the criteria are estimated by arithmetic average. Additionally, according to the Likert scale, these criteria' initial quality (customer satisfaction) is assessed. Based on these, the quality of the product is estimated by using the WSM method. The calculated product quality is combined with the real cost of its purchase in the qualitative-cost analysis (AKJ). According to the results of the qualitative-cost analysis, the expected product of the customer is predicted. This process is supported by the Relative States Scale. The proposed conception can be used to verify any product. Therefore, it can be useful for different entities offering products to the customer and striving to meet their expectations (satisfaction). The originality is the simultaneous prediction of the expected level of product quality and the cost of its purchase and the ability to determine customer satisfaction at this qualitative-cost level.
PL
Głównym problemem współczesnych przedsiębiorców jest odpowiednie rozpoznanie oczekiwań klienta na podstawie aktualnych produktów. Celem opracowania jest zaproponowanie koncepcji modelu do przewidywania poziomu jakościowo-kosztowego produktu według modyfikacji produktu. Idea koncepcji polega na określeniu satysfakcjonującego dla klienta produktu, który będzie jednocześnie zadawalający pod względem jakości i kosztu jego zakupu. Kwestionariusz wykorzystuje się do pozyskania oczekiwań klienta. Kolejno, według metody DAMATEL określane są relacje pomiędzy kryteriami. Następnie stosując średnią arytmetyczną szacowane są wagi (ważność) kryteriów. Dodatkowo, według skali Likerta oceniana jest wstępna jakość (satysfakcja klienta) z tych kryteriów. Na ich podstawie szacowana jest jakość produktu zgodnie z metodą WSM. Obliczona jakość produktu łączona jest z rzeczywistym kosztem ich zakupu w analizie kosztowo-jakościowej (AKJ). Według poziomu kosztowo-jakościowego przewidywany jest produkt oczekiwany przez klienta. Wybór wspierany jest skalą stanów względnych. Proponowana koncepcja może być stosowana do weryfikacji dowolnych produktów. Dlatego może być użyteczną dla różnych podmiotów oferujących produkty klientowi i dążących do spełnienia ich oczekiwań (satysfakcji). Oryginalnością jest jednoczesne przewidzenie oczekiwanego poziomu jakości produktu i kosztu jego zakupu oraz możliwość określenia satysfakcji klienta z tego poziomu jakościowo-kosztowego.
EN
Lean Manufacturing is a profound system designed to enhance every manufacturing industry's efficiency by reducing waste through internationally recognized tools and techniques. Enterprises of all sizes and industries strive to adopt Lean Manufacturing (LM) concepts to maximize their resources, such as personnel, facilities, materials, and operating schedules, to be economically effective. There are several models for implementing Lean philosophy in enterprises. The conducted research is aimed at reviewing and conceptualizing the LM system implementation framework in the enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis was based on the results of surveys conducted in micro, small, medium and large enterprises, mainly in production, trade and service organizations. As a result, among others, the main premises, methods and benefits of implementing the LM system, thus identifying the specificity of the concept in the context of the size of enterprises and the industry from which they come, were indicated. The originality is the analysis of the effectiveness, efficiency and productivity of Lean activities, distinguishing the size of the organization from the group of micro, small, medium and large organizations (MSME). The research results show that the LM implementation model in enterprises from Central and Eastern Europe is based on the Shingo model.
PL
Produkcja szczupła to rozbudowany system zaprojektowany w celu zwiększenia wydajności każdej branży produkcyjnej poprzez redukcję odpadów dzięki uznanym na arenie międzynarodowej narzędziom i technikom. Przedsiębiorstwa niezależnie od wielkości i branży starają się przyjąć koncepcje Lean Manufacturing (LM) , aby zmaksymalizować swoje zasoby, takie jak personel, obiekty, materiały i harmonogramy działania, aby były ekonomicznie efektywne. Istnieje kilka modeli implementacji filozofii Lean w przedsiębiorstwach. Realizowane badania mają na celu dokonanie przeglądu i konceptualizacji ram wdrożeń systemu LM w przedsiębiorstwach w Europie ŚrodkowoWschodniej. Analizę oparto na wynikach z badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych w mikro, małych, średnich i dużych przedsiębiorstwach, głównie w organizacjach produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. W rezultacie wyłoniono m. in. główne przesłanki, sposoby oraz korzyści z wdrożeń systemu LM identyfikując dzięki temu specyfiki koncepcji w kontekście wielkości przedsiębiorstw oraz branży z których pochodzą. Oryginalnością jest przeanalizowanie skuteczności, efektywności oraz wydajności działań Lean w rozróżnieniu na wielkość organizacji z grupy mikro, małych, średnich i dużych organizacji (MSME). Wyniki badań skazują że model wdrożenia LM w przedsiębiorstwach z Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej oparty jest na modelu Shingo.
EN
The article describes a student capstone design project completed by a team of five students and implemented by a resort and casino in Northeastern Pennsylvania (NEPA). This project was completed within the framework of project-based learning (PBL). Students had the opportunity to apply the knowledge that they learned in the classroom in a real-world application. Students also had the opportunity to work as a team which was supervised by the faculty. The outcome of the project provided valuable experience in creating of grid, a reliable source of energy. The heat generated as a by-product was used for the purpose of heating hot water and a swimming pool as well as space heating for the hotel and casino during the winter. In the summertime the excessive amount of heat was used to dehumidify the air in the hotel and casino. Dehumidifying the air increased the level of comfort in the hotel and casino as well as in the enclosed swimming pools area. The article is focusing on the cost effectiveness of the off-grid heat-and-power solution. The net present value and internal rate of return as well as the payback time were calculated.
EN
The study aims to define the elements of common FPC requirements and the ISO 9001:2015 standard in plants producing construction products of road and bridge engineering. The quality management system ISO 9001: 2015 may be recognized as an FPC system by-product certification organization and by the producers themselves, provided that specific requirements specified in the product standard or national technical assessment are also met.
EN
During the process of regeneration of machine parts, certain phenomena occur that have a significant impact on the loss of their working ability. Hereditary properties are expressed by the interdependence of geometric and physical-mechanical-metallurgical parameters of gear teeth created during the technological operations of regeneration of worn teeth by hard-facing. The influence of the type of additional material (electrodes and their combinations) on the tribological characteristics of welded gear teeth was considered, whereby the so-called hard additional materials were applied. Those are the additional materials that give the required surface hardness of the teeth without subsequent thermal or thermochemical treatment. This research did not involve the regeneration of specific worn gears removed from machine systems, but the new gears were made, which were then damaged and then regenerated by hard-facing using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) procedure. Thus, all the tested gears were made of the same material, belonged to one batch and were machined on the same machines with the same machining regimes. The tests were performed on samples made of 20MnCr5 steel for cementation, on a tribometer by the “block on disc” method, which was designed to simulate the operating conditions of coupled teeth of concrete gears in the exploitation conditions. Based on the conducted tribological tests, the average coefficients of friction and topography of the surfaces were determined by measuring the wear trace and it was defined which additional materials give the best tribological characteristics of the surfaces of gears regenerated by hard-facing.
EN
Zarządzanie procesem nadzoru nad certyfikatami podczas pandemii - zdalne kontrole
PL
W artykule przedstawiono nowatorskie podejście do certyfikacji - inspekcje zdalne. Inspekcje internetowe do czasu pandemii nie były przeprowadzane. Przedstawiono problemy, jakie mogą się pojawić podczas przeprowadzania zdalnych kontroli oraz wiarygodność w zakresie wartości dodanej dla producentów i jednostek certyfikujących. Przedstawiono wyniki ocen takich kontroli oraz problemy i zagrożenia jakie stwarzają. Przedstawiono przepisy pozwalające na przeprowadzanie zdalnych inspekcji oraz dokonano przeglądu literatury dotyczącej zdalnych audytów. Przeprowadzono badanie składające się z audytorów geodezyjnych oraz certyfikowanych klientów zajmujących się zdalnymi inspekcjami. Pytania ankiety koncentrowały się na kwestiach związanych z przeprowadzaniem ocen online, na tym, jak czasochłonne są te oceny w porównaniu z ocenami na miejscu oraz na stopniu zadowolenia. Porównano zalety i ograniczenia inspekcji zdalnych z inspekcjami na miejscu. Zdalne inspekcje przeszły pozytywnie i są wymierne dla podejmowania decyzji o utrzymaniu ważności certyfikatów.
EN
The limitations and new safety restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 had a strong impact on the functioning of numerous manufacturing companies. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted among employees of manufacturing companies. A preliminary comparison of the production efficiency (and volume) in terms of the size of enterprises was made – results obtained for micro, small and medium entrprise, as well as for large production enterprise. On the basis of the presented results, it was unequivocally stated that it was much easier for micro and small enterprises to adapt to the introduced changes. They easily expanded the range of products and thus recorded a slight increase in production. Large enterprises, due to the narrow scope of their operations, unfortunately recorded a significant decrease in production – which may also be caused by the discontinuity of the supply chain.
EN
The article presents the results of the research on the level of implementation of Lean instruments in the ceramics industry. The research was carried out in ceramic factories in Poland and Germany. Based on the results obtained, the most commonly used Lean instruments in the ceramics industry were defined. The dependence of the use of Lean instruments on the size of the enterprise was also determined. It was established that the Lean activities undertaken in the ceramics industry are focused solely on the implementation of individual methods and tools, without a pre-defined goal. This approach in the ceramics industry is ineffective, but unfortunately it is most often used in the implementation of the Lean philosophy, especially in small ceramics enterprises.
EN
Globalization and scarcity of resources have contributed to the need to meet and exceed customers' higher expectations while reducing the number of employees, workload and consumption of available resources. This situation was initiated by the fourth industrial revolution, hereinafter referred to as "Industry 4.0", which is based on the implementation of modern information technologies, associated with automation, artificial intelligence and a theory called the Internet of Things. All of this is aimed at improving efficiency, faster decision-making, which results in increasing the competitiveness of the company. Changes in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence and automation technologies indicate that with their increasing importance and implementation in organizations, there is a need to introduce new from teaching in the context of preparing engineers to work with new technologies based on cyberspace. The aim of the article is to review the literature on the importance of problematic teaching in the implementation of engineers for faster and more efficient implementation of Industry 4.0 in current production organizations.
EN
The main purpose of the study is to analyze the causes and benefits of implementing a quality management system in a group of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in developing and innovative regions on the example of enterprises from South-Eastern Poland. In the research, targeted surveys were conducted using the CAWI and CAPI methods extended by an expert interview with key people responsible for quality was used. In the present paper, the results of research related to the assessment of achieving the assumed system objectives in the field of quality in the aspect of a developing region characterized by a turbulent environment were presented. In the paper, original research into the analysis of the causes, expectations and effects of implementing quality management systems in accordance with ISO 9001 in the SMEs group were also displayed.
PL
Sformalizowane systemy zarządzania są we współczesnych organizacjach standardem. W zasadzie większość myślących konkurencyjnie organizacji co najmniej jeden taki system posiada wdrożony. Najczęściej posiadanym przez organizacje systemem jest system zarządzania jakością zgodny z ISO 9001. Mimo, że wiele organizacji posiada wdrożony taki system to jest jeszcze wiele takich, które dopiero planują takie wdrożenia. Niekiedy wdrożenie ISO 9001 jest wymagane przez klientów. Aby to umiejętnie zrobić wskazanym jest korzystać z doświadczeń innych organizacji. Uzasadnionym jest więc analizowanie przyczyn i korzyści wdrożeń systemu zarzadzania jakością. Taki też cel postawiono sobie w badaniach, których wyniki prezentuje to opracowanie. Dzięki znajomości wyciągniętych wniosków organizacje przygotowujące się do wdrożenia ISO 9001 będą mogły zrobić to w sposób umiejętny. Przyczyni to się z pewnością do lepszych ich wyników, co jest jednym celów wdrożenia wymagań normy ISO 9001.
EN
Lean Management is currently one of the best-known and is the most widely used management concepts in production enterprises. Lean creates such a culture of work in an organization that makes all participants in the organization interested in raising the level of quality, reducing costs and delivery time. However, there is no information about the influence of lean tools on the level of safety in production organizations. The paper presents the influence of five lean tools on the safety level by the example of metal manufacturing organization. The number of potentially dangerous situations and the number of accidents were taken as the measure of safety level. The obtained results indicates that the most important for the safety level is 5S, TPM while Kaizen, Poka-Yoka and VSM are smaller. The paper aims to broaden the knowledge about the dependence of the use of lean tools on the level of occupational safety.
EN
In the paper an analysis of the state of preparation of small and medium-sized enterprises in the metal industry in Poland and Slovakia was presented. Based on the conducted surveys, the challenges of industry 4.0, which will have to be met by small and medium enterprises, have been identified. Opportunities and threats for enterprises from the SME sector have been also defined. It was found that the biggest threats was lack of capital and lack of appropriate specialists, as well as high costs of staff preparation. Opportunities for enterprises are increased productivity and productivity, faster response to changes to customer requirements.
16
Content available Lean Manufacturing in the ceramic industry
EN
The problem of implementation of the concept of Lean Manufacturing in the ceramic industry, based on the enterprise manufacturing ceramic fancy goods, is presented in this article. The most important information about the concept of Lean Manufacturing, as well as the current state of implementation of the Lean concept in the ceramic industry. Major barriers in the implementation of the Lean concept are identified and selected instruments of the Lean concept applied in individual areas of the waste elimination are assigned.
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