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EN
The aim of the paper was to assess body position reproduction as well as jump height during an intended movement, together with an assessment of the influence of factors that disturb this process. Factors disturbing the jump were related to with the reproduction of different knee joint angles (90° or 120°); different muscle activity in performed jumps: SJ with no countermovement and CMJ with countermovement; as well as with and without visual (VC) of control movement (nVC) – eyes covered. Nineteen subjects aged twenty-one years participated in the experiment. Jump height (h) was calculated on the basis of a reaction force (R) of the base, as registered with a tensometric platform. Two-dimensional cinematographic analysis was used to assess the reproduction of angular position in the knee joint. A significant factor determining the level of position reproduction during voluntary movements was the imposed angle as well as the character of muscle activity. The biggest difficulty of developing maximum heights occurred during jumps with disturbed visual control (eyes shut).
EN
The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the training of elbow flexors through the use of 2 machines, one of which was equipped with a disc plate of constant radius, the other one with a variable-cam having a radius adjustable to muscle strength. The experiment included 45 men divided into 3 equal groups: training group A (variable-cam), training group B (circle), and control group C. The training lasted for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. In order to control the effects, the values of peak torque and power of the flexor muscles of the elbow were isokinetically measured for the angular velocities of 30°/s and 60°/s. Also taken were anthropometric measurements of the arm and the creatine kinase (CK) activity in the blood plasma. As a result of the training, significant increases of biomechanical values were noted only in group A: power increased over 20%, the peak torque over 14%. After the training, significant increases of arm circumference in the relaxed position were noted in group A (17 mm), as well as in group B (11 mm). Also, some changes in CK activity were observed between Monday and Friday in a training week. On the basis of the experimental measurements, it may be ascertained that training elbow flexor muscles on a machine with a variable-cam is more efficient for increases in strength and power, as well as for some anthropometric parameters, than training on a machine with a disc plate.
EN
The aim of the study was the evaluation of training with two different intensities on the level of muscle strength and power of lower extremities. There were twenty six students from the University of Physical Education investigated in thai experiment. They were divided into 2 groups. The training lasted four weeks (live days per week). The exercises consisted of four sets of ten take offs on the inclined plane. Each week started with research of muscle strength and power of CMJ jump measurements. These tests were also used to monitored trainings effects for the next 2 weeks.
EN
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two various types of power training on the muscle torques and power levels of lower extremities. During four weeks (five days a week) 27 students participated in this study. The training device consisted of an incline plane and a sliding seat. The varied types of power training were achieved by utilizing intermissions between the series of take offs. 4 series of 10 takes-offs with rest periods among series were carried out in A group (120s in length). Whereas the group B carried out the same number of take offs (40 take-offs) continuously. The interval training (group A) resulted in more effective dynamic values of the lower extremities than the continuous training adhered to by group B.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena zależności wybranych parametrów dynamicznych różnych rodzajów wyskoków pionowych i czasu reakcji uderzeń nożnych u zawodników taekwondo WTF. Badaniami objęto 10-u zawodników taekwondo WTF w wieku 19 + lub - 1,6 lat, wysokości ciała 180 + lub - 7 cm oraz masie ciała 75 + lub - 7 kg. Poziom sportowy badanych zawierał się pomiędzy 1 kup (trzy osoby) a 1 dan (siedem osób), co świadczy o wysokich umiejętnościach zawodników, popartych również stażem treningowym, który wyniósł 8-9 lat. Ocenie podlegała moc. wysokość i czas odbicia wyskoków (obunóż i iednonóż) na platformie tensometrycznej. Do pomiaru i rejestracji czasu reakcji wykorzystano system SCR_v_2.3 firmy "JBA" Zb. Staniak oraz czujniki skonstruowane w Zakładzie Biomechaniki AWF w Warszawie. Każdy z badanych wykonywał w czasie l minuty 10 uderzeń nożnych-okrężnych na tułów (dollyo chagi) nogą zakroczną. Każde uderzenie poprzedzone było losowo wymuszonym sygnałem świetlnym. Mierzono czas reakcji (od sygnału świetlnego do oderwania stopy od podłoża) oraz czas ruchu (od oderwania nogi do uderzenia w cel). Stwierdzono, że krótsze czasy reakcji uzyskiwały osoby, które osiągnęły większą moc względną (R2=0,72) i krótszy czas odbicia (R2=0,83) podczas wyskoku w serii 5-u wyskoków (MVJ).
EN
The aim of the study was an estimation of relationships among selected dynamics parameters of different land of vertical jumps and reaction time of leg kicks in taekwondo WTF. Ten men attended the research (aged – 19 + or - l,6years old, body height – 180 + or - 7 cm, body weight – 75 + or - 7 kg). The sport level of competitors was between 1 kup (three persons) and 1 dan (seven persons). The required practise was at least 8 to 9 years. The power, height and the time of takeoff for various vertical jumps (one legged, two legged) were estimated. The SCR_v_2.3 system ("JBA" of Zb. Staniak) and self-made micro switches (Laboratory of Biomechanics, APF Warsaw) were used to measure the reaction time. Athletes executed 10 roundhouse kick (dollyo-chagi) by the rear leg during 1 minute. Every stroke was preceded by the flash signal. There were measured reaction time (since the flash signal till lifting the feet from the ground) and movement time (since lifting the feet from the ground till stroke against the aim). It can be concluded that the shorter reaction times had the athletes who had higher relative power ( R2=0,72) and shorter times of takeoff in multivertical jump (MVJ).
EN
Thirty one young men volunteered to the study. After pre-testing two groups completed 4 weeks (5 days per week) of two versions of power training programs (4x10 take-offs on a inclined plane; intervals 120 or 30s.). Additional external loads to increase external power were applied. Training effects were monitored by: maximal muscle torques (measured under static conditions for the knee, hip and ankle joints) and lactate concentration in the blood. Results of the study showed no significant differences between groups in increase of the sum of muscle torques nor in lactate. Significant differences (up to 26%) were revealed in lactic acid concentration in blood between groups in post training measurements (less while exercising with long intervals).
EN
Fifteen students from the Warsaw University of Physical Education participated in the experiment. After pre-testing, two groups completed 4 weeks of plyometric training with different time of rest periods among series (30 and 120 seconds) Four series of hops above ten hurdles were executed during the one training. Two different heights of hurdles and additional external loads were carried out for individualisation training loads. Our results proved that shorter time of rest period influenced on poor muscle toleration on load and possibilities to recover after a plyometric exercises.
EN
The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in power and speed of running versus time for 11 year-old boys training (n-17) endurance competitions and being out of training (n-17). The estimate bases were the changing speed of power on an inclined plane and the change of speed for 400 m run in 25 m sections. In both tests each effort required maximal intensity. During the experimental period very similar characters of speed and power changes versus time were obtained for both tested groups and the differences are due to the training degree.
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