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The paper discusses the contents and chemical forms of potassium in post-mining soils after 35-year-long experimental cultivation. In the experiment the post-mining dump deposits were fertilized with N, P, K, NK, NP, PK or NPK. Wheat and rape were sowed on the fields. The control field was left unfertilized. In the years 2014-2016 surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm) layers of fertilized and unfertilized soils were sampled for chemical analyzes. In <2 mm fraction of these soils we determined pH, C and N contents as well as the following K forms: H2O-soluble K (K-H2O), active K (K-CaCl2), bioavailable K (K-Dl), exchangeable K (K-CH3COONH4), fixed K (K-HCl) and non-exchangeable K (K-HNO3). We demonstrated that effect of fertilizing on the K fractionation in the soils was statistically significant. The most favorable chemical changes in the cultivated soils occurred due to NPK treatment. The NPK fertilizing resulted in the highest increase in H2Osoluble K and exchangeable K contents.
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczące zawartości form potasu w próbkach glebowych pobranych z doświadczenia polowego założonego na gruntach pogórniczych po przeszło 35 latach jego prowadzenia Czynnikami doświadczenia były następujące kombinacje nawożenia mineralnego: N, P, NK, NP, K, PK, NPK oraz kontrola - brak nawożenia. Na poletkach uprawio pszenicę i rzepak. Do badań pobrano próbki średnie wiosną w latach 2014-2016 z poziomu 0-30 cm oraz 30-60 cm. W powietrznie suchych częściach ziemistych oznaczono odczyn (pH), C i N oraz następujące formy potasu: wodno rozpuszczalny K-H2O, aktywny - K-CaCl2, przyswajalny wg Egnera-Riehma - K-Dl, wymienny - K-CH3COONH4, uwsteczniony -K-HCl oraz rezerwowy K-HNO3. Wykazano statystycznie istotny wpływ stosowanych w doświadczeniu kombinacji nawożenia mineralnego na zawartość analizowanych form potasu zarówno w próbkach glebowych pobranych z warstwy 0-30 cm jak i z 30-60 cm. Spośród analizowanych form potasu największy wzrost zawartości w stosunku do kontroli, pod wpływem zastosowanego nawożenia mineralnego zaobserwowano w przypadku potasu: wodnorozpuszczalnego oraz wymiennego. Największą zawartość analizowanych form potasu stwierdzono w glebach poletek, na których stosowane było nawożenie w kombinacji NPK. Stosowanie nawożenia mineralnego w kombinacji NPK spowodowało najkorzystniejsze zmiany właściwości chemicznych tworzących się gleb.
Purpose: Biomechanical comparison of straight DCP and helical plates for fixation of transversal and oblique tibial bone fractures were analyzed and compared to each other by axial compression, bending and torsion tests. Method: An in vitro osteosynthesis of transverse (TF) and oblique bone fracture (OF) fixations have been analysed on fresh sheep tibias by using the DCP and helical compression plates (HP). Results: Statistically significant differences were found for both DCP and helical plate fixations under axial compression, bending and torsional loads. The strength of fixation systems were in favor of DC plating with exception of the TF-HP fixation group under compression loads and torsional moments. The transvers fracture (TF) stability was found to be higher than that found in oblique fracture (OF) fixed by helical plates (HP). However, under torsional testing, compared to conventional plating, the helical plate fixations provided a higher torsional resistance and strength. The maximum stiffness at axial compression loading and maximum torsional strength was achieved at torsional testing for the TF-HP fixations. Conclusion: From in vitro biomechanical analysis, fracture type and plate fixation system groups showed different responses under different loadings. Consequently, current biomechanical analyses may encourage the usage of helical HP fixations in near future during clinical practice for transverse bone fractures.
A new method was used in fixation of tibial bone fractures. Intramadular nailing (IMN) has been used into mid-diaphysis on left tibias of New Zeland rabbits (n = 5) via an in vivo work. To enable fixation of fracture, without causing too much screw damage on bone and avoiding malunion, nano- and micro-scale hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated at two ends (25 mm in length) of intramadular nails before implantation. After six weeks of survival period and sacrifizing, biomechanical tests and histopathologic examinations were executed. Such experiments have revealed that good stabilization and hence better fracture union for both treated IMN groups (NHA and MHA) over the standard IMN’. Pull-out tests showed the tensile strengths obtained to be significantly higher for the nano (NHA) and micro scale-MHA coated IMN compared to the uncoated standard IM nailing.
In this paper, the Bayesian model for bimodal sensory information fusion is presented. It is a simple and biological plausible model used to model the sensory fusion in human’s brain. It is adopted into humanoid robot to fuse the spatial information gained from analyzing auditory and visual input, aiming to increase the accuracy of object localization. Bayesian fusion model requires prior knowledge on weights for sensory systems. These weights can be determined based on standard deviation (SD) of unimodal localization error obtained in experiments. The performance of auditory and visual localization was tested under two conditions: fixation and saccade. The experiment result shows that Bayesian model did improve the accuracy of object localization. However, the fused position of the object is not accurate when both of the sensory systems were bias towards the same direction.
Bioasorbable osteofixation devices were developed to avoid problems associated with metals. Bioasorbable devices are mostly made of the polymers polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA) and their copolymers (PLGA and P(L/DL)LA). Using the technique of self-reinforcement of bioabsorbable materials, it is possible to manufacture osteofixation devices with ultra high strength. Self-reinforced (SR) polyglycolide-co-polylactide (SR-PLGA) 80/20 was selected to make devices (Biosorb TM PDX) for this study because of its favorable degradation characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using SR-PLGA (Biosorb TM) plates and screws in the fixation of osteotomies in craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery. In a prospective study, 165 patients (161 children and 4 adults) were operated on in four EU centers (Paris, Innsbruck, London and Oulu) from May 1st, 1998 to January 31st, 2002. Indications included correction of dyssynostotic deformities (n=159), reconstruction of bone defects following trauma (n=2), tumor removal (n=2), and treatment of encephalocoele (n=2). Plates used were 0.8, 1 or 1,2 mm thick and screws has an outer (thread) diameter of 1.5 or 2 mm and a length of 4, 6 or 8 mm. Tacks had an outer diameter of 1.5 or 2 mm and a length of 4 or 6 mm. Intraoperatively the devices were easy to handle and apply and provided stable fixation apart from two cases (7.3%), comprising infection (n=6), bone resorption (n=4), diabetes insipidus (n=1), delayed skin wound healing/skin slough (n=2), and liquorrhea (n=1). Accordingly, SR-PLGA 80/20 (Biosorb) plates and screws can be used safely and with favorable outcome in corrective cranioplasties, especially in infants and young children.
Content available remote Novel reactive red dyes
Dyes with two monochlorotriazine or with two monochlorotriazine and two vinylsulphone reactive groups have been investigated for establishing an enhancement of the dyeability of cotton fabrics. The effect of the diamine bridge linking two chromophore systems on the degree of dye exhaustion from the dyebath and dye bonding with the cellulose fibre was examined. The excellent water solubility of these dyes make them useful in the exhaustion method of dyeing. The kind of diamine used as a bridging group has a significant influence on exhaustion and fixation values. The application of diamine, which assures the chemically linear structure of the dye, affects the increase in the amount of the dye fixed on the fibres. Apart from the derivatives of ethylene-1,2-diamine and phenylene-1,2-diamine, the remaining dyes are characterised by a very high degree of dye exhaustion from the dyebath. The dyes examined can be successfully used for dyeing cellulose fibres by the exhaustion process.
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