Fritillaria unibracteata is a classic perennial alpine herb. In this study, we examined it's responses to shading (SH) and nitrogen addition (NA), as well as its correlation with internal C-N balance to detect how it adjusted to the changes of habitat conditions. Randomized block experiment was carried out in the field in Chuanbeimu Research Station in Songpan County, Sichuan Province, China (32°09′54″N, 103°38′36″E, altitude 3300 m a.s.l.). Two growing seasons after NA and SH, Fritillaria unibracteata's total plant biomass decreased significantly, with the proportion of biomass allocated to aboveground significantly increased. In addition, in this study, under both SH and NA treatments, Fritillaria unibracteata increased its biomass allocation to above-ground, which consisted with optimal partitioning theory. Moreover, Fritillaria unibracteata's biomass allocation was significantly correlated with its internal C-N status, regardless of nitrogen and light condition. We conclude that Fritillaria unibracteata optimizes its biomass allocation between root and shoot by adjusting its internal C-N balance, which would not be changed by the specialized resource storage organ-bulb.