Purpose: The aim of the article was to indicate research methods and techniques used in management practice while taking into account the assumptions of Industry 4.0. Design/methodology/approach: In order to identify research methods and techniques, the author of the article made use of a survey questionnaire addressed to practitioners who were his target group: 52 foreign companies, 183 domestic companies. As a result of the research effort undertaken, the answers of 118 representatives of management science practitioners were analysed. Findings: The conclusions of the research indicated that the most important methods, according to management practitioners, were: observation, interview and documentation analysis. However, the most frequently used research techniques in practice include: analysis of business opinions, a probation period at the workplace, situation-related interview, knowledge test in a specific field, task-related behaviour samples, task skills test and analysis of informal client opinions. Research limitations/implications: At the stage of defining a research problem, it is now difficult to choose a single method that provides a complete and thorough diagnosis of the problem. It is, therefore, necessary to use a variety of research methods which provide a comprehensive response to the research problem posed. Practical implications: Optimization of strategic decision-making processes will depend on the situation the company is in. In a crisis situation, the most important thing is to make quick decisions triggering actions that would improve the company's competitive edge. That requires undertaking actions 'in parallel', i.e. not only reacting to the problems resulting from the current situation but also solving the issues related to the future, e.g. Industry 4.0, which is considerably difficult. Social implications: When analysing the obtained results, management practitioners stress that it is necessary to develop a model, procedure, tool, approach to the research process. Moreover, respondents also believe that the developed model, procedure, tool or approach in the selection of methods to the research process significantly affects the quality and practical use of research results. Originality/value: The analysis of the results clearly indicates the use of research techniques that are close to the task processes of companies and verify the competence of employees. Conclusions resulting from the analysis of national and foreign literature on research process methodology indicate the need to address the problem of using diversified research methods providing a comprehensive response to the problem posed in the context of Industry 4.0.