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PL
W artykule opisano regulacje prawne w zakresie wyposażenia technicznego tuneli drogowych obowiązujące w Unii Europejskiej oraz proces ich wdrożenia przez Polskę. Podano informacje o innych aktach prawnych bądź normatywnych, mających istotne znaczenie przy projektowaniu systemów wyposażenia technicznego tuneli drogowych. Na przykładzie projektu tunelu pod Luboniem Małym przybliżono problematykę wdrożenia przepisów technicznych Unii Europejskiej na terytorium Polski. Proces wdrożenia pokazano na przykładzie następujących zagadnień: zasilanie tunelu, oświetlenie ewakuacyjne, wyposażenie komunikacyjne.
EN
The article describes the current EU legal regulations concerning the technical equipment of road tunnels as well as their implementation in Poland. The text also contains information about other legal or normative acts which are essential to the process of designing systems of technical equipment of road tunnels. The example of the tunnel nearby Luboń Mały brings forward the issues related to the implementation of EU technical regulations in Poland. The implementation process has been presented with respect to the following issues: the tunnel power supply, evacuation lighting, communication equipment.
EN
The speeds of ultrasound in and densities of binary solutions of 1-butanol in hexane and cyclohexane were measured on the whole concentration range at 293.15 K. The experimental results in connection with literature data were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility coefficients and isochoric molar heat capacities for the pure components, as well as the excess molar volumes, excess adiabatic compressibilities, free volumes and the free intermolecular lengths for the binaries under test. The dependences of the excess properties on the mixture composition were compared and discussed in terms of the free intermolecular length and other factors affecting the solvation and self-association effects.
EN
The speeds of ultrasound in and densities of 3-methylopyrazole with cyclohexane mixtures were measured in the whole concetration range at 293.15 and 313.15 K. The Excess molar volumes, free volumes excess volumes and diabatic copressibilty coefficients, as well as the free intermolecular lenghts were determinated for the binaries. The dependance of the excess molar volumes and excess free volumes on the mixture composition were compared and discussed in terms of the free intermolecular lenght and other factors affecting the self-association of 3-methylopyrazole and structural changes of the non-polar solvent. Search Site
EN
The speed of ulrtasound in and densities of binary solutions of ethanol, propan-2-ol and 2-methylopropan-2-ol in cyclohexane were measured on the whole concentration range at 293.15K. The excess molar volumes, free volumies, excess free volumes and adiabatic cmpressibility coeffcients, as well as the free intermolecular lenghts were determined for binaries. The dependance of the excess molar volumes and excess free volumes on the mixture composition were compared and discussed in terms of the intermolecular lenght and other factors afecting the self-association of alcohols and structural changes od the solvent.
EN
The speed of ustrasound is and densities of ethanol + syclohexane mixtures were measured in the whole concentration range at 293.15K. The adiabatic compressibility coefficients and excess molar volumes, as well as the mean molecular radii, free intermolecular lenght and internal pressures were determined for the binaries. The dependance of the exess molar volumes and exess internal pressures on the mixture composition were compared and discussed in terms of the free intermolecular lenght and other factors affecting the self-association of the athanol and structural changes of the solvent.
EN
The results of ultrasonic and volumetric measurements were used to obtain the excess molar enthalpies for binary liquid mixtures containing cyclohexane, as the common component, and primary aliphatic alcohols (n-propanol, n-butanol and n-pentanol) at 293.15 K. The excess molar enthalpies of those systems are positive in the whole concentrations range and show evidently different concentration dependences. The excess internal pressure of the liquid mixtures, determined in a few different ways, are negative for all the systems. The behaviour of those excesses are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions in the binaries and the self-association potential of the alcohols.
EN
The ultrasound velocities in and densities of mixtures of 3-methylpyrazol with cyclohexa and in the pure components were measured at temperaturę 293.15 K. The absorption of ultrasound was measured at 293.2 K in 11 mixtures of 3-methylpyrazol with cyclohexane within the k 3-methylpyrazol concentrations range. For the investigated solutions and pure components the quotient alfa/f2 is independent frequency within the tested frequency range (10 - 80 MHz). The dependencies of the mean vlues of alfa/f2 on mixture composition show maximum at low 3-methylpyrazol concentrations to (x1 almost equal to 0.13) while the ultrasound. velocity decreases monotonically with increasing mole fractions 3-methylpyrazol up to x1 almost equal to 0.3. The dependencies of ultrasound absorption and velocities on the mixture composition were compared and discussed in terms of the entropy effect connected w solvate destruction during dimerization and other factors affecting the specific self-association 3-methylpyrazol in cyclohexane.
EN
The ultrasound velocities in and densities of mixtures of 3-methylpyrazol with cyclohexane and in the pure components were measured with in the temperature range 293.15 - 308.15 K. The adiabatic compressibilities, K, = -(deltaV/delta p)s , as well as the excess molar volumes, VE and free intermolecular lengths, L, were determined in the whole concentration range at few different temperatures for all solutions studied. Using the measurement results in connection with literature data, the isothermal compressibility coefficients, betaT = -1IV(BV/delta p)T , and isochoric molar heat capacities, Cv for the pure components were calculated and used to estimate the excess adiabatic compressibilities, K sE, of the mixtures under test according to the thermodynamically rigorous definitions recommended by Benson et al. The dependencies of those excess functions on the mixture composition, reproduced by the Redlich-Kister equations, were compared and discussed in terms of the free intermolecular length and other factors affecting the specific self-association of 3-methylpyrazol in cyclohexane. The measurement results were analysed applying the modified Chen and Bagley model with two estimated parameters. A modification of the Chen and Bagley model was shown to be able to reproduce the concentration dependence of the excess molar volume, as well as to describe satisfactorily the quantitative effects of association of 3-methylpyrazol in cyclohexane.
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