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EN
Based upon the true voyages various methods of avoidance maneuver determination in ship - cyclone encounter situations were presented. The goal was to find the economically optimal solution (minimum fuel consumption, maintaining the voyage schedule) while at the same time not to exceed an acceptable weather risk level.
2
Content available remote Application of K1/3 weather coefficient to tropical cyclone avoidance
EN
The article presents the results of an application of K1/3 weather coefficient to tropical cyclone avoidance manoeuvre on the example of a tropical cyclones GASTON in the North Atlantic in. Avoidance manoeuvre was planned with the use of the Bon Voyage ORS (Onboard Routing System) of the AWT and also with the use of the programme CYKLON. The routes considered in the Bon Voyage system were generated by the route optimization algorithms of the system and routes programmed manually were generated by the system operator. Weather coefficient K1/3 was utilized as an index of safety of navigation in decision making regarding the ultimate route choice of all route variants generated and programmed in both decision making support systems. Results obtained point at the legitimacy of utilizing several decision support systems in solving the problem of tropical cyclone avoidance manoeuvre.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki wykorzystania współczynnika pogodowego K1/3 do wypracowania manewrów unikania cyklonu tropikalnego GASTON na Atlantyku Północnym. Manewry unikowe planowano przy użyciu systemu ORS (Onboard Routing System) pogodowej optymalizacji trasy oceanicznej statku Bon Voyage firmy AWT oraz programu CYKLON. W przypadku systemu Bon Voyage rozpatrywano trasy wygenerowane przez algorytmy optymalizacji trasy systemu oraz trasy zaprogramowane ręcznie w systemie przez nawigatora. Wykorzystano współczynnik pogodowy K1/3 jako wskaźnik bezpieczeństwa w ostatecznym wyborze trasy spośród wariantów uzyskanych w obydwu okrętowych systemach wspomagania decyzji. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują na zasadność stosowania kilku rodzajów narzędzi wspomagania w podejmowaniu decyzji przy rozwiązywaniu problemu wypracowania manewru unikania cyklonu tropikalnego oraz na przydatność współczynnika pogodowego K1/3 do ewaluacji ryzyka trasy oceanicznej w rejonie występowania cyklonów tropikalnych.
EN
A ship sailing between the coasts of China, Japan, Korea and the Western coast of North America must cross navigational and geographical barriers of the Kuril Islands Archipelago and Aleutian Chain. Passes between the islands are particularly difficult and hazardous in winter. Most of them are covered by drifting ice for 5 months of the year. A number of allowed passes and offshore routes had been established by the maritime authorities of Alaska on the Bering Sea and in Aleutian Chain. However, use of other passes and routes is limited to exceptional cases only. Similar regulations exist in the Okhotsk Sea and other waters under Russian jurisdiction. The ship must then give grounds for a deviation from recommended or allowed passes and tracks and report other required information. Since January 1, 2015, it is mandatory to use the low sulphur fuel oil (sulphur content no higher than 0.01%) in the main propulsion system and auxiliary machinery when navigating inside the Emission Control Area (ECA) zone. Ships face a constant dilemma whether to remain in the ECA zone for the shortest or longer period of time, if the fuel and cost gain in relation to the entire route justify that. Available decision making support systems, like SPOS and Bon Voyage, do not solve that issue satisfactorily.
4
Content available Navigation in emission control area zones
EN
The article presents the origin of Emission Control Area (ECA) zones, a timetable for their enforcement, criteria of their implementation and the principles and rules of navigation in these areas. Plans and areas of the next ECA zones envisaged for the future are presented. Least fuel route programming was presented, together with a description of safety rules during the change-over procedure in operations concerning the main engine and other ship systems. An attempt to identify the problems that may be encountered when programming the routes with the use of on-board routing systems, like Bon Voyage of AWT, leading through the ECA zones, has been made. Examples of such problems, taken from a true voyage of a postpanamx container vessel on a transpacific voyage, have been presented. A generalized algorithm for programming the route leading through the ECA zone according to the least fuel criterion has been presented.
EN
A significant increase in demand for navigation support systems called Onboard Routing Systems (ORS) can be observed in the World’s merchant fleet. ORS is a navigation-support system that enables route programming to warn of dangers and navigation constraints and determine the required route-safety level directly onboard the vessel. In this article, an attempt to analyze and compare two ORS systems has been made: the Ship Performance Optimization System (SPOS), by the Meteo Consult Group; and the Bon Voyage system by Applied Weather Technologies (AWT). Individual items, methods, and criteria of both systems for optimization and weather forecasting models utilized have been compared. Particular attention has been paid to the usefulness of the systems regarding the problem of identification and avoidance of hazards such as tropical cyclones and wave resonance. Ergonomics of both systems has also been compared.
EN
The results of testing the Bon Voyage system for an ocean voyage are presented in this paper. The main assumptions of testing were: ETD – 26.08.2016 and ETA – 05.09.2016, as established by the owner. All the data have been obtained from an actual voyage of a post-Panamax shipping container through the North Pacific. Testing was repeated again after completion of the voyage (post-voyage analysis). The data indicate that improved results with respect to fuel consumption could have been achieved using a different moment of second stage testing. Possible problems at planning, programming, and optimizing of the route leading through the ECA (Emission Control Area) zones with the use of onboard routing systems are also presented.
EN
Magnetron sputtering is one of the methods to modify a surface of various materials (eg. foils, plastics, glass, textiles). In this paper we discussed the magnetron sputtering method used for the application of thin metal coatings (such as Cu, Cu/Sn, Cu/Zn/Ni and Ni/Cu/Fe) on various textile materials to impart antifungal properties. Newly developed textile composites showed varying degrees of antifungal activity towards used test strains of fungi. The best antifungal activity as determined by a qualitative methods was obtained for fabrics coated with copper in relation to the Chaetomium globosum mold. In the case of metal alloys the antifungal activity with respect to the same mold was also good but depended upon the copper content in the alloy. The higher the copper content, the better the antifungal activity. In tests for determining the antifungal activity by quantitative method with respect to Candida albicans both biostatic action (inhibition of growth) as well as biocidal effect were observed, in each biostatic value S ratio was above 2, and biocidal value L was not lower than 0.
EN
This paper presents examples of application of a common reference datum, such as NAP, within the elevation EVRS reference system for the Baltic Sea. A common reference datum allowed for setting the geographical pattern of occurrence of extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea. The eastern Baltic coasts exposed to western air masses are vulnerable to extreme hydrological events (the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Bothnia). On the contrary, the Swedish coasts of the central and northern Baltic are the least threatened by extreme sea levels. The south-western coasts of the Baltic Sea (the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel) cover the basins with the most frequent and the most severe storm falls and extremely low sea levels. Demonstration of the Baltic surface deformation magnitude during a storm event is another example of NAP application. The instantaneous height difference between the north-eastern and southwestern coasts was 356 cm, which resulted from the negative impact of pressure (water cushion) induced by a dynamic and deep low-pressure system moving through the Baltic Sea. The common reference datum allowed for visualization of the so-called 'theoretical water' distribution which has a wide application in the hydraulic engineering within the coastal zone. In addition, the study provides examples of differences that may be observed during storm events between the real sea-level data and the hydrodynamic model forecast. This is of great practical significance in terms of forecasting storm surges in the Baltic Sea.
EN
Aim: To deliver an argumentation for supporting the view that danger and crisis are vital factors shaping one’s living conditions. Methods: Thorough examination of Polish and international literature in the field of theory of safety. Results: Nowadays, every person is delivered a huge amount of information concerning the terrorism, sabotage, crime, epidemics of incurable diseases, extreme weather events, environmental disasters and, recently, armed conflicts, etc. Therefore, it has become a frequent event that one may lose a sense of identity, cope with the demands of mass education, having a sense of an information overload. Hence, although this situation does not lead to capitulation, there often arises a sense of helplessness among such persons. ‘Security’ and ‘risk’, ‘crisis’ and ‘critical situation’ are concepts being frequent subjects of media information. They in many instances refer to such entities as human being, social organization or its specific form - society. It is a truism to say that the most advantageous mean to avoid the negative consequences is an attempt to prevent their occurrence. In case of emergency, crises or critical situation, this principle seems to be completely confirmed. Responding to emergencies and crises is currently an area of a thorough examination conducted by representatives of scientific disciplines. As a result, there have been created valuable scientific and popular-scientific works concerning mainly: the organization of crisis management, the characteristics of the potential that could be deployed in the same management, interoperability, and the relationships between the elements of a crisis management system. Abovementioned representatives of science pursue their studies independently and together with those who measure daily problems of crisis management at different scales. Contemporary challenges and threats clearly indicate the growing role of knowledge in the field of preventing, minimizing and eliminating the consequences of their possible occurrence. It is possible by, inter alia, having a knowledge on this subject. Conclusions: The omnipresence of threats in the field of state security indicates the need to build systems which essence is to prevent such events, and minimize the consequences of their possible occurrence. The situation presented in the article provided the authors with a chanc to present their opinions and indicate significant problems. The article provides an overview of the most important definitions and research in the theory of security. Its purpose is to familiarize the reader with the tradition of security research and all its contexts. Mainly in the definition of terms such as ‘security’, ‘crisis’ and ‘critical situation’. In the course of the presented considerations, the authors identified the relationship between these phenomena and explained their scope and nature.
PL
Cel: Zidentyfikowanie kryteriów decydujących o postrzeganiu kryzysu i sytuacji kryzysowej jako współczesnych uwarunkowań bezpiecznego życia współczesnego człowieka. Metody: Analiza literatury polskiej i międzynarodowej z zakresu teorii bezpieczeństwa. Wyniki: Współczesnemu człowiekowi dostarczana jest ogromna ilość informacji dotyczących terroryzmu, sabotażu, przestępczości, epidemii, ekstremalnych warunków pogodowych, katastrof ekologicznych, a ostatnio również konfliktów zbrojnych itp. Między innymi dlatego, zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa wymaga organizacji szeroko zakrojonego procesu edukacji dla bezpieczeństwa, choćby po to, aby nie dopuścić do bezradności w warunkach wystąpienia zagrożeń. „Bezpieczeństwo” i „zagrożenie”, „kryzys” i „sytuacja kryzysowa” to pojęcia często pojawiające się w mediach. Odnoszą się one w wielu przypadkach do takich podmiotów jak człowiek, organizacja społeczna i społeczeństwo. Truizmem jest twierdzenie, że współcześnie nie jest możliwe wyeliminowanie zagrożeń, lecz jedynie minimalizowanie skutków ich wystąpienia. Przebieg dotychczas analizowanych sytuacji kryzysowych potwierdza taką opinię. Zarządzanie w sytuacjach kryzysowych jest obecnie obszarem gruntownych badań prowadzonych przez przedstawicieli wielu dyscyplin naukowych. W rezultacie tych badań zostały opracowane wartościowe prace naukowe i popularno-naukowe dotyczące głównie organizacji zarządzania kryzysowego oraz reguł współdziałania i relacji, jakie zachodzą między elementami systemu zarządzania kryzysowego. Jest to tym bardziej cenne, że naukowcy, o których mowa prowadzą badania samodzielnie oraz we współpracy z pracownikami administracji publicznej zajmującymi się na co dzień problematyką zarządzania kryzysowego na różnych poziomach organizacyjnych państwa. Współczesne wyzwania i zagrożenia wyraźnie wskazują na rosnącą rolę wiedzy w zakresie zapobiegania, minimalizacji i likwidacji skutków ich ewentualnego wystąpienia. Jest to możliwe, między innymi, poprzez posiadanie aktualnej wiedzy w zakresie umożliwiającym ich przezwyciężenie. Wnioski: Wszechobecność zagrożeń w dziedzinie bezpieczeństwa państwa wskazuje na potrzebę budowania systemów, których istotą jest zapobieganie tym zagrożeniom i minimalizowanie skutków ich ewentualnego wystąpienia. Rozważania przedstawione w niniejszym artykule oparto na przeglądzie wartościowych poznawczo definicji i badań w teorii bezpieczeństwa. W przedstawionych rozważaniach, autorzy zidentyfikowali związki między tymi zjawiskami oraz wyjaśnili ich zakres i istotę.
EN
The article deals with the problem of ship’s ocean route programming. For masters during planning the ocean most convenient route lots of factors are very important such as among others: current, forecast weather, criteria and restriction, speed and fuel characteristic of ships on waves and wind and so on. These elements when are properly identify and adopted allow the master for making an effective ship’s course and speed decision. The aim of research is to show how the SPOS system is treated during the ocean’s ship route. 39 captains of PŻM ships during the year of 2014 answered on 9 questions of questionnaire which were concerned the degree of utilization of SPOS (Ship Performance Optimization System) during the operation of their ships. All the masters confirmed that they use of SPOS system as a browser weather, while only 25.6% of masters confirmed that they also use the SPOS system as a tool in planning the route. They also repeatedly pointed out, however, that SPOS has some of limitations such as not limited information about ice cover or tropical cyclones, etc. In conclusion, it can be assess that the SPOS system is satisfactorily used on ships as a browser forecast, but does not work well in planning the trip by navigators.
EN
To forecast the optimum route passage of a vessel in the real weather conditions using the so-called velocity characteristics of the ship. These are developed in the way, as to have a very simple form, which can not guarantee high precision in calculating the speed of the vessel. The paper presents a mathematical model of the external forces operating in the vessel and the algorithm to solve this model for calculating the instantaneous speed of the vessel in the selected weather conditions. Made of a computer program, after appropriate research and testing, can be used to optimize the transport route of the ship.
EN
Reference system was adapted EVRS (European Vertical Reference System), which is based on the level of NAP (Normal Amsterdam Peil) for the spatial imaging extreme levels of the Baltic Sea. The observational data on sea levels have been converted of the selected 38 stations in each of the Baltic countries to the level of NAP (Normal Amsterdam Peil). The images of the Baltic Sea area were obtained in a uniform reference system, for the example of chosen stormy situation of 1–2 November 2006, and the spatial distribution of the maximum and no maximum sea levels that occurred during the 1960–2010 year.
PL
Dystrybucja energii elektrycznej wymaga niezawodnej pracy urządzeń. Aby energia elektryczna dostarczana była bez przerw do klientów, konieczna jest właściwa eksploatacja stacji linii, transformatorów i aparatury rozdzielczej na wszystkich poziomach napięcia. Urządzenia, chociaż systematycznie modernizowane wymagają okresowych oględzin, przeglądów, pomiarów a w przypadku awarii niezwłocznej naprawy.
EN
Distribution of electricity requires reliable operation of the equipment. For electricity was supplied without interruption to customers, it is necessary to proper operation of the station, lines, transformers and switchgear at all voltage levels. Devices, although systematically modernized require periodic inspection, maintenance, measurement, and in case of failure of immediate repair.
EN
Magnetron sputtering is one of the methods which can be used for materials metallization. This paper demonstrates the construction of magnetron device and results of electromagnetic field attenuation by barrier materials obtained according to this method. Polypropylene nonwoven with deposited thin metal layers is the base of barrier material. The results of surface resistance showed that composite textile materials conduct electricity depending on the type of deposited metal alloys. Obtained metallic coatings are uniform on the whole surface of textile material. Barrier materials attenuate electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation of a broad frequency range (from a few MHz to several GHz). The best results of shielding effectiveness were obtained for the following coatings on polypropylene nonwoven: Cu/Sn (44-52 dB) and Cu/Zn/Ni (37-38 dB) for the frequency 27,12 MHz. This publication was prepared within the key project ENVIROTEX-PO IG no. 01.03.01-00-006/08 co-financed from the funds of European Regional Development Fund within the framework of the Operational Programme Innovative Economy 2007 - 2013.
15
Content available remote Omijanie cyklonu tropikalnego przez statek
PL
Na akwenach objętych występowaniem cyklonów tropikalnych należy zachować procedury pozyskiwania informacji, identyfikacji niebezpieczeństwa, wykonania nakresów bezpiecznych kursów i prędkości statku celem uniknięcia obszaru zagrożenia cyklonem. Jedną z trudniejszych decyzji jest wybór kursu i prędkości statku przy przecinaniu się trasy statku z prognozowanym torem cyklonu.
EN
On the waters where tropical cyclones may appear the procedures of obtaining information, hazard identification, and safety performance by plotting courses and vessel speed should be filled. One of the most difficult decision is to choose the course and speed of the ship when crossing the projected path of the storm.
EN
Optimising the ship route is one of the most important tasks related to the operation of the vessel, its safety, and economic aspects of transport. Nevertheless, from a mathematical point of view, this problem has not been solved yet sufficiently precisely due to very high complexity of the model to be used to describe the motion of the ship along the shipping line, and time- and space-dependent average values of statistical weather parameters recorded during ship sailing. That is why various approximate methods are used, which, among other procedures, utilize ship speed characteristics, having the form of very simple relations between basic dimensions of the ship and the expected speed decrease at the assumed weather parameters. The paper presents a new method of calculating the speed decrease depending on technical and operating parameters of a given vessel. A computer code prepared based on this method is used for research on forecasting ship speed in real weather conditions.
17
Content available remote Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast
EN
The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe the extreme characteristics of the water levels and illustrate them as the topography of the sea surface along the whole Baltic Sea coast. The general pattern is to show the maxima and minima of Baltic Sea water levels and the extent of their variations in the period from 1960 to 2010. A probability analysis is carried out on the annual sea level maxima and minima for 31 water level gauges in order to define the probability of occurrence of theoretical sea levels once in a specific number of years. The spatial distribution of sea levels for hundred-year maximum and minimum water levels is illustrated. Then, the number of storm surges for the accepted criteria are presented: these numbers increased in the 50-year period analysed. The final part of the work analyses some extreme storm events and calculates the static value and dynamic deformation of the sea surface by mesoscale, deep low-pressure systems.
EN
The issues raised in this elaboration concerning the national security system of the Republic of Poland serve as a proposal and illustrate the understanding of the system in a different manner than it is usually assumed. „The basis of the national security structure (system) is the civil and military organization of national protection and defence as an element of national security – an internally coordinated set of elements of the master management subsystem and detailed functional executive subsystems, defined by the relations of cooperation and substitution, for the protection and defence of the vital interests of national security – the security of the state as a political institution and of the society27”. Hence, the elaboration presents two approaches understood as a voice in the discussion that will determine the direction of further research on the system as a future target model. The first model is a qualitatively new approach and from a theoretical point of view it is innovative, yet presents the approach in a fairly logical manner. The second puts a strong emphasis on modernizing the existing model and its analytical content should be taken into account. The elaboration was developed under the project "The National Security System of the Republic of Poland" supervised by prof. W. Kitler, implemented in the field of state defence and security – funded by the National Centre for Research and Development – contract nr DOBR/0076/R/ID1/2012/03 dated 18.12.2012, project registration number: O ROB/0076/03/001.
EN
The internal stability of the state is the outcome of many factors. Among the most important we should consider the phenomena and processes that aim to harm that stability. Some of them can be classified as criminal acts (e.g. corruption) whereas other belong to an array of consequences related to the progress of civilization and technology (e.g. unemployment). The aforementioned processes and phenomena aim to harm the security within the society. In practice, that security focuses on rising poverty, growing unemployment rate and insufficiently coordinated processes in education, as well as the phenomenon of corruption and demographic issues. The following study has been conducted within the framework of “The State Security System of the Republic of Poland” project (“System Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego RP”) under the guidance of prof. W. Kitler, realized in the field of national defense and security and funded by the National Centre for Research and Development – agreement number DOBR/0076/R/ID1/2012/03 from 18 November 2012, project register number: O ROB/0076/03/001.
PL
Cel: Wskazanie zasadniczych cech modelu systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego decydujących o jego nadrzędności wobec tworzonych na potrzeby lokalne i branżowe. Wprowadzenie: Bezpieczeństwo państwa, jego rozwój ekonomiczny, polityczny, a tym samym zaangażowanie w kształtowanie bezpiecznego środowiska, a także rosnący poziom zagrożeń dla otwartych społeczeństw – wymuszają konieczność stosowania w praktyce prostych, naukowo uzasadnionych rozwiązań. Założenie takie pozwala bowiem na racjonalne wykorzystywanie posiadanego przez państwo potencjału. Jednym z takich rozwiązań jest budowa systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego, umożliwiającego równoczesne wykorzystanie elementów obronnych i zarządzania kryzysowego. Metodologia: W zgodnej ocenie naukowców oraz osób zajmujących się zawodowo problematyką bezpieczeństwa w trosce o jego najwyższy poziom poszukuje się sprawnych i skutecznych metod organizacji systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego. Poszukiwania tych rozwiązań trwają już od wielu lat. Wykorzystuje się w nich analizy rozważań teoretycznych oraz praktycznych rozwiązań krajowych i zagranicznych. Wyniki: Bezpieczeństwo państwa charakteryzuje się dynamicznymi zmianami warunków prawnych oraz koncepcyjno-organizacyjnych. Zmiany te powodują konieczność budowy sprawnego systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego uwzględniającego wszystkie aspekty jego funkcjonowania. Model systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego nie jest problemem prostym i łatwym do rozwiązania. Na taki stan złożyło się wiele czynników, spośród których wymienić należy te najważniejsze. Po pierwsze stwierdzić należy, że brak jest wystarczająco rozbudowanej jednolitej bazy teoretycznej dotyczącej tego problemu. Część dostępnych materiałów ujmuje problematykę w wąskim bądź bardzo szerokim jej rozumieniu, przy czym co warte podkreślenia, dostarczają one niezwykle cennej wiedzy. Po drugie istnieją różnorodne poglądy związane z problematyką organizacji działań podmiotów państwa na rzecz jego bezpieczeństwa, co wynika z przywiązania do tradycyjnego i utrwalonego selektywnego podejścia, bądź podejścia totalnego. Są to poglądy, które nie wykorzystują w pełni osiągnięć nauki w zakresie dotyczącym organizacji, modelowania i systemów. Budowa modelu systemu bezpieczeństwa narodowego (a w konsekwencji również jego systematyczne doskonalenie) winno być oparte na osiągnięciach nauki. Powinno stanowić jednocześnie wypadkową tych osiągnięć oraz możliwości ich wdrożenia poprzez zastosowanie wartościowych i efektywnych rozwiązań prawnych i organizacyjnych.
EN
Aim: Identification of fundamental attributes for a national security system, which determines the precedence of alternatives for local and business needs. Introduction: Security of the state, its economic and political development, simultaneous need for the creation of a safe environment, taking account of increasing levels of threats to an open society, compel the practical application of straightforward, scientifically determined solutions. Such an assumption allows for a rational exploitation of national potential. One approach is the creation of a national security system, allowing for simultaneous use of defence elements and crisis management systems. Methodology: Scientists and people dealing with safety matters share a common opinion with aspirations about the highest level of safety involving efficiency and effective organisation methods in a national security system. The search for such solutions has continued for many years and solutions are yet to be found. In this vein an analysis was performed about theoretical considerations as well as practical solutions covering national and foreign dimensions. Results: Security of the state is characterized by dynamic changes attributable to legal and organizational requirements. Such changes create the need to build an efficient national security system, taking into account every aspect of its operation. The national security system is not a simple issue which is easy to address. There are many factors which impact on current circumstances and it is pertinent to highlight the most significant ones. First of all, there is an absence of a single theoretical database concerning this topic. A proportion of accessible information deals with issues in a narrow or very broad manner. However, these materials provide invaluable information. Secondly, there is a proliferation of views concerning the matter of organisational performance involving state entities, within the scope of national security, and are attributable to traditional thinking about selective or total approaches in performance. Such views do not make full use of science in the area concerned with organisations, systems and modelling. The development of a national security system and, subsequently, its systematic improvement, should be based on scientific achievements. Simultaneously, results from scientific achievements should culminate in potential implementation and application of credible, effective, legal and organisational solutions.
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