Leadership research is an essential part of all areas of organisational science worldwide, and there is still a lack of studies in this research area. The paper aims to determine leadership competency perceptions and their sub-competencies characteristics and determinants in the fourth industrial revolution era. The research survey, conducted in 2018-2021, covered a sample of 100 respondents from organisations from the Czech Republic. The most important competencies for leadership are effective communication, innovation, cooperation, creativity, solving problems, lifelong learning, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and motivation and support of others. We selected statistical methods ANOVA and linear regression for the characteristics of the respondents and the cluster analysis for the leaders’ 4.0 types determination. The linear regression results showed that age, the field of education, position in the organisation and tenure in the organisation of the respondents affect their assessment of the level of leadership competency. We identified three management types that are currently facing the challenges of Industry 4.0: ICT-oriented Junior Managers, Top 4.0 Prepared Leaders, and Non-Creative Unmotivated Senior Directors. The contribution of this paper is the in-depth study in the area of perceived levels of partial competencies for leadership for different criteria of respondents.
Kluczowymi celami projektu Life Urbangreen, prowadzonego w latach 2018–2021, były reorganizacja sposobu zarządzania terenami zieleni oraz praktyczne przedstawienie jej za pomocą niepowtarzalnej, innowacyjnej platformy, dzięki której odkrywać można tereny zieleni i poznawać wynikające z nich korzyści dla mieszkańców i środowiska. Platforma to również informacje o najpopularniejszych gatunkach drzew na danym terenie, ich wpływie na redukcję zanieczyszczeń powietrza oraz parametrach obrazujących radzenie sobie z negatywnymi skutkami zmian klimatu.
Drzewa to dokuczliwe organizmy: niebezpieczne, mściwe i złośliwe, przeszkadzają, śmiecą, brudzą – regularnie donoszą mieszkańcy Gdańska. Liście zapychają rynny, wpadają przez okna, tworzą śliski dywan, zalegają na trawnikach i tarasach. Nie mniej złośliwe są owoce. Potrafią pobrudzić szyby, buty i oczywiście auta. Zdarza się, że drzewa zasłaniają widok na… przyrodę.
Według Najwyższej Izby Kontroli aż 70% wód opadowych i roztopowych jest bezpowrotnie traconych z terenów miast. Większość tych wód systemem sieci kanalizacji trafia do rzek, a następnie odpływa do morza. Zwrócono również uwagę, że w Polsce nie opracowano jednolitej strategii gospodarowania tym zasobem.
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W publikacji zaprezentowano wybrane aspekty zarządzania w warunkach nie pewności z perspektywy pandemii COVID-19 jaka miała miejsce na świecie w latach 2020-2022. Pandemia była zjawiskiem, które można zaliczyć do tak zwanych czarnych łabędzi, zjawisk na trzecim poziomie niepewności – których wystąpienia nie można w pełni przewidzieć. Pandemia COVID-19 miała bardzo duży wpływ na gospodarkę i warunki prowadzenia biznesu. Wydaje się, że najistotniejszym z nich i mającym najbardziej długookresowe oddziaływanie było przyspieszenie rozwoju metod pracy zdalnej. W innym przypadku takie rozpowszechnienie się metod pracy zdalnej, ja kie wystąpiło na przestrzeni ostatnich dwóch lat, zajęłoby dużo więcej czasu. Wyda je się, że to zmiana trwała i praca zdalna zostanie trwałym elementem komunikacji i zarządzania organizacjami. Niemniej na pewno będzie to wymagało szczegółowych badań po okresie całkowitego zakończenia pandemii, aby sprawdzić jak trwałe są ten dencje, które zarysowały się w czasie pandemii.
The publication presents selected aspects of management under uncertainty from the perspective of the COVID-19 pandemic that took place worldwide between 2020 and 2022. The pandemic was a phenomenon that can be categorised as the so-called black swan, a phenomenon at the third level of uncertainty – the occurrence of which cannot be fully predicted. The COVID-19 pandemic had a very significant impact on the economy and business conditions. The most significant of these, and the one with the most long-term impact, appears to have been the acceleration of the deve lopment of remote working methods. Otherwise, such a proliferation of remote wor king methods as has occurred over the last two years would have taken much longer. It seems that this is a permanent change and that remote working will become a per manent part of the communication and management of organisations. However, it will certainly require detailed research after the pandemic has fully ended to see how sustainable the trends that were outlined during the pandemic are.
Today, route planning requires freight forwarders to make a conscious effort to identify unloading points such that the transport process is both cost- and time-efficient. At the same time, operational parameters that help to determine the validity of the chosen route must also be considered. This article aims to present the key metrics and ways of attaining them to provide a reliable determination of a transport company’s performance. Based on a selected transport company, the authors collected data on the transport routes implemented in 2020. Interpretation and analysis of the extracted information of the concerned sections were carried out and followed by alternatives. We present in this article the results of research concerning the exploitation parameters of the vehicle set. The evaluation of a given route section was indicated using selected indicators adapted to the specificity of the enterprise. The results are aimed at locating the components that have a destructive impact on the entire process. The proposed solutions serve to introduce factors that will pave way for improving the services provided. An in-depth analysis of all sections and key parameters was performed. Because of the conducted studies, abnormal parameters were identified, efficient sections were distinguished and new routes were developed in the case of previous routes that were not highly efficient and which had a possible alternative corridor. The obtained results of the research can comprise, for logistics managers, vital elements in the transport process, to which attention should be given in the course of overseeing these processes.
Purpose: Paying attention to the determinants of the growing role of people and their knowledge as factors supporting the development of entities in the period of recovery from the crisis. Design/methodology/approach: the study is based on a critical analysis of the literature, and due to the topicality of the analyzed issues, also on the basis of press publications and internet sources. The subject area includes issues related to human capital in the situation of recovering from the crisis and changing the strategy. Findings: The considerations presented in this study show that appropriate human capital management is a factor supporting the change of strategy towards development in the period of recovery from crisis. Practical implications: Theoretical considerations are supplemented with the results of world research in the field of human capital management. As a result, the current trends recommended in this area of management are indicated. They constitute the guidelines for managers on how to deal with human capital so that it supports the development of the enterprise. Social implications: Recognizing effective ways of managing human capital may have multifaceted beneficial socio-economic consequences. Overcoming the crisis and entering the phase of redevelopment is important both for the state and for society. Originality/value: The study shows a specific approach to human capital, which not only determines the effective management of a company in a crisis situation, but when properly managed it supports the transition from crisis-related stagnation to the strategy of re-development after the crisis.
Purpose: This publication focuses on issues related to occupational burnout. The aim of this publication is to show how occupational burnout determines the management of an organization (District Court in Koszalin in Poland). Design/methodology/approach: A survey and participating observation were used in this publication. The research was conducted on a group of 84 employees of the company. The values of the analysed indicators were calculated by using the Excel program. Findings: The analysis of the collected data for the years 2019-2020 showed that this study should be regarded as a survey, and thus gives the opportunity to widen the area and scope of study. The research confirmed the H1 hypothesis: Occupational burnout among the employees of the District Court in Koszalin is at an average level and strongly determines the management method and their work efficiency. Research results indicate a correlation between occupational burnout and the management method, which directly determines the effectiveness of employees. The study showed that as many as 96% of the respondents District Court in Koszalin in Poland believe that they have or have had contact with the symptoms of burnout. Research Limitation/implication: There were limitations in the course of the study in the assessment of occupational burnout by the superiors, due to the reason that the research was conducted among a professional group burdened with social trust. The most important implication of the research is the statement that work, relations with employees, HR policy, etc. should be properly shaped in order to minimize or eliminate the symptoms of occupational burnout. Originality/Value of paper: The analysis showed the more impact burnout has on superiors, in particular lack of prospects for professional, family and personal development, the less empathy they show and are less effective at work.
Purpose: The aim of the publication was to determine the significance of the Servqual method in the management process of an ecological enterprise in the aspect of Covid-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: The research was carried out in specialist stores with organic food using the mystery shopper method from July to September 2021. The scope of the research was nationwide. Findings: The calculated indicators of Servqual unweighted (SQnw) and weighted (SQww) show that the fully satisfactory condition was achieved for the customer. Research limitations/implications: Another important piece of information, which was obtained during the research, is that there is a large rotation of specialist organic stores and a problem with creating the database. Practical implications: The worst ranked, although positively assessed dimension, was „reacting”, and after taking into account the weight of dimensions - „empathy. These are the areas that can be further improved by entrepreneurs. Originality/value: The market of organic products in Poland is undergoing dynamic transformations in the era of the Covid 19 pandemic and the electronic economy of the 21st century. New participants enter the market and put traditional, specialist organic food stores, under increased pressure from competition. Hence, there is an even greater need to improve the services they provide through the use of modern methods and quality tools. In relation to the ecological industry, there are no scientific reports on use the Servqual method.
Purpose: Technological changes determined by the development of Industry 4.0 significantly change the business models of modern organizations. The Covid-19 pandemic is also influencing changing organizational systems and dynamic progress in technological transformation. The main purpose of the paper is to present the impact of digital transformation on changes in business models and to answer the question if Covid-19 will accelerate change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper contains the literature review on business model concept, Industry 4.0, Digital Transformation and Covid-19. In this paper the empirical study is also presented. The main research problem was to determine the impact of the digital transformation (technological progress) following the Covid-19 pandemic on changes in the business models of Polish enterprises and public sector institutions. Findings: A research confirmed that the digital transformation (processes connected with digitization, automation, robotization and artificial intelligence) resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic has had an impact on the business models of both Polish enterprises and public sector institutions. The research also confirmed a discrepancy between the opinions of experts and management when it came to assessing the impact of technological progress associated with Covid-19 on the business models of the surveyed organizations. Originality/value: The presented work is an important contribution when it comes to the post pandemic economic reality. Paper assesses the impact of technological progress induced by Covid-19 on changes in the functioning of individual processes, which can be an important guide for management practitioners, helpful in implementing modern technological solutions in organizations.
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the methods of management in the case of project management of engineering teams. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: The considerations presented in the publication made it possible to analyses the most important aspects of project management. The paper concentrate on the analysis of basic principles of project management especially in the condition of Industry 4.0. In the analysis we were concentrated on industrial organization and tried to characterize main benefits of using the project approach in those enterprises. We distinguished the main benefits of using project management in industrial enterprise in Industry 4.0 conditions. It is especially important to use this approach to handle complex, costly and risky projects which are not easy to manage in traditional way. In Industry 4.0 we can spot many those type indyscyplinary projects linking the technical and social knowledge. In those situation using of project management approach can lead to the success of organization activities. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with project management in engineering organizations.
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the methods of management in the case of engineering teams. Design/methodology/approach: Critical literature analysis. Analysis of international literature from main databases and polish literature and legal acts connecting with researched topic. Findings: The considerations presented in the publication made it possible to analyses the most important aspects of managing engineering teams. The publication draws attention to the specificity of managing engineering teams and the features that distinguish it from management in other types of organizations. In particular, it points out how to develop engineering teams in subsequent stages. The paper presents soft skills that should characterize people managing engineering teams, such as: dependability, work ethic, communication skills, community and teamwork, time management skills, goal setting, mental ability and takes direction well. The paper has a special focus on the best practices that should be followed to effectively manage engineering teams. Especially nowadays, in the era of Industry 4.0, there is a need for team management in industrial companies as well as more and more cooperation between people and machines. This kind of approach requires careful planning and management of engineering teams. The best practices presented in the publication can provide assistance to engineering teams in today's industrial enterprises wherever teamwork is necessary. Originality/value: Detailed analysis of all subjects related to the problems connected with management of engineering teams.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to present the research results conducted among managers the largest companies in the world and in Poland provided by KPMG Report from 2021. Design/methodology/approach: Due to the cognitive nature of the work, the aim of the work will be achieved using the method of analyzing the literature and KPMG research results on the subject. Literature studies include Polish and foreign publications. Findings: Innovative technology, human capital and company’s mission is very widely described in international literature. Many reports have been created and the most updated brings new CEO’s outlook on management issues. Top managers and employees with technology are creating a mission of every firm. Originality/value: The analysis either literature and reports with 2021 statistics presents all areas where CEO’s during this pandemic world need to improve and develop old and new solutions. The data base presented in the world is most updated data developed in the work and science market.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to present historical aspects of management, technology, innovation and economic growth in Great Britain based on international literature and articles. Design/methodology/approach: Due to the cognitive nature of the work, the aim of the work will be achieved using the method of analyzing the literature and overview international articles to present results on the subject. Literature studies includes only foreign publications. Findings: Historical aspects of management, technology, innovation and economic growth in Great Britain is widely described in international and British literature. Many articles provided value information’s and researches to get to the conclusions and summary. Based on the reliable results scientist assess every aspects of provided subject. Originality/value: The analysis international and British literature and articles shows all aspects of historical management, technology, innovation and economic growth in Great Britain and helps to improve knowledge and assessment of past to present and to predict future.
The main aim of the paper is to study the impact of the level of digitization of business activities on the human resources orientation on sustainable consumption and production (SCP) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: During the research process, a survey was conducted among 140 SMEs in Poland at the beginning of 2020. The multiple regression model was built to find the link between the variables. Findings: Statistical analysis indicated that digitization did not have a clearly positive impact on employees’ orientation towards SCP. Among the analysed variables, negatively correlated relationships appeared, especially in the area of the digitization of contacts with the customers. Research limitations: As limitations, it can be pointed the managerial approach during survey research, limited research group, as well as the study period excluding pandemic time. Originality/value: The novelty of the research manifests itself in in the fact that the research problem was applied to the small and medium-sized enterprises, instead of to corporations.
Purpose: The basic purpose of research was to determine the causes of making the decision that manufacturers on their way to improve the quality of their products. Design/methodology/approach: The research method applied in article is mainly standardized survey research making based on survey conducted in contact and remote way conducted in 78 enterprises in south-eastern Poland. The research process also accompanied analysis of thesource documentation. Findings: It was concluded that decision during improving quality of the product were making mainly in simultaneously with considering customers' requirements of the customers about the quality of the products and the impact of products on the natural environment. Research limitations/implications: Most of the verified enterprises from SMEs are tried integrating qualitative-environmental actions as part of improving the quality of products. This is a favorable condition for further research, so that it is possible to adjust the quality and environmental approach when improving the quality of products in SMEs. Practical implications: Discussion of the results of research have a series of practical implications mainly for product management staff. Especially in organizations that designed new products or also in significant modification of these products. Social implications: Building awareness improves not only quality of products, but also simultaneously in line with sustainable development, including in improving environmental aspects. Originality/value: The article has cognitive value for development of knowledge, science, quality, and environmental in the area of management of products.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to show the importance of measuring the effects of the execution of personnel processes within the framework of personnel function management in manufacturing enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: The development of the article required a critical analysis of the literature on the subject. A literature study of scientific publications, a survey, and face-to 16 face interviews were performed. Findings: Thanks to the realization of the survey it was found that, despite such high awareness of the importance and effectiveness of the use of KPIs, only less than 28% of the respondents declared the use of HR function measurements in a systematic way, and only 53% use only a few indicators, in an active way and not fully coordinated. Research limitations/implications: Future directions of activities will concern the realization of research in another research group (increased number of analyzed production and service enterprises) from the area of the southern part of Poland and the comparative analysis of obtained results. The limitation of the research may be the unwillingness of enterprises to cooperate. Practical implications: The results of the study indicate the possibility and at the same time recommend the implementation of KPIs for monitoring the effectiveness of development processes in enterprises. The obtained results will contribute to the implication of more KPIs and thus increase the level of effective management. Originality/value: Filling the research gap in the field of measuring the effects of personnel function with the use of selected KPIs. The study is addressed to the management staff of enterprises.
At present, shift work is evaluated from the carriers’ perspective as employers. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to outline the characteristics of an innovative software application that would enable human resource managers to take railway workers’ satisfaction or the difficulty of a job into account when creating shift plans. This article includes an overview of the prevailing methods of handling railway shift worker scheduling and a list and description of the empirical methods for creating shifts. Next, the consideration given to the interests and preferences of employees regarding shift types is described. We then outline possible changes, especially changes utilizing mathematical formulas. These patterns and considerations are verified through actual shifts and questionnaires distributed to a select group of employees. An actual shift of conductors at the Czech national carrier České dráhy is chosen for the case study. Finally, a proposal of a software system that takes employee preferences into account and permits the scheduling of blocks of free days is described. From the development point of view, the aim of this software is to achieve maximum satisfaction after subjective requirements are considered, thus ensuring, from the human resource management perspective, a higher degree of railway employees’ satisfaction, leading to better quality services and improved rail transport.
The article aims to present a part of the research results on implementing the management function in selected libraries of Polish military higher education institutions concerning the planning function. In an organization such as a scientific library, planning is the most crucial management function, especially in such a specific one as a military university library. The analysis of information infrastructure factors made it possible to evaluate the implementation of individual management functions in the analyzed military libraries, including the planning function as the most important for information resources management. The assessment of the implementation of the planning function shows significant implications that may contribute to the optimization of information infrastructure management in a modern military higher education institution library.
Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie fragmentu wyników badań nad realizacją funkcji zarządzania w wybranych bibliotekach uczelni wojskowych w Polsce dotyczący funkcji planowania. W organizacji takiej jak biblioteka naukowa planowanie jest najważniejszą funkcją zarządzania, a szczególnie w tak specyficznej, jaką jest biblioteka uczelni wojskowej. Analiza czynników infrastruktury informacyjnej pozwoliła na ocenę realizacji poszczególnych funkcji zarządzania w analizowanych bibliotekach wojskowych, w tym funkcji planowania – najistotniejszej z punktu widzenia zarządzania zasobami informacyjnymi. Z oceny realizacji funkcji planowania wynikają znaczące implikacje mogące przyczynić się do optymalizacji zarządzania infrastrukturą informacyjną współczesnej biblioteki uczelni wojskowej.
European Union Global Critical Infrastructure Safety Management System (EUSAFEGLOBE) will develop new modelling and assessment methods and tools to create novel comprehensive and coherent methodology for safety and resilience analysis of critical infrastructure with ageing dependent assets under outside extreme events impact. Project results and tools validated in real case studies will be integrated into sectorial safety management systems and risk reduction and accident consequences mitigation management systems for process industry, energy and transport. On the basis of created sectorial management systems and developed systemic approach to critical infrastructure cybersecurity the Early Warning System (EWS) will be designed. Created sectorial management and warning systems and systemic approach to critical infrastructure cybersecurity and training tools developed in the form of Critical Infrastructure Safety and Resilience Training System (CISRTS) will be integrated into the European Union Global Critical Infrastructure Safety Management System (EUGCISMS). EUGCISMS will be provided with clear for users instructions of its applications in all of any-sector critical infrastructures and will be placed at the developed during project implementation the internet interactive platform, to create its final form the European Union Global Critical Infrastructure Safety Internet Interactive Platform (EUGCISIIP). EUGCISIIP will be tested and approved for common use and placed at created the European Union Global Critical Infrastructure Safety Management Centre (EUGCISMC). EUGCISMC will carry permanent education, dissemination and consultancy services to various industry and administration sectors including seminars, conferences, training courses and fully operational interactive internet service as the main gate to all critical infrastructures safety related resources and knowledge and it is planned to be exploited as a validated methodological approach and integrated component for strategic level decision making though the whole EU.