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EN
Studies of sublimation of complex ices prepared by deposition of gaseous CO, CH4, N2, and NH3 molecules on a cold plate have been performed. The low pressure and low temperature system was used: 10−9–10−5 mbar and the lowermost temperature 10 K. Diagnostic of composition of evaporates (at an actual temperature) was done by means of the mass spectrometer. The latter allowed following simultaneously the partial pressure of five different ions or radicals escaping from the substrate. It has been found that highly volatile molecules that were used simultaneously with the low volatile ones to form the complex ices (mixtures or clathrates) present a different sublimation pattern than the sublimation of pure high-volatile ices. In particular, the high-volatile component sublimes at two or even three different temperature regimes: At low temperature that is typical for sublimation of this component, as well as at much higher temperatures. This effect seems to be important when degassing and outbursts from cometary nuclei are considered. It can be also important for modeling of cryovolcanic processes on the icy satellites.
EN
In this paper we intend to analyze how the sublimation of ice from cometary nuclei affects changes of the moments of inertia. Our aim is to show general trends for different orientations of cometary nucleus' rotation axis. Thus we apply numerical model of a hypothetical homogeneous and initially spherical nucleus composed of water ice and dust. As an example we present simulations for a model comet of the orbital elements and the nucleus size the same as determined for C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, a widely analyzed long-period comet. We calculated water production from the nucleus and changes of the shape (initially spherical) and of the moment of inertia versus time. Simulations are performed for the full range (0-90°) of inclinations I of the rotation axis. The second paramater related to the orientation of the rotation axis is the argument Φ (0-360°). The heat conductivity of the nucleus spans over the vast range, 0.04-4 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹.
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