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Content available remote Polityka klimatyczna, czyli zmarnowane pieniądze
EN
After a series of extreme weather events (drought, bushfires and floods), iron flocs were seen at ephemeral springs in quartz sandstone in the Blue Mountains National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Naturally burnt areas allowed better viewing of small sandstone caves. This paper discusses some of the processes operating within the quartz sandstone, leading to the attractive and unusual shapes, and how extreme weather led to the mobilisation and redeposition of iron minerals.
EN
The hydrological regimes of all Moroccan basins are characterized by significant inter-annual variability, with alternating wet and dry years, interspersed with periods of intense hydrology or severe drought. Most watersheds are short of water. Climate change and the increasing frequency of severe events, particularly sudden drops in precipitation and widespread drought, are likely to exacerbate this situation. Like the severe drought years that hit Morocco from 1980 to 1985, 1990 to 1995, 1998 to 2002, 2011 and 2015 to 2020, the threat of drought still hangs over the country. During these years, almost all watersheds experienced water shortages, leading to overexploitation of groundwater. The aim of this research is to explain the climate of the Bouregreg watershed and the effects of climate change on its water resources. In order to preserve a more sustainable environment for future generations, it is crucial to assess the vulnerability of this area and the possible effects of climate change on hydrology. The results find after treatment of data confirmed previous research concerning the increase in temperatures and the decrease in precipitation which has been carried out in northern Morocco. RCPS scenarios (2.6; 4.5 and 8.5) shows that the research region will become dry. Getting from 0.8 to 1.3°C on an annual basis is planned for the 1920s and 2030s, as well as a modest increase in the frequency of days with summer waves.
PL
We wszystkich stylach architektonicznych akcentowano wejścia do budynków. Drzwi wejściowe oddzielają świat zewnętrzny od wewnętrznego i jednocześnie stanowią łącznik pomiędzy nimi. W wielu kulturach drzwi do obiektu są elementem, nie tylko użytkowym, ale niosącym informacje i znaczenia. Szczególnie w architekturze wernakularnej, gdzie klimat i przyroda jako świat zewnętrzny determinuje przeżycie mieszkańców, drzwi prowadzące do wnętrza domu traktuje się z uważnością artysty świadomego, że są niejako elementem pomiędzy sacrum a profanum. Dlatego najczęściej na drzwiach umieszcza się symbole mające zapewnić domownikom ochronę, szczęście, płodność i dostatek. Drzwi podhalańskiego domu są jak książka, z której można wyczytać o zdeterminowanych klimatem warunkach życia, stosunku Górali do przyrody, rodziny i dobytku. Można wyciągnąć wnioski na temat systemu wartości ludności, której styl życia nieznacznie się zmieniał przez kilka stuleci.
EN
The wooden vernacular architecture of Podhale reflects the climate and nature that determine the survival of the inhabitants. The door leading to the interior of the house shows the artist's sensitivity aware that they are an element between the sacrum and the profanum. That is why, most often, symbols are placed on the door to ensure protection, happiness, fertility and prosperity for the household members. The door of the Podhale house is like a book from which you can read about the living conditions, the attitude of the Highlanders to nature, family and property. Conclusions can be drawn about the value system of a population whose lifestyle has been almost unchanged for several centuries. This inner awareness of the Highlanders is visible in the amount of work devoted to building the door, in the attention to every smallest detail, in a very complicated structure. Magic symbols reflect the state of mind of the inhabitants who have struggled with the harsh conditions of the mountain climate throughout their lives, balancing on the brink of life and death.
EN
Purpose: The publication presents the challenges facing the European Union but also Polish regions in implementing the Green Deal. Design/methodology/approach: The method of statistical data analysis and source materials was used in the work. Findings: The paper presents the most important issues of change posed by the European Union for the implementation of climate policy. Originality/value: The paper is aimed at those interested in EU policy and climate policy in particular.
EN
For centuries, the roof has been a reminiscence, the symbol of basic human shelter and territory. Using the example of several ethnic groups living in Southeast Asia, Bhutan and Poland, the basic determinants of roof shape creation in vernacular architecture are discussed and similarities highlighted. In wooden architecture in different regions of the world, the form and construction of the roof are determined primarily by local conditions: climatic conditions, available materials, local tradition, culture, customs. Often it is the shape of the roof that determines the visual identity of a given ethnic group, with its traditions and way of life. The author points out that societies from different regions of the world with no cultural ties created wooden architecture based on the same factors and that the similarities are already present at the level of thinking patterns resulting, for example, from the need to emphasize the importance of religious buildings by means of the stacked, pent hip form of the basic roof.
PL
Od wieków dach jest reminiscencją, symbolem podstawowego schronienia człowieka i jego terytorium. Na przykładzie kilku grup etnicznych, żyjących w Azji Południowo-Wschodniej, Bhutanie i w Polsce, omówiono podstawowe determinanty kształtowania formy dachu w architekturze wernakularnej i podkreślono podobieństwa. W architekturze drewnianej w różnych regionach świata forma i konstrukcja dachu wynikają przede wszystkim z uwarunkowań danego miejsca: warunków klimatycznych, dostępnych materiałów, lokalnej tradycji, kultury i obyczajów. Często to właśnie kształt dachu jest elementem stanowiącym o wizualnej odrębności danej grupy etnicznej, z jej tradycją i sposobem życia. Autorka zwraca uwagę, że społeczeństwa z różnych regionów świata, nie związane ze sobą kulturowo, tworzyły architekturę drewnianą w oparciu o te same czynniki, oraz że podobieństwa występują już na poziomie wzorów myślenia, wynikających na przykład z potrzeby podkreślania ważności budynków sakralnych za pomocą spiętrzonej formy dachu podstawowego.
EN
The key aspect for evaluation of potential effects of ongoing environmental changes is identification of their controlson one hand, and understanding of their mutual relations on other. In this context, the best source of information about medium and long term coThe key aspect for evaluation of potential effects of ongoing environmental changes is identification of their controlson one hand, and understanding of their mutual relations on other. In this context, the best source of information about medium and long term consequences of various environmental processes is the geologic record. Numerous different-scale palaeoenvironmental events took place during the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition; amongst them, the best documented so far are: long term marine regression during the Tithonian-early Berriasian, climate aridization during the late Tithonian-early Berriasian, and tectonic activity in western parts of the Neo Tethys Ocean during the late Berriasian-Valanginian. This study, which is based on the Ph Ddissertation of Damian Gerard Lodowski, attempts to reconstruct the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous paleoenvironment and its evolution in the area of the Western Tethys, with special attention paid to cause-and-effect relationships between climate changes, tectonic activity and oceanographic conditions (perturbations in marine circulation and bioproductivity). Here are presented the basic results of high-resolution geochemical investigations performed in the Transdanubian Range (Hárskút and Lókút, Hungary), High-Tatric (Giewont, Poland) and Lower Sub-Tatric (Pośrednie III, Poland) series, Pieniny Klippen Belt (Brodno and Snežnica, Slovakia; Velykyi Kamianets, Ukraine) and Western Balkan (Barlya, Bulgaria) sections. The sections were correlated and compared in terms ofpaleoredox conditions (authigenic U), accumulation of micronutrient-type element (Zn) and climate changes (chemical index of alteration, CIA), providinga consistent scenario of the Tithonian-Berriasian palaeoenvironment evolution in various western Tethyan basins. Amongst the first-order trends and events, characteristic of studied sections are the two intervals recording an oxygen deficient at the seafloor: 1) the upper Tithonian-lowermost Berriasian (OD I); and 2) at the lower/upper Berriasian transition (OD II). Noteworthy, this phenomena cooccurred with elevated accumulations of nutrient-type elements (i. e. enrichment factor of Zn). Besides, collected data document the late Tithonian-early Berriasian trend of climate aridization, as well as the late Berriasian humidification. Such record is explained by a model, in which decreasing intensity of atmospheric circulation during the late Tithonian-early Berriasian was directly connected with climate cooling and aridization. This process resulted in lesser efficiency of up- and/or downwelling currents, which induced sea water stratification, seafloor hypoxia and perturbations in the nutrient-shuttle process during the OD I. On the other hand, the OD II interval may correspond to tectonic reactivation in the Neo Tethyan Collision Belt. This process might have led to physical cutoff of Alpine Tethys basins from the Neo Tethyan circulation (both atmospheric and oceanic), driving the limited stratification in the former, and limiting the effect of gradual humidification of global climate (i.e. due to increasing strength of monsoons and monsoonal upwellings). nsequences of various environmental processes is the geologic record. Numerous different-scale palaeoenvironmental events took place during the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition; amongst them, the best documented so far are: long term marine regression during the Tithonian-early Berriasian, climate aridization during the late Tithonian-early Berriasian, and tectonic activity in western parts of the Neo Tethys Ocean during the late Berriasian-Valanginian. This study, which is based on the Ph Ddissertation of Damian Gerard Lodowski, attempts to reconstruct the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous paleoenvironment and its evolution in the area of the Western Tethys, with special attention paid to cause-and-effect relationships between climate changes, tectonic activity and oceanographic conditions (perturbations in marine circulation and bioproductivity). Here are presented the basic results of high-resolution geochemical investigations performed in the Transdanubian Range (Hárskút and Lókút, Hungary), High-Tatric (Giewont, Poland) and Lower Sub-Tatric (Pośrednie III, Poland) series, Pieniny Klippen Belt (Brodno and Snežnica, Slovakia; Velykyi Kamianets, Ukraine) and Western Balkan (Barlya, Bulgaria) sections. The sections were correlated and compared in terms ofpaleoredox conditions (authigenic U), accumulation of micronutrient-type element (Zn) and climate changes (chemical index of alteration, CIA), providinga consistent scenario of the Tithonian-Berriasian palaeoenvironment evolution in various western Tethyan basins. Amongst the first-order trends and events, characteristic of studied sections are the two intervals recording an oxygen deficient at the seafloor: 1) the upper Tithonian-lowermost Berriasian (OD I); and 2) at the lower/upper Berriasian transition (OD II). Noteworthy, this phenomena cooccurred with elevated accumulations of nutrient-type elements (i. e. enrichment factor of Zn). Besides, collected data document the late Tithonian-early Berriasian trend of climate aridization, as well as the late Berriasian humidification. Such record is explained by a model, in which decreasing intensity of atmospheric circulation during the late Tithonian-early Berriasian was directly connected with climate cooling and aridization. This process resulted in lesser efficiency of up- and/or downwelling currents, which induced sea water stratification, seafloor hypoxia and perturbations in the nutrient-shuttle process during the OD I. On the other hand, the OD II interval may correspond to tectonic reactivation in the Neo Tethyan Collision Belt. This process might have led to physical cutoff of Alpine Tethys basins from the Neo Tethyan circulation (both atmospheric and oceanic), driving the limited stratification in the former, and limiting the effect of gradual humidification of global climate (i.e. due to increasing strength of monsoons and monsoonal upwellings).
EN
Spatio-temporal assessment of the sustainability of agricultural landscapes over a long period (1892–2020 – 130 years) was carried out on the basis of archival spatial data for the territory of the Dnieper district of the Tauride province and modern data from the State Agency for Water Resources of Ukraine. Taking into account the historical patterns of the development of agriculture on the territory of the Dnieper district and the results of spatial modeling in 1892, territories with low (4.1 thousand hectares – 0.3% of the total area) and medium (310.3 thousand hectares – 23.8%) level of sustainability of agricultural landscapes, which are located in the lower reaches of the Dnieper, were identified. However, the large-scale development of the territory for agricultural land and the development of irrigated agriculture have led to the activation of land degradation processes, soil fertility and the deterioration of the stability of agricultural landscapes over large areas. As a result of spatial modeling, the state for 2020 in the irrigation zone recorded significant areas of agricultural land and adjacent territories with low (179.1 thousand hectares – 13.7% of the total area) and medium (419.0 thousand hectares – 32.1%) stability level. A comparative analysis of the stability of agrolandscapes for two time periods (1892 and 2020) showed that large-scale agricultural land development and an imbalanced land-use culture lead to constant and almost irreversible processes of reducing the stability of agrolandscapes in the areas of irrigation reclamation.
EN
The negative impact of global and regional climate changes upon the crop yields leads to the violation of the crop production stability. The development of reliable methods for assessment of the climatic factors by the reaction of the crops to them in order to minimize the impact of climatic stresses upon the sustainability of food systems is an urgent scientific task. This problem was studied on the example of growing corn. A mathematical analysis of the main meteorological indicators for 16 years of research has been performed on the basis of which the frequency and direction of the occurrence of atypical and extreme weather conditions in various periods of the corn vegetation season were established by the coefficient of significance of deviations of the weather elements from the average long-term norm. It has been proved that the probability of occurrence of such weather conditions in the period from April to September is 38–81% in terms of the average temperature of the month, and 31–69% in terms of precipitation. By using the information base of the corn yields in a stationary field experiment with the gradations of factors: A (the fertilizer option) – A1-A12, B (the crop care method) – B1-B3, C (the hybrid) – C1-C7, the most critical month of the corn ontogeny was established when the weather has a decisive influence upon the formation of the crop. With the help of the correlation-regression analysis it was proved that the corn yield most significantly depends on the average monthly temperature in June, and for the hybrids with FАО 200–299 – on the amount of precipitation in the month of May. The obtained mathematical models make it possible to predict the yield of corn at a high level of reliability depending on the indicators of the main climate-forming factors in June, that is, even before the flowering of the plants (before the stage of ВВСН 61).
EN
The purpose of the study was to establish dependence of sunflower productivity on hybrid plasticity under the climatic conditions of the Steppe zone and effectiveness of growth-regulators on the basis of the analysis of differentiation of a vegetation index. The research on the development and productivity of different sunflower hybrids under the natural-climatic conditions of the Steppe zone of Ukraine was conducted in the years of 2019 (medium-wet), 2020 (dry) and 2021 (wet). Spatio-temporal differentiation of the vegetation of sunflower hybrids was established on the basis of calculation of a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) using the data of the decoded space images of Sentinel 2. Cartographic and grapho-analytical materials reflecting the reaction of plants to natural-climatic conditions and multifunctional growth-regulators were obtained. The dependence of the reaction of sunflower hybrids to multifunctional growth-regulators on their plasticity in response to the natural-climatic conditions of the Steppe zone was established. There was a weak reaction to application of growth-regulators of the sunflower hybrids Oplot and P64HE133 which are characterized by a high level of plasticity in response to the natural-climatic conditions of the Steppe zone. It was proven that the application of the biological preparation Helafit Combi exceeded the level of agrocenoses productivity in comparison with the chemical preparation ArchitectТМ by 1.1-5.4%. It was established that foliar treatment with growth-regulators led to a decline in water uptake by the sunflower hybrids by 1.2–10.0% in the dry year, by 3.8–8.6% in the medium-wet year and by 3.7%–21.9% in the wet year. There was a significant reduction in the level of water uptake by the hybrid Hector – by 7.7–10.0% and the hybrid 8KH477KL – by 1.2–21.9%. The research results are the basis for forecasting the development of sunflower hybrid crops with further measurement of the crop productivity that allows establishing a probable level of efficiency of sunflower hybrid production by agricultural producers under the climatic conditions of the Steppe zone.
EN
The Cretaceous greenhouse climate interval was characterized by intervals of extreme hothouse climate that lead to environmental Earth System events like the Oceanic Anoxic Events. In addition, the potentially ice-free hothouse, besides high magmatic activity due to final Pangaea breakup, fostered maximum sea-level with prolonged highstands more than 250 m above today’s sea level. The mid-Cretaceous interval, between OAE 1a (early Aptian) and OAE 2 (late Cenomanian), constitutes the time of most pronounced hothouse intervals leading to (nearly) global OAEs due to eutrophication of oceans, plankton blooms, expansion of oxygen minimum zones up to the photic zone, and down to the deep-sea bottom. This resulted regionally in black shale deposition and a minor extinction event of e.g. about 25% of planktic foraminifera. Taking OAE 2 as a case study, which constitutes the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum interval of at least more than 30–35°C equatorial ocean surface temperatures, high-precision stratigraphy based on cyclostratigraphy, astrochronology and numerical dating, a 300 to 700 ka OAE carbon isotope excursion interval can be reconstructed, ending in a recovery phase up to 1 Ma. Cyclostratigraphy results in 100 ka and 405 ka eccentricty signals, most significant in Tethyan areas and other lower latitude realms. Obliquity signals may be present in higher latitudes and may relate to higher precipitation, humid-arid and megamonsoon cycles. However, also during OAE 2, a significant cooling event, the Plenus Cold Event, is present, and may have resulted in intermittent ice shields on Antarctica. This cold snap is still represented in southern Tethys sections such as Tunisia based on stable isotopes and faunal migrations. Climate and temperature-have driven eustatic sea-level fluctuations, modulating the high sea level of the Cretaceous resulting from magmatic processes. During ice-free hothouse times, aquifer eustasy was the main process driving global sea level, at least on an amplitude of 30–50 m. Intermittent ice shields may conteract aquifer eustasy with higher magnitude glacial eustasy during cooler greenhouse phases like the Plenus Cold Event, but this is still under exploration. Major hothouse sea-level cycles have a cyclicity of about 1–1.2 Ma, showing precession- and eccentricity-modulated long-obliquity cycles in pelagic and shallow-water successions. This builds the basic sequence stratigraphy cycles during prominent greenhouse intervals of the Earth system, at least during the Mesozoic. Linking such greenhouse times models to our Anthropocene warming planet indicates a stronger hydrological cycle during warming and rising sea-levels.
EN
In this study we revisit two Cretaceous archives in the Alps, and we test hypotheses of major sea level falls related to ice age interludes in the Aptian. The first of the two successions in focus was formed along the northern margin of the alpine Tethys and is today preserved as Garschella Formation in the Helvetic nappes of Switzerland. Aptian phosphorites of the Luitere Beds containing Deshayites deshayesi and Dufreonia are overlain by up to tens of meters of siliciclastic shales, the Gams Beds. Gams Beds with low carbonate content are poorly dated, according to available biostratigraphies they are of Late Aptian age (nolani ammonite zone). Gams Beds are covered by up to 15 m glauconitic bioclastic sandstones and limestones (Brisi sandstone and limestone). The second locality we have revisited is Zürs in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA, Vorarlberg, Austria). There, a condensed succession of Jurassic-Cretaceous age records Southern Tethyan ocean history of a “submarine bank”. Jurassic radiolarian cherts are overlain by pelagic limestones of earliest Cretaceous age followed by an Aptian phosphorite hardground. These phosphorites are covered by an up to several meter thick succession of reworked crinoidal limestones and then by several tens of meters of “Kreideschiefer” (Lech Formation), which are of Albian to Cenomanian in age. Phosphorites at both localities record a time of hardground formation related to changes in Tethyan oceanography, triggered by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle and by corresponding changes in climate and oceanography. Condensed sedimentation records intense current activity on submarine highs and along the northern Tethyan shelf. Remarkable is the poorly understood change in sedimentation following hardground formation at both locations during Late Aptian time. The Helvetic Gams Beds (Garschella Fm.) record increased shedding of siliciclastics along the northern Tethys, either related to increased weathering or to a drop in sea level. We propose, that an eustatic drop of seal level explains observed northern Tethyan shifts in Late Aptian sedimentation. A corresponding drop in sea level is recorded at other localities as the Oman Mountains, along the Algarve coast in Portugal or in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. There, most prominent “cold snaps” or “ice age interludes during Aptian greenhouse climate” are dated as martinoides to nolani ammonite zone, they coincide with the deposition of the Gams Beds. Bioclastic limestones in the Helvetic succession and in the NCA record carbonate shedding at a time of renewed sea level rise following a major Aptian sea level drop. The Late Aptian prograding carbonate system of the NCA, considered as the source of crinoidal sands, was positioned along the northern margin of the evolving Eastern Alps while Brisi carbonate sands where shedded from a Northern Tethyan carbonate ramp. The Aptian condensed sediments of Helvetics and of NCA are indicators of extreme shifts in Aptian climate triggered by perturbations of the global carbon cycle. The Aptian-Albian Zürs succession provides additional information on the rapid transition of a passive continental margin with pelagic sediments into an Austroalpine foreland basin represented by “Kreideschiefer”.
EN
Many coal seams of varied thickness and aerial extent occur in the Upper Silesia and Lublin basins within Mississippian and Pennsylvanian coal-bearing deposits. Well-documented data on coal quantity in the seams identified allows visualization of their variation within the stratigraphic succession and analysis of the time-dependent coal accumulation process. Some characteristic features of this variation were observed. Coal seams of the Mississippian age (Serpukhovian, Paralic Series), formed within a near-shore environment, most often constitute small resources. There were only two intervals of increased coal accumulation in seams of >100 million tons, in the lower and uppermost parts of the Paralic Series. Within the Pennsylvanian coal-bearing succession of terrestrial fluvio-lacustrine origin, a specific, wave-like pattern of seam resource variations and four intervals of increased coal accumulation are observed. In the Lublin Coal Basin, the Lublin Beds only, deposited during the Late Bashkirian, are coal-bearing, in which a bell-shaped pattern of seam resource variation in the stratigraphic succession is observed. The location of enhanced coal accumulation events in the stratigraphic succession suggests their repetition at ~1–4 My intervals. The characteristic features of the quantitative variation in these coal seams may be correlated with glacial-interglacial and climate humidity changes, and interpreted as a response to variable volcanogenic CO2 supply.
EN
The discussion on renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energy, conducted in Poland reveals diverse positions among representatives of science, business, local government, and government. It is generally accepted that renewable energy sources are an important factor in limiting global warming. However, it is also emphasised that this energy absorbs high costs related to, e.g. the acquisition of rare metals used in the production of wind turbines, with the disposal of used parts. The article aims to present the opinions of representatives of science, economic practice, and authorities as an expression of behaviour toward the problem of climate warming and renewable energy. An example of expressed opinions is the discussion in the public space, which is created by publications in magazines and non-serial literature. As a result of using the method of analysis of secondary materials, the article shows the diversity of views on the subject under study. Opposing views on the causes of global warming have found; that wind energy can limit global warming, but it can also cause damage to the economy, landscape, and human health. The development of wind energy is determined by legal, organisational, economic, and technological obstacles that are difficult to overcome in Poland. However, the need to develop renewable energy, including wind and solar energy, is supported by 85% of Polish society.
PL
Prowadzona w Polsce dyskusja na temat odnawialnych źródeł energii, szczególnie energii wiatrowej i słonecznej ujawnia zróżnicowane stanowiska wśród przedstawicieli nauki, biznesu i władzy rządowej oraz samorządowej. Ogólnie uważa się, że odnawialne źródła energii są ważnym czynnikiem ograniczenia ocieplenia klimatu. Ale też podkreśla się, że wytwarzanie tej energii pochłania duże koszty związane m. in. z pozyskiwaniem metali rzadkich stosowanych w produkcji np. turbin wiatrowych, baterii słonecznych oraz koszty z opracowaniem sposobów utylizacji zużytych części elektrowni wiatrowych, paneli słonecznych. Celem publikacji jest przedstawienie opinii jako wyrazu postaw społecznych przedstawicieli nauki, praktyki gospodarczej, władzy rządowej i samorządowej na powyższe problemy. Przykładem wyrażanych opinii jest dyskusja w przestrzeni publicznej, którą tworzą artykuły i wywiady zamieszczane w czasopismach i publikacjach zwartych. W artykule przyjęto tezę wskazującą na różnicę poglądów reprezentantów nauki, praktyki gospodarczej i władzy na temat znaczenia odnawialnych źródeł energii w ograniczaniu ocieplenia klimatu. Weryfikacja tezy łączyła się z przeprowadzeniem badań, w których zastosowano metodę analizy literatury przedmiotu, raportów z badań empirycznych publikowanych w postaci artykułów w czasopismach krajowych i zagranicznych oraz na stronach internetowych. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że występują przeciwstawne opinie w zakresie oceny przyczyn ocieplenia klimatu, że energia wiatrowa z jednej strony jest czysta i ogranicza proces ocieplenia klimatu, a z drugiej nie zapewnia bezpieczeństwa energetycznego kraju, powoduje szkody w krajobrazie i zdrowotne u ludzi. Rozwój tej energii hamują prze-szkody prawno-organizacyjne, techniczno-technologiczne i ekonomiczne. Potrzebę rozwoju energii wiatrowej popiera jednak 85% polskiego społeczeństwa, niezależnie od argumentów za i przeciw reprezentantów nauki, gospodarki i polityki.
EN
The purpose of the research was to calculate water footprint in growing the basic field crops and establish the volumes of additional water accumulation to provide the hydro-functioning of the Sluch river basin in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of climate change. The research was based on the data of climate change analysis in 1901–2022, decoding of the actual satellite imagery of the spacecraft Sentinel 2 and statistical data on crop rotation structure in the agro-landscapes of the water catchment area in the research region. The volumes of water footprint were calculated for the vegetation periods of the basic field winter and spring crops in 2018–2021: 2018–2019 – a semi-wet year grows into a dry year; 2019–2020 – a dry year grows into a semi-wet year; 2020–2021 – a semi-wet year grows into a wet year. Spatio-temporal regularities of the formation of water footprint and the ratio of green and blue water use in growing different agricultural crops were determined. The total volume of water footprint in growing the field crops of a certain crop rotation equaled: in 2018–2019 – 1991 mln m3 , 2019–2020 – 2440 mln m3 , 2020–2021 – 2363 mln m3. The total volume of precipitation in the vegetation period within the river water catchment area was: in 2018–2019 – 3760 mln mм3, 2019–2020 – 4423 mln m3, 2020–2021– 4839 mln m3. The total volume of additional accumulation of green (rain) water in the vegetation period in the agro-landscapes of the river basin equaled: in 2018–2019 – 1769 mln m3, or 47.0% of precipitation in the vegetation period (Pv); 2019–2020 – 1983 mln m3, or 44.8% of Pv; 2020–2021 – 2476 mln m3, or 51.2% of Pv. The proposed research scheme and the obtained results are important for adjusting and substantiating water- and resource-saving agrotechnologies and crop rotations depending on climate change, for determining water balance stability of the river basin in accordance with the indicators of additional accumulation of green water.
PL
Projektując budynek niezwykle istotną kwestią powinno być zapewnienie jego użytkownikom odpowiednich warunków, żeby przebywanie w budynku było komfortowe. Jednakże często ważniejsze jest niskie zapotrzebowanie na energię. Wpływ na uzyskiwanie dobrych parametrów energetycznych budynku mają zastosowane rozwiązania instalacyjno-budowlane. Istotnym czynnikiem są również uwarunkowania lokalizacyjne m.in. parametry klimatu zewnętrznego oraz możliwości zaopatrzenia budynku w ciepło. Celem badań była ocena wpływu uwarunkowań lokalizacyjnych budynku i rozwiązań instalacyjnych na wskaźniki energetyczne budynku. Analizie poddano budynek biurowy, w którym źródłem ciepła jest węzeł cieplny zasilany z miejskiej sieci ciepłowniczej. Wykonano obliczenia wskaźników energii użytkowej EU oraz nieodnawialnej energii pierwotnej na cele ogrzewania, wentylacji, przygotowania ciepłej wody użytkowej EPH+W oraz chłodzenia EPC dla wybranych wariantów uwzględniających: lokalizację (klimat oraz uwarunkowania lokalizacyjne i prawne), rodzaj wentylacji (naturalna oraz mechaniczna z odzyskiem ciepła). Symulacje przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania do projektowania budynków pasywnych. Kryteriami oceny było spełnienie wymagań przepisów prawnych dotyczących wartości wskaźnika energii pierwotnej EPH+W<45  kWh/(m2. rok) oraz EPC<25  kWh/(m2. rok). Analizy wykazały, że lokalizacja budynku, nawet w obrębie jednego kraju, ma duże znaczenie dla wyników końcowych. Wartości wskaźnika nieodnawialnej energii pierwotnej do ogrzewania i wentylacji mieściły się w zakresie 31,5 do 50,9 kWh/(m2. rok). Wpływ na tak duży zakres miała różnica temperatury powietrza zewnętrznego, natężenia promieniowania słonecznego oraz wartości współczynnika nakładu nieodnawialnej energii pierwotnej dla sieci ciepłowniczej w zakresie od 0,183 do 0,8. Największe znaczenie dla uzyskania parametrów budynku energooszczędnego oraz zapewnienia odpowiedniej jakości powietrza miało zastosowanie wentylacji mechanicznej z odzyskiem ciepła 83% ‒ w przypadku braku odzysku ciepła wartość wskaźnika EP wzrastała nawet pięciokrotnie. Wpływ na parametry energetyczne oraz komfort klimatyczny w budynku ma wiele czynników. Warto uzupełniać proces projektowania budynku oraz jego instalacji o modelowanie budynku w 3D oraz wykorzystywać dostępne narzędzia umożliwiające przeprowadzenie realistycznych wizualizacji, dzięki czemu inwestor może łatwiej podjąć decyzję o wyborze rozwiązania, które będzie dla niego satysfakcjonujące.
EN
When designing a building, an extremely important issue should be to provide its users with appropriate conditions to make staying in the building comfortable. One of the most important factors that characterize modern buildings is low energy demand. The installation and construction solutions used have an impact on obtaining good energy parameters of the building. Location conditions are also an important factor, including: external climate parameters and the possibility of supplying the building with heat. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of the building’s location conditions and installation solutions on the building’s energy indicators. The analysis covered an office building in which the heat source is a heating node powered by the municipal heating network. Calculations were made of usable energy and non-renewable primary energy indicators for heating, ventilation, domestic hot water preparation and cooling. For selected variants taking into account: location (climate and location conditions and legal), type of ventilation (natural and mechanical with heat recovery) simulations were carried out using passive building design software. The evaluation criteria were compliance with the requirements of legal regulations regarding the value of the primary energy index EPH+W<45kWh/(m2. year) and EPC<25kWh/(m2. year). Analyzes have shown that the location of the building, even within one country, is important for the final results. The results of the non-renewable primary energy index for heating and ventilation were in the range of 31,5 to 50,9 kWh/(m2. year). Such a large range was influenced by the difference in outdoor air temperature, solar radiation intensity and the value of the nonrenewable primary energy input coefficient for the heating network in the range from 0,183 to 0,8. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (83%) was of the greatest importance for achieving the parameters of an energyefficient building and ensuring appropriate air quality – in the absence of heat recovery, the value of the EP index increased up to five times. Many factors influence the energy parameters in a building. It is worth supplementing the process of designing a building and its installation with 3D building modeling and using available tools that enable realistic visualizations, thanks to which the investor can more easily decide on a solution that will be satisfactory for him.
EN
Many countries, including Indonesia, face severe water scarcity and groundwater depletion. Monitoring and evaluation of water resources need to be done. In addition, it is also necessary to improve the method of calculating water, which was initially based on a biophysical approach, replaced by a socio-ecological approach. Water yields were estimated using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and geographic weighted regression (GWR) methods were used to identify and analyze socio-ecological variables for changes in water yields. The purpose of this study was: (1) to analyze the spatial and temporal changes in water yield from 2000 to 2018 in the Citarum River Basin Unit (Citarum RBU) using the InVEST model, and (2) to identify socio-ecological variables as driving factors for changes in water yields using the OLS and GWR methods. The findings revealed the overall annual water yield decreased from 16.64 billion m3 year-1 in the year 2000 to 12.16 billion m3 year-1 in 2018; it was about 4.48 billion m3 (26.91%). The socio-ecological variables in water yields in the Citarum RBU show that climate and socio-economic characteristics contributed 6% and 44%, respectively. Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) and land configuration contribution fell by 20% and 40%, respectively.The main factors underlying the recent changes in water yields include average rainfall, pure dry agriculture, and bare land at 28.53%, 27.73%, and 15.08% for the biophysical model, while 30.28%, 23.77%, and 10.24% for the socio-ecological model, respectively. However, the social-ecological model demonstrated an increase in the contribution rate of climate and socio-economic factors and vice versa for the land use and landscape contribution rate. This circumstance demonstrates that the socio-ecological model is more comprehensive than the biophysical one for evaluating water scarcity.
PL
Architektki krajobrazu przewodzą w działaniach na rzecz klimatu. Cornelia Hahn Oberlander – urodzona w Niemczech kanadyjska architektka krajobrazu i silnie wyróżniająca się postać – łączyła naturalistyczne projekty z modernistycznymi ideałami. Bardzo wcześnie dostrzegła pilną potrzebę dostosowania miasta do zmian klimatycznych, w związku z czym projektowała przestrzenie publiczne tak, aby złagodzić skutki tych zmian.
PL
Polskie miasta mają jeszcze dużo do zrobienia, jeśli chodzi o adaptację do zmian klimatu. Główne wyzwania to łagodzenie skutków ekstremalnych upałów, oczyszczanie powietrza, przeciwdziałanie powodziom miejskim, odciążanie kanalizacji miejskiej w przypadku nawalnych opadów. Nie sprzyjają temu niestety dotąd stosowane w niektórych małych i dużych miastach metody, które doczekały się już wiele mówiącej nazwy „betonoza”.
EN
Purpose: On the basis of their own research, the authors of the article undertook to determine the factors determining future social and economic development and to develop recommendations for strengthening active economic, social and labour market policies in mining municipalities and districts in Poland – in the perspective of the "European Green Deal" plan and "Just Transition" Design/methodology: the results presented in the article were obtained on the basis of the implementation of questionnaire research, expert interviews, literature review, critical literature analysis, documentation analysis, statistical descriptive analysis. Findings: As a result of the analyses and surveys carried out, the article presents an extensive set of conclusions, the most important of which are those relating to social. The presented attempt of the prospective approach to the phenomena and processes which may result from the transformation of the hard coal mining in Poland is aimed at better understanding of the role which may be fulfilled in the future by the local self-government in the area of which the operating or disused mines and mining enterprises are located. Secondly which are related to the perspective of the hard coal mining transformation process, first of all showed terms the scale of challenges faced by mining municipalities. The indicated processes are nowadays dominated by the challenge of creating new ecological solutions of high quality both in the sphere of their social acceptance in the utilitarian dimension. It is a process that allows for a better understanding of the role of local government in the transformation process, which will probably take up, in a fragmentary way, economic, social and environmental challenges resulting from the contemporary development of economy based on knowledge and determined by the Industrial Revolution 4.0. Originality: the findings and recommendations of the study may become relevant for practitioners and researchers dealing with climate change mitigation, strategy implementation, cross-sectoral partnerships and sustainable development of transformed areas.
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