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EN
A specimen of the invasive Callinectes sapidus was recently found in the catchment basin of the Baltic Sea (Lake Dąbie, Poland). The discovery is significant because it indicates a widening of the crab's biogeographic range in northern Europe and confirms its expansion along European estuaries. The captured juvenile specimen from Lake Dąbie (estuary of the Oder River) had a carapace width (CW) of 125.58 mm, carapace length (CL) of 53.23 mm, and weight (w) of 100.19 g. This is the first record of this species in this part of the Baltic Sea catchment basin, following the discovery of a female caught in a plaice net northeast of Copenhagen (1951) and an adult male caught off Skagen, Northern Jutland, between the Kattegat and the Skagerrak (2007).
EN
Parasitic arthropods of marine mammals are relatively poorly understood, with the least amount of data on the occurrence of parasitic arthropods in these hosts. Thus far, only seal lice Echinophthirius horridus (von Olfers, 1816) have been found in the Baltic seals, while there was no information about the presence of parasitic mites in these mammals. The nasopharyngeal mite Halarachne halichoeri (Allman, 1847) has recently been found in the gray seal Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791), representing a new species (and new genus) for the Polish fauna. Sixty three specimens were found in the nasal cavity and the trachea, including 18 females and 45 males. This is also the first documented record of Halarachnidae in seals of the Baltic Sea. A checklist of parasitic Halarachnidae known from marine mammals is also provided.
EN
The occurrence of nematodes in the alimentary tract of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (L., 1758) nestlings was studied in the Włocławek Reservoir located on the Vistula in central Poland and in adult birds wintering in the south of Poland, with the food base in the upper Vistula. Mixed (max 4 species) nematode infections were found in all birds. Apart from Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 found in all studied birds, the third- and fourth-stage larvae as well as adult individuals of the following species were also present: Eustrongylides excisus Jägerskiöld, 1909, Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809), Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), Desmidocercella numidica Seurat, 1920, Synquaria squamata (Linstow, 1883), Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Creplin, 1825), Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940). The overall mean intensity of infection with nematodes was 23.4 ± 11.6 in nestlings and 175.7 ± 110.9 in adult cormorants. The most common species was C. rudolphii with the mean infection intensity of 12.5 ± 5.9 in nestlings and 154.6 ± 111.4 in adults. The second most common species was E. excisus. S. squamata, C. obvelatus and D. numidica were less common in both age groups. A. simplex and H. aduncum were found only in nestlings, while B. carbonis only in adults.
EN
The article presents a dermatosis that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries. Though the definitive hosts of the cutaneous larva migrans parasite are animals, humans can become accidental hosts and they are infected when their skin comes into contact with damp soil, most frequently sand. The disease is only present in the epidermis where an itch is brought about by the mining activity of the larva. Sunbathers and divers who put on their gear on a beach, on account of the epidermis maceration caused by a prolonged exposure to water, are particularly susceptible to the penetrative activities of the larva. In Poland the cutaneous larva migrans is in most cases mistaken for nettle rash or eczema.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia występującą w krajach tropikalnych i subtropikalnych dermatozę. Larwa skórna wędrująca jest pasożytem, których ostatecznymi żywicielami są zwierzęta. Człowiek jest przypadkowym żywicielem. Do zarażenia u człowieka dochodzi podczas kontaktu skóry z wilgotną ziemią, a najczęściej piaskiem. Choroba przebiega tylko w naskórku, larwa drąży kręty korytarz wywołując świąd. Narażeni są plażowicze i przebierający się na plaży nurkowie, których zmacerowany długim pobytem w wodzie naskórek, ułatwia penetrację larw. W Polsce zarażenie larwa skórną wędrującą w większości przypadków jest błędnie rozpoznawane jako pokrzywka lub wyprysk.
EN
Sporocysts with cercariae of Prosorhynchus squamatus Odhner, 1905 (Digenea, Bucephalidae) have been found for the first time in mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould, 1850 from the Gulf of Gdańsk (the southern Baltic Sea). The presented work provides a description and morphometry of larvae of this parasite.
EN
Parasitic relations between animals are very common in wild nature. In this paper, we studied levels of infection in three-spined stickleback with plerocercoids of Schistocephalus solidus from Puck Bay (Baltic Sea, Poland). The total prevalence of infection was 54.2%, while proportion of infected individuals was significantly higher for females than for males. The body width was found to be significantly positively correlated with the number and the weight of parasites. In spite of the increasing deterioration of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by excessive eutrophication and hypoxia, lower prevalence of infection compared to previous published data indicates that there are likely other factors than pollution affecting the life cycle of parasites and the level of parasitism.
7
Content available remote Modeling the spatial and temporal dispersal of Cuscuta europea (Cuscutaceae)
EN
Cuscuta species are interestingly behaving plant parasites of very different plant communities all over the world. Under warmer climate conditions they can act as dangerous pests, while in the northern countries they are considered as threatened species. Moreover these plants have a special strategy to find their host, called foraging. Chemical clues emitted by the host plants attract the parasite shoots to the most proper host. Recent papers investigate the host preference of Cuscuta species. In our research, we examine the appearing spatial patterns with both experimental and modelling tools. Our objective is to reproduce this phenomenon in the virtual space and find the model, which best describes the emerging spatial patterns. For the modelling cellular automata are used, which are commonly used tools in spatial ecology. These are spatially explicit dynamic models, where both time and space are discrete. The graphical representation is a squared lattice. Every square – also called cell – in the lattice has a state (e.g. soil, plant, parasite) represented with an appropriate colour. In this paper we present the results of our field observations as well as the mathematical models considered.
8
Content available remote The youngest Devonian record of "Housean pits" in ammonoids
EN
An unusual occurrence of parasitic "Housean pits" in internal mould of ammonoid specimen referred to as Felisporadoceras cf. subvaricatum (Sobolew) from Middle Famennian of Poland are described. Hitherto the youngest representatives of goniatites showing a pitting on the internal moulds were known from the Middle Devonian (lower Givetian), thus, most probably the presented material constitutes the youngest world record of this phenomenon.
EN
This paper analyses the changes in the level of infection with the freshwater parasite Schistocephalus solidus of the three-spined stickleback from the Gdynia Marina. Environmental factors such as salinity, pollution and eutrophication or the presence of other species affect the transmission of parasites. Infection indices have been increasing since the 1990s. Differences in the infection level of morphological forms were also found: this may be due to their environmental preferences.
EN
Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini) and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus) with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus).
EN
Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974 is an Asian parasitic nematode that was introduced to Europe and inhabits the swim bladder of eels. In the 2002-2005 period, 237 eels, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), from Lake Wdzydze were examined for the occurrence of the nematode. 79.3% of the fish were infected, at a mean intensity of 7.2 nematodes per fish. Morphological measurements of the observed A. crassus are presented. This is the first published report of A. crassus in eels from Lake Wdzydze.
EN
Flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) (1509 specimens) was sampled randomly between April 1998 and March 2000 in the Gulf of Gdańsk. The sex, age, and parasites were determined. The prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, and relative density of the infection of the detected parasites were calculated according to host sex and age. Susceptibility to infection was related to host age. Each parasite species had its own host sex preferences. The results indicated that host age and sex could play a major role in the determination of parasitic infection in flounder.
EN
The present paper reports another occurrence of the parasite Derogenes varicus in chaetognaths. This paper supports the opinion that metacercariae in chaetognaths may be progenetic, a evidences by egg production.
EN
A total of 1509 specimens of flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) were sampled in the period from April 1998 to March 2000 from the Gulf of Gdańsk. The seasonal occurrence of all parasite species was calculated. The results indicated that some parasite species occur seasonally (Diplostomum sp., Raphidascaris acus, Dichelyne minutus, Echinorhynchus gadi and Pomphorhynchus laevis), while others do not (Trichodina borealis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Cucullanus heterochrous). Since some parasites occurred year-round at low levels of infection, it was difficult to determine if they exhibited seasonality or not (Glugea anomala, Gyrodactylus unicopula, Diplostomum mergi, Bothriocephalus scorpii and Lampetra sp.). Gyrodactylus flesi was noted occasionally.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano charakterystykę pierwotniaków pasożytniczych z rodzaju Giardia, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem gatunku Giardia intestinalis, który jest pasożytem ludzi i zwierząt. Przedstawiono zagrożenia spowodowane występowaniem pierwotniaków w wodach pitnych, a także omówiono drogi zakażenia, przebieg choroby i diagnostykę pierwotniaków.
EN
In this paper the characterization of human and animals parasites of Giardia intestinalis was presented. The current systems for these parasites on the basic of hazard in drinking water were described, as well as the pathway of infection, diseases development and different methods of detection.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano charakterystykę pierwotniaków pasożytniczych z rodzaju Cryptosporidium, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem gatunku Cryptosporidium parvum, który jest pasożytem ludzi i zwierząt. Przedstawiono przykłady występowania i transmisji tych pierwotniaków w środowisku, a zwłaszcza w wodzie, glebie i produktach spożywczych. Omówiono możliwość przedostawania się cyst i oocyst tych pierwotniaków do systemów wodociągowych. Zaprezentowano obecny stan wiedzy dotyczący diagnostyki tych pierwotniaków w wodzie, a także możliwości ich zwalczania.
EN
The characteristic of enteric protozoans from genus Cryptosporidium, particular from species Cryptosporidium parvum that is human and animals parasites was presented. Occurence of the Cryptosporidium in water, soil, some food products and their transmission in the environment was presented. The possibilities of cysts and oocysts infiltration to water supply system were shown. The knowledge of diagnostic methods of the detection and utilization of Cryptosporidium were presented.
EN
A total of 233 perch, Perca fluviatilis L. specimens caught within April 1995?June 1997 at two sites in the Gulf of Gdansk were examined. The fish were found to host flukes (metacercariae of Tylodelphys clavata, Diplostomum spp. and adult Bunodera luciopercae), cestodes (plerocerkoids of Eubothrium crassum and Triaenophorus nodulosus, and adult Proteocephalus percae), nematodes (Camallanus lacustris, C. truncatus, Hysterothylacium aduncum L3 and adult), and acanthocephalans (Acanthocephalus lucii, A. clavula). Most prevalent were A. lucii (33.9%) and T. clavata (28.8%). Most of the parasites were found in the perch caught off the Vistula mouth and the level of infection was higher there than elsewhere in the Gulf, which indicates that ecological and hydrological conditions in the area enhance parasitism.
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