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EN
In coastal regions, earthquakes caused severe damage to marine structures. Many researchers have conducted numerical investigations in order to understand the dynamic behavior of these structures. The most frequently used model in numerical calculations of soil is the linear-elastic perfectly plastic model with a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (MC model). It is recommended to use this model to represent a first-order approximation of soil behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to accommodate soil constitutive models for the specific geotechnical problems. In this paper, three soil constitutive models with different accuracy were applied by using the two-dimensional finite element software PLAXIS to study the behavior of pile-supported wharf embedded in rock dike, under the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. These models are: a linear-elastic perfectly plastic model (MC model), an elastoplastic model with isotropic hardening (HS model), and the Hardening Soil model with an extension to the small-strain stiffness (HSS model). A typical pile-supported wharf structure with batter piles from the western United States ports was selected to perform the study. The wharf included cut-slope (sliver) rock dike configuration, which is constituted by a thin layer of rockfill overlaid by a slope of loose sand. The foundation soil and the backfill soil behind the wharf were all dense sand. The soil parameters used in the study were calibrated in numerical soil element tests (Oedometer and Triaxial tests). The wharf displacement and pore pressure results obtained using models with different accuracy were compared to the numerical results of Heidary-Torkamani et al.[28] It was found that the Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness (HSS model) gives clearly better results than the MC and HS models. Afterwards, the pile displacements in sloping rockfill were analyzed. The displacement time histories of the rock dike at the top and at the toe were also exposed. It can be noted that during the earthquake there was a significant lateral ground displacement at the upper part of the embankment due to the liquefaction of loose sand. This movement caused displacement at the dike top greater than its displacement at the toe. Consequently, the behavior of the wharf was affected and the pile displacements were important, specially the piles closest to the dike top.
EN
Fluid substitution plays the key role in reservoir characterization, leading to enhance understanding of the influence of fluids on seismic parameters. In general, fluid substitution tool assumes that the Earth is as an isotropic medium, which may not represent the practical field situation. Nevertheless, anisotropic fluid substitution provides important insights into the processes that control the anisotropic seismic response of a fractured rock when subjected to CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery and its geological sequestration. Here, we examine the influence of fluid substitution in a porous yet fractured reservoir for quantitative interpretation of seismic data. This investigation involves anisotropic Gassmann’s equation and linear slip theory for fluid substitution in a transversely isotropic media with a horizontal axis of symmetry (HTI). We present a synthetic case by conceptualizing a double-layered half-space model with upper layer as shale and bottom layer as HTI sandstone, representing an Indian mature reservoir. The effects of variation in background porosity and fracture weaknesses on anisotropic (Thomsen’s) parameters, acoustic parameters including amplitude variation with angle have also been discussed. We observe that brine and oil sands to be associated with the highest elastic moduli, while CO2 sands exhibit contrasting trend. It is noteworthy that CO2 is more sensitive to fracture weakness when compared to the other reservoir fluids such as hydrocarbons and brines, as P-wave moduli (as much as 37.1%) and velocity (as high as 12.2%) reduces significantly with the increase in fracture weakness. Further, Gassmann’s assumption is validated as we noticed unchanged values in shear-wave moduli and shear-wave splitting parameter (γ) for various fluid types.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method for obtaining tensors expressing certain symmetries, called effective elasticity tensors, and their optimal orientation. The generally anisotropic tensor being the result of in situ seismic measurements describes the elastic properties of a medium. It can be approximated with a tensor of a specific symmetry class. With a known symmetry class and orientation, one can better describe geological structure elements like layers and fissures. A method used to obtain effective tensor in the previous papers (i.e. Danek & Slawinski 2015) is based on minimizing the Frobenius norm between the measured and effective tensor of a chosen symmetry class in the same coordinate system. In this paper, we propose a new approach for obtaining the effective tensor with the assumption of a certain symmetry class. The entry zeroing method assumes the minimization of the target function, being the measure of similarity with the form of the effective tensor for the specific class. The optimization of orientation is made by means of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and transformations were parameterised with quaternions. To analyse the obtained results, the Monte-Carlo method was used. After thousands of runs of PSO optimization, values of quaternion parts and tensor entries were obtained. Then, thousands of realizations of generally anisotropic tensors described with normal distributions of entries were generated. Each of these tensors was the subject of separate PSO optimization, and the distributions of rotated tensor entries were obtained. The results obtained were compared with solutions of the method based on the Frobenius distances (Danek et al. 2013).
EN
Deterministic analysis does not provide a comprehensive model for concrete dam response under multi-hazard risk. Thus, the use of probabilistic approach is usually recommended which is problematic due to high computational demand. This paper presents a simplified reliability analysis framework for gravity dams subjected to flooding, earthquakes, and aging. A group of time-variant degradation models are proposed for different random variables. Response of the dam is presented by explicit limit state functions. The probability of failure is directly computed by either classical Monte Carlo simulation or the refined importance sampling technique. Next, three machine learning techniques (i.e., K-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, and naive Bayes classifier) are adopted for binary classification of the structural results. These methods are then demonstrated in terms of accuracy, applicability and computational time for prediction of the failure probability. Results are then generalized for different dam classes (based on the height-to-width ratio), various water levels, earthquake intensity, degradation rate, and cross-correlation between the random variables. Finally, a sigmoid-type function is proposed for analytical calculation of the failure probability for different classes of gravity dams. This function is then specialized for the hydrological hazard and the failure surface is presented as a direct function of the dam's height and width.
EN
The paper presents a turning method saving time and energy while conducting seismic surveys and an example of its application. The introduced turning method is based on use of the ocean currents / tidal streams as a supporting factor. The turning technique is applicable for vessels towing streamers and conducting line-change or other maneuvers similar to 180° turn. Chosen forces affecting seismic in-water equipment as well as behavior of the spread are briefly shown and explained. Some advantages over traditional turning techniques are here described. The method was applied onboard the seismic vessel Geo Pacific reducing significantly time required for line-change.
EN
It is well known that the temporal dynamic of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations show complex patterns, which are partly not easy to interpret. Clearly, for physical reasons, they must be related to possibly variable conditions of radon generation, migration and atmospheric dispersion and accumulation. The aim of this study was to analyse long-time series of simultaneously measured indoor and outdoor radon concentrations, together with environmental quantities, which may act as control variables of Rn. The study was performed in Chiba, Japan, using two ionization chambers for parallel indoor and outdoor radon concentrations measurements over 4 years. Meteorological and seismic data were obtained from the Japan Metrological Agency (JMA).
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