The priority direction of development of science and technology is research and development of new materials, corresponding to the different needs of the development of society, meets international requirements. Especially nanotechnology is rapidly developing in recent years, which provides a new way for the development of areas such as materials science, physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, energy, engineering, and medicine. Among the methods for obtaining monodispersed materials, one can single out methods: electro spark erosion , spraying , precipitation from the gas phase , mechanical grinding , chemical , plasma . The past decade has grown interest a monodispersed materials in significantly. This is because such objects exhibit new properties that differ significantly from the properties of matter in the macroscopic state. The priority direction of nanotechnology development is research and development of nano-carbon materials: fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and composite nano-diamond materials. Promising materials in this regard are structural modifications of carbon fullerenes and diamonds, in which the most attractive are a combination of record values of various physic-chemical parameters and unique electron-emission properties. The nano-carbon materials can have metallic conductivity and high-temperature superconductivity, be dielectrics, semiconductors, superconducting compounds. They used are in displays with low-voltage field emission, in hydrogen energy as storage containers for hydrogen, in nano-electronics . The analysis of the world experience in the formation of national and regional programs on new scientific and technical areas demonstrates the need to identify some key problems in the development of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies. It is necessary to develop new nanotechnologies to create nanomaterials that can significantly affect the economy, technology, production, health, ecology, education, defense and state security. The areas of application of nanomaterials are practically unlimited.