This paper presents the problems related to smelting gray and ductile cast iron. Special attention is paid to the metallurgical quality of cast iron. It depends on the type of furnace, charge materials and the special combination of charge, overheating and holding temperature, melting time, modification and spheroidization method. The evaluation of metallurgical quality has been performed by using derivative-thermal analysis (DTA). During the smelting process and secondary metallurgy, the ITACA system was used allowing to obtain information on alloy characteristic temperatures (Tliquidus, TeMin, TeMax, Tsolidus), VPS value, recalescence value, IGQ coefficient, nucleation gauge, porosity etc. The results of investigations and calculations are displayed in the form of graphs and dependencies. It has been shown that the derivative-thermal analysis (DTA) is an effective complement of chemical analysis and it has been found that both the increase in temperature and metal holding time have a negative impact on the metallurgical quality of liquid metal. The metallurgical quality can be improved by using proper composition of charge materials and modifiers.