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EN
The aim of the study was to investigate changes of power–velocity relationship and muscular strength of female volleyball players during preparatory period and competition season. Methods: The study was conducted on eleven female volleyball players: age 21.6 ± 1.7 years, body height 177.9 ± 4.7 cm, body mass 71.3 ± 6.6 kg. Power–velocity relationship was determined by means of five maximal 10-second cycloergometer efforts with external loads equal to: 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). The joint torque of flexors and extensors of an elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk was measured using a torque meter. The measurement were taken before (I) and after (II) the preparatory period, after the first (III) and second (IV) competitive season. Results: The power with a load equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0% BW increased significantly after first and second competitive season. The sums of joint torque for the lower and upper limb changed insignificantly. In the case of the right upper limb, sum of the joint torques was significantly reduced by 9.5% between measurement I and IV. Sum of the left upper limb was significantly decreased by 9.8% between measurement I and II. Sum of the joint torque of the trunk was significantly increased between measurements I and II, III and IV by 12.9%, 12.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Obtained results may suggest that selection of the training loads was adequate for training power output and muscle strength of lower limbs but too little emphasis was placed on development of strength in the muscles of the upper limbs.
EN
Increased reaction time and asymmetrical force generation in muscles may elevate the risk of falling among seniors. Therefore, it seems useful to analyze the symmetry of strength and amplitude parameters that evaluate neuromuscular control. The aim of the study was to evaluate force parameters for the quadriceps and biceps femoris muscles in young and older women performing maximal voluntary contraction. Methods: Fifty women (1 group in their twenties and the other in their sixties) participated in the study. The study used surface electromyography methodology and measured peak torque under static conditions. Electromyographic signals and peak torque were recorded separately in knee extensors and flexors of the right and left lower limbs after a visual signal. The following parameters were selected for analysis: 1) maximum the electromyographic amplitude signal; 2) peak torque; 3) rate of torque development; 4) relative force; and 5) “flexor–extensor” ratio. Results: The analysis demonstrated a decrease in the values of all parameters in the elderly group and symmetry in EMG amplitude in both the younger and older women. Asymmetry was found in the group of elderly women for peak torque and the relative force for knee flexors and “flexor–extensor” ratio. Conclusions: The decline in values of force parameters in knee flexors and their asymmetry (not extensors) revealed in the elderly group might prove an important factor in the assessment of risk factors for falling among the elderly.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the symmetry of proprioceptive sense among female soccer players when trying to reproduce isometric knee extensions (right and left) and to analyze the impact of a given level of muscle force on proprioception. Methods: The study involved 12 soccer players aged 19.5 ± 2.65 years. Soccer players performed a control measurement of a maximum 3s (knee at the 90°) position in the joint. Subsequently, 70%, 50%, and 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were all calculated and then reproduced by each subject with feedback. Next, the players reproduced the predefined muscle contraction values in three sequences: A – 50%, 70%, 30%; B – 50%, 30%, 70%; C – 70%, 30%, 50% of MVC without visual control. Results: In every sequence, the participants found obtaining the value of 30% of MVC the most difficult. The value they reproduced most accurately was 70% of MVC. Both trial II and trial III demonstrated that the symmetry index SI significantly differed from values considered acceptable (SIRa). In each successive sequence the largest asymmetry occurred while reproducing the lowest values of MVC (30%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: High level of prioprioceptive sense is important to soccer players due to the extensive overload associated with dynamics stops or changes in direction while running. Special attention should be paid to develop skills in sensing force of varying levels. It was much harder to reproduce the predefined values if there was no feedback.
EN
The objective of the research was to assess the effect of a 4-week-long training program on selected parameters: electromechanical delay (EMD) and amplitude of electromyographic signal (EMG). Fourteen female students of the University School of Physical Education participated in the study. Torques and surface electromyography were evaluated under static conditions. Surface electrodes were glued to both sides of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles. The 4-week-long program was aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and resulted in increased EMD during maximum torque production by flexors of the trunk, increased amplitudes of the signals of the erector spinae (p = 0.005), and increased EMG amplitude asymmetry of the lower (p = 0.013) and upper part (p = 0.006) of the rectus abdominis muscle. In a training program composed of a large number of repetitions of strength exercises, in which the training person uses their own weight as the load (like in exercises such as curl-ups), the process of recruitment of motor units is similar to that found during fatiguing exercises and plyometric training.
EN
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque, maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts in female volleyball players. Fourteen players participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath–Carter method. Maximal muscle torque was measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, SPJ and CMJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of volleyball players was: 4.9-3.5-2.5. The value of the sum of muscle torque of the left upper extremities was significantly correlated only with mesomorphic component. Mesomorphic and ectomorphic components correlated significantly with values of maximal power measured during ACMJ and CMJ. Power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of BW was significantly correlated with endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy.
EN
The relation between Collared Flycatcher females' selected characteristics (age, body condition and wing length) and breeding success was studied during seven breeding seasons (1995-2001) in nest-boxes in old-growth oak-lime-hornbeam of Białowieża Forest (Eastern Poland). Yearling females started laying almost three days later and produced smaller clutches (6,1 vs. 6,4 eggs) with fewer nestlings (5,4 vs. 6,1) and fledglings (5,1 vs. 5,7) than did older females. No differences were found in partial losses (i.e. proportion of eggs or nestlings that did not fledge). Body condition had influence only on time of egg laying. Wing length of young females was positively correlated with number of fledglings but no relations were found with other reproductive parameters. Age may be a key factor influencing breeding success in female Collared Flycatchers in the natural conditions in Białowieża Forest.
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