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The aim of the study was to evaluate the species composition in the fallow lands in areas heavily degraded by the mining and processing industries. The research was conducted in the western part of the Małopolska province in the municipality of Trzebinia. The layer C of phytocenosis that is the green layer was analyzed by specifying its all plant species and by approximately estimating vegetation cover according to the modified Braun-Blanquet scale. 212 species of vascular plants were found in the research areas. Species typical of fallow lands and ruderal areas i.e. giant goldenrod, couch grass and bush grass are the dominant species in the study areas. Among the species found in the study areas the species typical of fresh meadows such as false oat-grass, goosegrass and sorrel as well as thermophilic species such as crownvetch, greater knapweed or cypress spurge appear with great frequency.
The activity of steel and chemical industries, fertilizers and the development of transport mean that heavy metals (copper) in toxic quantities directly affect the condition of soil and natural ecosystems occurring in nature. The study concerned aimed at the assessment of the copper content in the soil samples and plant material from the area of the municipality of Trzebinia where the problem of the presence of toxic heavy metals in soils is long-term and is the result of anthropogenic human impact on the environment. 83 research areas were designated from which the plant material and soil samples were taken from the levels of 0-20 cm and of 20-40 cm. The copper content in the soil was determined by applying the FAA Method. Additionally, in the soil samples the following were marked: granulometric composition, soil reaction in 1M KCl and in water, electrolytic conductivity and organic matter content. The content of the aforementioned element in the plant material was evaluated by applying the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The conducted research did not reveal any copper contamination of the soil in the municipality of Trzebinia (Journal of Laws 2002).The plant material did not exceed any IUNG standards of the content/of copper in the animal feed. No correlation was found between the copper content in the top layer of the soil and the content of the metal in plants.
The paper verified the hypothesis of the existence of the correlation between the content of zinc in soils and plants in the municipality of Trzebinia that is in the area which is highly degraded as a result of long term activity of mining and processing of local raw materials. In order to achieve the above, the total metal content in plant and soil material as well as the selected physicochemical properties of soil such as pH, electrolytic conductivity, organic matter content and granulometric composition were determined. 664 soil material samples and 332 plant material samples were collected in years 2010-2012 from 83 research plots located in fallow lands of the town of Trzebinia and in 10 village councils of the municipality. The results obtained of zinc content do not confirm the correlation between soil and plant. The disclosed concentration of the element is in line with indications of permitted levels of metal content in plants proposed by IUNG, which allows the use of plant material as animal feed. The mean content of zinc in the soils of the municipality is higher than the permitted level of national regulations. The claim that the soil of the municipality is contaminated with the element is eligible.
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