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EN
Posidonia oceanica seagrass is endemic to the Mediterranean, and has very little information about volatile organic compounds. The plant was collected from Garyounis Beach in Benghazi, east of Libya, in September 2019. Plant parts, leaves, rhizomes, and roots were extracted using a Soxhlet extractor with Hexane. The compounds were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the extract's chemical constituents were de-convoluted using AMDIS software (www.amdis.net), and the mass spectra of the compounds spectra were explained by fragmentation pattern and matched to authentic standard spectra from Wiley and the NSIT Library database. The results revealed sixteen compounds, dominated by nine long-chain hydrocarbons, three long-chain fatty acids, and a single long-chain ketone. This is the first discovery of 3-ethyl-5-(2ethyl-butyl-octadecane, 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, phytol, and phytyl acetate from this plant.
EN
Wastewater treatment facilities at high places can give chances for renewable and sustainable energy generation by putting hydroelectric turbines at the input and drain channels of wastewater treatment plants, and they can also use the sludge generated during the treatment process to make biogas, which can be used to generate power. Purified water is subsequently used to irrigate decorative plants along highways, in gardens, and in woods. The fermentation wastes are utilized as organic fertilizer to improve agricultural soil quality. At the Gharyan sewage station, a hybrid system consisting of a hydroelectric station and an electric generator powered by biogas is proposed in this research. This is because the city is distinguished by its high location, which is approximately 713 m above sea level. The results showed that the proposed system would provide an electric power of 490 kW, which is sufficient to cover 87.5% of the electrical energy consumption of the station. The amount of treated water is approximately 13,000 m3/day, and the amount of organic fertilizer is about 17 tons/day. The investment value is anticipated to be around $1,478,000, while the cost of producing a unit of electric energy is expected to be 2.83 ¢/kWh. This system's yearly net profit is predicted to be $307,765. The capital's recovery period is anticipated to be 3.44 years. The planned hybrid system will limit the discharge of an estimated 1,886 tons of CO2 gas each year.
EN
The issue of uncontrolled migration to the European Union through the Mediterranean Sea is a phenomenon that has been with members of the com-munity for many years. In this article, the authors have analyzed the migration crisis between 2015 and 2020 in the context of two countries - Greece and Libya. The former was the most common transit route and destination for illegal immi-grants during the study period. Tens of thousands of people are still living on its territory, awaiting asylum or the possibility to travel to another EU country. In contrast, Libya (like Turkey) is regarded by migrants as the “door to a better world,” and it is through Libya that the main Central Mediterranean route passes. The sea route across the Mediterranean is chosen by citizens of both Middle East-ern and African countries.
PL
Problem niekontrolowanej migracji do Unii Europejskiej przez Morze Śródziemne to zjawisko, które towarzyszy członkom wspólnoty od wielu lat. W niniejszym artykule autorki podjęły się analizy kryzysu migracyjnego w latach 2015-2020, w kontekście dwóch państw – Grecji i Libii. Pierwsze z nich było najczęściej wybieraną drogą tranzytową, jak również docelową dla nielegalnych imigrantów w badanym okresie. Do dzisiaj na jej terytorium przebywa w oczekiwaniu na azyl lub możliwość wyjazdu do innego państwa UE kilkadziesiąt tysięcy ludzi. Natomiast Libia (podobnie jak Turcja) traktowana jest przez migrantów jak „drzwi do lepszego świata” i to przez jej terytorium przebiega główny etap trasy środkowo-śródziemnomorskiej. Drogę morską przez Morze Śródziemne wybierają zarówno obywatele państw Bliskiego Wschodu, jak i Afryki.
EN
The objective of the study is to carry out a meaningful comparison that demonstrates the similarities and differences of various conflict theatres where proxy forces were employed. The analyses of the discussed cases focused on different aspects of the conflict and nature of the proxy use. The analyses presented on the following pages were conducted on the basis of the literature on the subject, governmental research and reports, and supporting sources reporting recent developments that complemented academic sources. Various non-state actors such as ethnic militias, paramilitary units, and private military companies have become more and more visible on contemporary battlegrounds. Modern states employ those actors to further their objectives, as this limits their own political and financial costs. This increasingly visible phenomenon points to an emerging new model of warfare where state actors are relying ever more on proxies of various character and nature. It is highly likely that any future conflict will be characterised by a proxy-based model of warfare, which will consist of a limited footprint made by regular forces (or none at all) and, consequently, the extended use of proxies supported by special forces. Because such an approach is less costly, proxies will be more often employed by low-budget states, previously reluctant to carry out such costly military endeavours. Denying the actions and affiliations of these proxies will inevitably follow and, in turn, a lack of political accountability and responsibility for the conflict’s outcome.
EN
The Master Plans of the city of Sabha (Libya) have been consistently developed and improved during the 1970s and early 2000s. At each of the stages, synchronized with the state program of spatial development of Libya, different tasks were solved for expanding the functions of the city, modernization of its planning structures, improving the quality of living, preserving cultural heritage.
PL
Jednym z kluczowych elementów kolejnych strategii biznesowych Grupy Kapitałowej Polskiego Górnictwa Naftowego i Gazownictwa SA (PGNiG SA) jest rozszerzenie działalności poszukiwawczo-wydobywczej firmy poza granice Polski. Uzyskanie dostępu do złóż zagranicznych pozwala na rozbudowę potencjału własnych zasobów oraz wyjście spółek GK na rynki zagraniczne. Artykuł szczegółowo omawia zakres prac prowadzonych przez specjalistów PGNiG SA na koncesjach za granicą oraz przybliża zagadnienia związane z geologią poszczególnych regionów. Przykładem wspomnianej aktywności jest działalność PGNiG Upstream International na Norweskim Szelfie Kontynentalnym. Spółka eksploatuje tam złoża ropne i ropno-gazowe (Skarv, Morvin, Vale i Vilje, a niebawem również Gina Krog i Snadd), prowadzi także prace poszukiwawcze w sąsiedztwie eksploatowanych złóż oraz w rejonach słabiej rozpoznanych geologicznie. Innym przejawem aktywności firmy jest jej działalność w Danii (Południowa Jutlandia) i Niemczech (Południowa Bran-denburgia), gdzie poszukiwania skupiają się na, dobrze znanym polskim geologom, poziomie zbiornikowym dolomitu głównego (Ca2). W poziomie tym PGNiG SA odkryło, udokumentowało i udostępniło do produkcji dwa największe złoża ropno-gazowe w Polsce (BMB i LMG). W Pakistanie z kolei PGNiG SA z powodzeniem prowadzi poszukiwania na, zlokalizowanej w prowincji Sindh, koncesji Kirthar, gdzie od niedawna trwa eksploatacja złoża Rehman, a w nieodległej perspektywie czasowej do produkcji zostanie włączone nowoodkryte złoże Rizq. Całość uzupełnia działalność w Libii i Egipcie. Prace poszukiwawcze prowadzone w Libii przez POGC Libia BV koncentrują się w basenie naftowym Murzuq na obszarze koncesyjnym 113 i trwają nadal, mimo ogłaszanego stanu siły wyższej, w praktyce zawieszającego prace polowe. W Egipcie PGNiG SA prowadziło poszukiwania na koncesji Bahariya, zlokalizowanej w północnej części egipskiej Pustyni Zachodniej, jednak niesatysfakcjonujące wyniki prac skłoniły do opuszczenia tego kraju.
EN
Among the key elements of the PGNiG Group business strategies is the expansion of exploration and production activities outside Poland. Gaining access to foreign deposits allows for the expansion of the potential of own resources and entering foreign markets. The article provides both a detailed description of the scope of works carried out by PGNiG SA specialists at licenses located abroad, and information of issues related to the geology of individual regions. Operations carried out by PGNiG Upstream International on the Norwegian continental shelf are an example of the activities. The company operates oil as well as oil and gas deposits (Skarv, Morvin, Vale, Vilje, and soon, also Gina Krog and Snadd), and carries out exploration works in the vicinity of the operated deposits, as well as in the areas that are less recognized from the geological point of view. Another forms of the company activities are operations in Denmark (South Jutland) and Germany (South Brandenburg) where the research focuses on the Main Dolomite (Ca2) reservoir level that is well-known to the Polish geologists. Two of the largest oil and gas deposits in Poland (BMB and LMG) have been discovered, documented and developed for the production by PGNiG SA at this level. In Pakistan, in turn, PGNiG SA successfully conducts exploration at the Kirthar license, located in the Sindh Province, where exploitation of the Rehman deposit has recently been launched; the exploitation of the newly discovered Rizq deposit will also be launched in the near future. Operations are complemented by activities in Libya and Egypt. The exploration works conducted in Libya by POGC Libya BV are focused in the Murzuq petroleum basin at concession area no. 113, and are continued despite the announced force majeure state that, in practice, means holding up the field works. PGNiG SA has conducted exploration works at the Bahariya license located in the northern part of the Egyptian Western Desert, however, unsatisfactory results led the company to leave this country.
EN
Libya, like many other regions with arid climates, suffers from inadequate water resources to cover all the needs of this rapidly developing country. Increasing amounts of water are needed to supply the population, as well as for agricultural irrigation and industrial use. As groundwater is the main water source in the country, it represents a natural resource of the highest economic and social importance. Conceptual and numerical models were implemented on a regional scale to show how the natural situation has changed following heavy groundwater abstraction during the last decades in the northwestern part of the country. The results of the numerical model indicated that the current zones of depression of the piezometric surface could have been caused by smaller withdrawn amounts than previously estimated. The differences in the assessed withdrawn groundwater volumes seem to be quite high and might have a considerable influence on the future possibilities of groundwater use in the study region.
PL
Wybuch wojny domowej w Libii był częścią "Arabskiej Wiosny"- cyklu wystąpień społeczeństw arabskich przeciwko niedemokratycznym władzom ich krajów. Z punktu widzenia Zachodu był to kolejny konflikt epoki pozimnowojennej - w którym nie ma dwóch walczących konwencjonalnych armii, lecz starcie ma charakter "asymetryczny". Krwawa rozprawa reżimu Kaddafiego z powstańcami skłaniała społeczność międzynarodową do wzięcia w obronę ludności cywilnej. Zarazem jednak doświadczenia wojen w Afganistanie i Iraku budziły niechęć do rozmieszczenia w Libii wojsk państw zachodnich. Wyraźnie pokazywały to sondaże opinii publicznej: potępiano Kaddafiego, popierano ochronę libijskich cywilów, ale odmawiano narażania państw zachodnich na straty wojskowe. Również powstańcy libijscy domagali się bardziej dozbrojenia, niż uzupełniania ich sił przez jednostki armii zagranicznych. Dlatego interwencja państw zachodnich w Libii przybrała formę akceptowaną przez społeczeństwa - lotniczych ataków na siły lojalne wobec Kaddafiego.
EN
The outbreak of the civil war in Libya was part of the 'Arab Spring': a series of instances of Arab societies against non-democratic authorities of their countries. From the perspective of the West, it is another conflict after the Cold War era, one in which there are no two conventional armies fighting against each other, but its start is 'asymmetric'. The Gaddafi regime's bloody crackdown on insurgents made the international community stand in the defence of the civilian population. At the same time, with the experience of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, there was reluctance to deploy western troops in Libya. It was clearly shown in the public opinion polls: Gaddafi was being condemned and Libyan civilians were being supported, but it was refused to expose the West to military losses. Libyan rebels also demanded more armament rather than reinforcing their forces with foreign army units. Therefore, the intervention of Western countries in Libya took the form acceptable to the public: air attacks on the forces loyal to Gaddafi.
10
Content available remote Geodezja i archeologia
11
Content available remote Wielkie ulice w Benghazi - drugiej, obok Trypolisu, stolicy Libii
PL
Wiele książek pojawiło się ostatnio na temat ulic. Jedna z najbardziej znanych to Great Streets, w której autor - Allan B. Jacobs - dzieli się z czytelnikami swoim przekonaniem, iż dobre miasta zbudowane są z dobrych ulic, współcześni projektanci tracą zaś w ogromnym tempie umiejętność ich budowania. Dlatego też, porównując dziesiątki ulic z różnych części świata próbuje określić zasady dobrego projektowania i zestawić wszystkie cechy sprawiające, iż niektóre tylko ulice zasługują na miano ulic wielkich i wartych zapamiętania. Książka Great Streets jest wielce inspirująca. Sprawia, iż po jej przeczytaniu ludzie "pragną ruszyć w kierunku lotniska i lecieć do Bath, Barcelony lub Bolonii, aby doświadczać uroków najwspanialszych ulic świata na własnej skórze". Inni chcą dodać swój kwiat do bukietu najlepszych projektów urbanistycznych, poprzez prezentację wspaniałych ulic z ich miasta, z ich kraju i ich kręgu kulturowego. Taki właśnie cel ma niniejszy artykuł, w którym dwie z ulic libijskiego miasta Bengazi: ulica Omar Al-Mukhtar oraz ulica-targowisko czyli suk Al-Jreed pokazane są na tle najważniejszych informacji historycznych, a także tych, które dotyczą klimatu oraz położenia geograficznego kraju i miasta.
EN
A lot of books have been written lately about streets. One of the most influential is Great Streets in which its author - Allan. B. Jacobs - presents his belief that good cities are made of good streets and that contemporary designers are rapidly losing their skills of creating them. Thus, comparing hundreds of streets around the world he tries to determine successful design and other elements that make some of the streets special and memorable. The book Great Streets is variously inspiring. It makes some people "want to rush to the airport and head for Bath, Barcelona, or Bologna to experience the best streets firsthand". Others want simply to add some more flowers to the bouquet of world great urban designs through describing superior streets from their city, their country and their cultural circle. Such is the task of this article in which two streets from Benghazi, Libya - Omar Al-Mukhtar Street and Suq Al-Jreed will be shown on the background of basic historical dates and events as well as some geographic and cultural characteristics.
EN
The position of the K/P boundary in wells in the Western Sirt Basin of Libya is problematic. The biostratigraphic definition of the K/P boundary in the subsurface is based on the extinction of the eponymous taxon of the standard latest Maastrichtian foraminiferal Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone. We have unambiguously recognised this taxon from the Sirt Basin subsurface sections for the first time. All the latest Maastrichtian foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by planktonic foraminiferids. Some of specimens are pyritised, indicating organic flux to the basin floor, causing oxygen deficiency in the depositional environment. The occurrence of characteristic bathypelagic and some epipelagic species indicates that the environment of deposition is outer shelf–middle continental slope.
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