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EN
The research was conducted in the growth chambers and in a greenhouse of Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute in Pulawy. Faba bean var. Nadwislanski was cultivated in Mitscherlich pots. An experimental factor was air temperature during flowering: optimal and higher. After flowering pots with plants were transferred from growth chambers to the greenhouse where they stayed up to full maturity. Too high temperature at flowering caused decrease of leaf area, leaf greenness index, plant height and changed the course of some phenological phases of faba bean. High temperature decreased yield which resulted from a lower number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and a lower mass of a thousand seeds.
PL
Celem podjętych badań było określenie wpływu wysokiej temperatury w okresie kwitnienia i zawiązywania strąków na wzrost, rozwój i plonowanie zróżnicowanych genotypów bobiku. Badania prowadzono w fitotronach oraz w hali wegetacyjnej Instytutu Uprawy Nawożenia i Gleboznawstwa Państwowego Instytutu Badawczego w Puławach, w wazonach Mitscherlicha zawierających mieszaninę 5 kg ziemi ogrodowej i 2 kg piasku. Wysiewano bobik odmiany Nadwiślański. Czynnikiem doświadczenia była temperatura powietrza w okresie kwitnienia: optymalna (noc: 14˚C, dzień: 24˚C) oraz podwyższona (noc: 18˚C, dzień: 30˚C). Następnie wazony z roślinami przeniesiono do hali wegetacyjnej i utrzymywano je do dojrzałości pełnej. Przez cały okres wegetacji utrzymywano wilgotność gleby na poziomie 60 % ppw. Zbyt wysoka temperatura w okresie kwitnienia powodowała redukcję powierzchni liściowej i zmniejszenie wysokości roślin oraz zmianę przebiegu niektórych faz fenologicznych bobiku. Rośliny, które przetrzymywane były w warunkach podwyższonej temperatury, znacznie wcześniej kończyły kwitnienie i rozpoczynały zawiązywanie strąków oraz dojrzewały o kilka dni wcześniej niż rośliny rosnące w optymalnej dla bobiku temperaturze powietrza. Wysoka temperatura zmniejszała plon co było konsekwencją mniejszej liczby strąków na roślinie i liczby nasion w strąku oraz istotnego zmniejszenia masy 1000 nasion.
EN
Leaf phenology has been considered to evolve to maximize plant carbon gains, and it reflects plant life history strategies. To determine the effect of leaf traits on leaf phenology, leaf emergence (such as timing of leaf emergence, leaf expansion rate, durations of leaf expansion), leaf traits (leaf mass per area - LMA and leaf size), and their relationships were investigated for 40 woody species from 13 families in an evergreen broad-leaved forest, southeast China. Compared with understorey shrubs (23 species), trees species (17 species) were significantly later in timing of leaf emergence, greater in leaf area and leaf expansion rate. This is assumed to be a strategy for large-leaved tree species to decrease damage during leaf expansion. In terms of leaf size, the small-leaved species leafed out earlier than the species with large leaves, but the largeleaved species were greater in leaf expansion rate than their counterparts. Leaf expansion rate was positively correlated with leaf area and timing of leaf emergence. Leaf herbivore rate was positively correlated with leaf area and leaf expansion period, but negatively with LMA. These results suggest that large- and small-leaved species possibly employed different strategies to minimize herbivore damage. Small-leaved species avoid defoliator damage by early leafing, while largeleaved species have shorter expansion times and thereby shorten vulnerable time to herbivores. In general, dynamics of emergence and expansion of the woody species in the study forest indicate that the leaf phenology is of significance for species. carbon gain and survival.
EN
The aim of the studies carried over 2007–2008 was to evaluate the physiological reaction of strawberry var. ‘Elsanta’ to the addition of AgroHydrogel to the medium. In the vegetation hall of the West Pomeranian University of Technology, a vegetation pot experiment in the system of complete randomization in four replications was carried out. The experimental factor was the addition of AgroHydrogel to the medium. Two doses were used (15 and 30 g per Kick’s vessel) against the control, ie the medium without gel. During the vegetation season of plants, the content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids) in leaves was determined three times. Parameters of water balance – the index of relative water content and the water saturation deficit in tissues of leaves and the area of the leaves were also defined.
PL
Celem badań przeprowadzonych w latach 2007–2008 była ocena reakcji fizjologicznej truskawki odmiany ‘Elsanta’ na dodatek AgroHydrogelu do podłoża. W hali wegetacyjnej Zachodniopomorskiego Uniwersytetu Technologicznego w Szczecinie przeprowadzono wazonowe doświadczenie wegetacyjne, w układzie kompletnej randomizacji, w czterech powtórzeniach. Czynnikiem doświadczalnym był dodatek AgroHydrogelu do podłoża – zastosowano dwa poziomy (15 i 30 g na pojemnik Kicka) na tle kontroli – podłoże bez dodatku żelu. Trzykrotnie w czasie sezonu wegetacyjnego roślin określono zawartość barwników asymilacyjnych (chlorofilu a, b, całkowitego oraz karotenoidów) w liściach. Określono także parametry bilansu wodnego – wskaźniki względnej zawartości wody i deficytu wysycenia wodą tkanek liści.
EN
We studied the response in growth and phenology of naturally regenerated beech seedlings to changed ecological conditions over 14 and 19-years after cutting with different intensity. Five different types of stand densities were modelled: plot C - control plot - no cut, L - low intensity cut, M - medium intensity cut, H - high intensity cut and CC - clear cut, with 1, 8, 22, 53 and 100% of relative irradiation, and 66, 68, 78, 92 and 100% of through fall, respectively. We were focussing on tree height growth and leaf area. Our phenological observations were aimed at onset and course of two spring vegetative phenophases: bud-burst and leaf unfolding. Already in two-year-old beech seedlings we found significant differences in height growth; the differences in mean leaf area, however, were observed later. From the viewpoint of phenotypic plasticity, the height growth in beech seedlings represented more sensitive response to the environment than the leaf area. According to leaf area size and height growth in the beech seedlings on control plot, the stress conditions were indicated, primarily from the lacking light. With stand opening, the development of recruitment was getting better, and beginning with plot M the increase of seedlings height and leaf area became continuously related to the amount of radiation. The results of phenological observations showed that the spring phenophases in the seedlings start first on control plot. The start of spring phenophases on the clearcut was always observed the latest, even in comparison with the parent stand. Correlation analysis confirmed a significant correlation (P <0.05, r = -0.61) between the mean air temperature in March and April and start of the phenophase leafing in the individual years. Analysis of long-term research showed that the trend of leafing's onset observed in course of 18 years was significant (P <0.05), manifested a shift towards earlier dates.
EN
Caspian forests (in the region it is called . Hyrcanian Forests) with an area of about 1.9 million ha are located in north of Iran, in southern coast of Caspian Sea. It is exclusive site for some valuable species like Populus caspica Bornm., Gleditsia caspica Desf., Parrotia persica Meyer. and Pterocaria fraxinifolia (Lam.) Spach., and the forests are dominated by Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Quercus castanifolia C. A. M., and Alnus glutinosa Gaertn. The mistletoe (Viscum album L.) effects on the area and weight of leaves of the two host tree species (hornbeam Carpinus betulus L. and ironwood Parrotia persica Meyer.) were studied on a number of severely infected individuals and control trees in selected parts of Hyrcanian Forests. Almost 100 leaves from infested and non-infested branches of two host species were sampled in order to compare with control trees (non-infested trees growing near each host). Results showed, that area and weight of leaves taken from infested branches of ironwood were significantly lower (at 95% confidence level) than leaf area and weight in non-infested branches and control trees. The amount of K, Mn and Zn was higher in infested branches of both species compared to control trees. However, the amount of nitrogen in infected branches of ironwood was lower. The results suggest that V. album may have detrimental effect on leaf structure, physiology and chemical composition of strongly infested host trees.
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