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EN
Since the 1970s, ships in the Kattegat area and the Baltic Sea entrances have been advised to use one of the routes established by the Danish Maritime Safety Administration. As time passed, traffic increased significantly, demanding adjustments to the introduced solutions to accommodate new volumes of ships passing through the entrances to the Baltic Sea. It is estimated that about 70,000 vessels are passaged via Kattegat yearly. Additionally, an increase in the traffic of fishing vessels and small pleasure crafts of different types has been observed, necessitating regulation to ensure the safety of navigation for everyone involved. Therefore, on the 1st of July 2020, a new routing system was introduced in the area of Kattegat by the decision of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). This paper focuses on the exact changes made and how those changes may influence the safety of navigation in Kattegat and the Sound, considering the COLREG rules and human factors in planning and executing passage via this area. A short presentation of recent accidents, and a study of difficulties arising from the new traffic organization, will be given. Brief traffic analysis is conducted using IWRAP MK II software, and historical AIS data from research will advance a more detailed examination and simulations. Finally, the introduced routing system’s effectiveness is compared using density plots from chosen periods. Furthermore, the analysis of the influence on the safety of navigation, as the introduced solution, is observed to be unusual. New routings have been in force for over two years and are accepted and used by most merchant vessels operating in Kattegat. Even so, this period is too short to clearly state that it is completely safe.
EN
Most ship collisions and grounding accidents are due to errors made by watchkeeping personnel (WP) on the bridge. International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopts the resolution on the Bridge Navigation Watch Alarm System (BNWAS) detecting operator disability to avert these accidents. The defined system in the resolution is very basic and vulnerable to abuse. There is a need for a more advanced system of monitoring the behaviour of WP to mitigate watchkeeping errors. In this research, a Bridge Navigation Watch Monitoring System (BNWMS) is suggested to achieve this task. Architecture is proposed to train a model for BNWMS. The literature reveals that vision-based sensors can produce relevant input data required for model training. 2D body poses belonging to the same person are estimated from multiple camera views by using a deep learning-based pose estimation algorithm. Estimated 2D poses are projected into 3D space with a maximum 8 mm error by utilising multiple view computer vision techniques. Finally, the obtained 3D poses are plotted on a bird’s-eye view bridge plan to calculate a heatmap of body motions capturing temporal, as well as spatial, information. The results show that motion heatmaps present significant information about the behaviour of WP within a defined time interval. This automated motion heatmap generation is a novel approach that provides input data for the suggested BNWMS.
3
Content available Processes of a freely drifting vessel
EN
The article describes the rules for planning a ship's navigation in the event of loss of propulsion. A disabled ship drifting freely at sea is a potential danger to the crew and the marine environment. Lack of propulsion means that the ship cannot give way to other ships/keep out of the way of another vessel. One of the main elements of danger for a drifting ship is the possibility of grounding in restricted areas. The aim of the article is to draw the attention of navigators to the dangers to navigation resulting from ships drifting without their own propulsion, disabled ships.
EN
Conducting navigation by using electronic charts is not an option anymore. With few exceptions, vessels shall carry on board electronic navigational charts and Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems. The official electronic charts are issued by or on behalf of the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institutions. These nautical charts are compiled from multiple data sources, some modern and very comprehensive, while others older. The accuracy of data, named “Category Zones of Confidence – CATZOC”, differs among various navigation areas. The navigation officers of the watch rely on the chart data to calculate the safety parameters and to plan the route in advance for the intended voyage. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the impact which the data accuracy has on the safety of navigation. For this purpose, a model vessel was considered in a Strait of Dover bridge simulation scenario, assuming good weather conditions without swell or current. The Safety Contour was defined using a mathematical formula which incorporated the under keel clearance, the squat effect and the tide levels. Then, the Safety Contour was examined considering the chart data accuracy. The results of this analysis contribute to increasing awareness and better understanding of CATZOC influences on the identification of safe waters during navigation.
EN
Crowdsourced bathymetry (CSB) is relatively new concept of collecting bathymetric data. CSB can be defined as the collection and sharing of depth data (and metadata) measured and collected by non-traditional survey vessels equipped with navigation instruments, while maintaining their usual operations at sea. International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has developed Guidance on CSB. This document provides framework for data collection, processing and information about data uncertainty. IHO has also developed model within CSB concept in order to make standardization of CSB data. The data collected using CSB may represent valuable supplement to the existing data collected by hydrographic survey. Despite this fact it is necessary to emphasize that CSB data cannot be used as official data. CSB data collection has also potential legal issues due to the character of sounding passage within territorial and internal waters of coastal states. This paper emphasized the differences between hydrographic survey and CSB. Advantages and disadvantages are analyzed with it's potential implication on safety of navigation. Due to the CSB data collection model limitations, development of bathymetric data collection model on national level is recommended.
EN
Safety, along with the issue of security, is the most substantial and critical issue to any society and nation of the mankind. The fact that human elements contribute dominantly, in particular, to the transportation – marine, air and road traffic – accidents requires not only the technical approaches, but also cultural configuration inherent to the accidents. This paper tries to incorporate Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture to identify possible interaction with accidents. It will be of help to figure out the need to consider the aspect of national culture to be efficient in dealing with policies for safer communities and nations.
EN
This article has looked into the role of the magnetic compass in providing navigational safety for ships. The existing requirements of the magnetic compass for safe navigation in case the gyro compass breaks-down and in case of terrorists abusing GPS signals do not solve the problems that occur in everyday life. Therefore, a new rational requirement has been proposed for the accuracy and frequency of deviation adjustment work assuring the safety and cost effectiveness of navigation. Vessel owners and masters have responsibilities to ensure that magnetic compasses are maintained in good working order, are adjusted and accompanied by a table or curve of residual deviations. This article has outlined the most urgent problems for the adjustment of magnetic compasses that apply to all ships irrespective of size and navigation area. The proposed method has been verified experimentally.
EN
Approaches to the port are usually considered high traffic areas. Not only deep draft vessels pass through this limited manoeuvring space, but also intensive pleasure craft traffic, especially during the summer season. Crossing of both commercial ships and pleasure craft traffic may generate dangerous situations for navigation. The aim of the following article is to present solutions to the aforementioned safety problem. The article focuses on the navigation safety aspects at the Świnoujście seaport entrance. Currently, Świnoujście-Szczecin Port Regulations take only large ships into consideration while specifying the safety passing at this area, at the same time, belittling the presence of small crafts up to 20 m in length. In order to prove the need for change, one should first present the necessary research concerning the evaluation of the safety level of maximum sized ships navigating at the Świnoujście entrance area in the presence or absence of small pleasure crafts. The surveys were conducted on a group of pilots and captains possessing pilot exemption certificates. The research findings clearly show that the traffic of small crafts and large ships should be separated due to safety concerns. Thus, marine traffic engineering solution is suggested in order to eliminate the most plausible dangers.
EN
This paper presents the method used for the creation of ship traffic models in Southern Baltic Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS). The analysis of ship traffic was performed by means of statistical methods with the use of historical AIS data. The paper presents probabilistic models of ship traffic’s spatial distribution and its parameters. The results showed that there is a correlation between the standard deviation of traffic flow and TSS lane width that can be used in practical applications to ensure the safety of navigation; improve navigation efficiency, safety and risk analysis in given area, and for the creation of a general model of ship traffic flow.
EN
At present, providing a clear presentation of the navigational situation around a navigator’s own ship (OS) is one of the most important issues facing device manufacturers. Integration of navigational devices on the bridge has made it possible to transfer information and present it in the form chosen by the navigator screen. However, this may cause a decrease in the clarity of information and hamper its interpretation. The ability to select the best information, and that which is most needed at a given moment, depends on navigator proficiency. Vectors are still the basic form of the graphic presentation of radar-tracked object data. However, the ability to track more objects at the same time in crowded areas results in a decrease in readability and can cause errors. This article introduces the possibility of presenting information about collision danger in the form of Dangerous Courses Sectors (DCS) together with an analysis of changes in these during typical ship encounter situations. DCS are calculated on the base of Dangerous Passing Areas (DPA) as bearings on the marginal points of these areas.
EN
The presented method for defining the conditions of safe operation of marine ferries in ferry terminals allows verification of shipowner ferry designs. In the first stage of this method, simulations are used to determine the allowable wind speed. The second stage comprises simulations of ferry berthing aimed at defining safe manoeuvring areas, the energy of berthing impact and propeller stream speeds at allowable wind speeds. The method was used in the design of a 228 m long hybrid ferry.
EN
This paper describes presently applied sailing rules and environmental conditions on Danish waters such as Kattegat and the Sund. Those rules were established in late 70’s of the twentieth century by Danish authorities as Denmark is a coastal country and has the legal right to do so. Presently International Maritime Organization – IMO is in the process of approving a new set of routeing measures and traffic separation schemes which should comply with resolution A.257(14) – General provisions on ships’ routeing, and will be introduced by Organization.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono obecnie obowiązujące zasady żeglugi na wodach duńskich wraz z opisem warunków środowiskowych panujących w rejonie cieśnin Kattegat i Sund. Trasy żeglugowe w tym rejonie zostały ustanowione przez rząd duński jako państwo nadbrzeżne w latach 70. XX w. W chwili obecnej w IMO (International Maritime Organization) trwa proces uznania rozwiązań żeglugowych w Cieśninach Duńskich, jako zalecanych przez tę organizację oraz zgodnych z rezolucją A.572(14) („Zalecenia odnośnie tras żeglugowych”).
EN
Based upon the true voyages various methods of avoidance maneuver determination in ship - cyclone encounter situations were presented. The goal was to find the economically optimal solution (minimum fuel consumption, maintaining the voyage schedule) while at the same time not to exceed an acceptable weather risk level.
PL
Każdego roku w Polsce, na śródlądowych drogach wodnych rejestrowane są przez Urzędy Żeglugi Śródlądowej, Państwową Straż Pożarną i Policję wypadki i incydenty, prowadzące zarówno do uszkodzenia infrastruktury jak i uszczerbku na zdrowiu. Poprawa poziomu bezpieczeństwa wymaga dogłębnej analizy i wyciągania wniosków z zaistniałych sytuacji awaryjnych. Istotną rzeczą jest identyfikacja i usystematyzowanie zagrożeń występujących w żegludze śródlądowej, co pozwoli na dobór skutecznych metod ich przeciwdziałania i podwyższenie poziomu bezpieczeństwa na akwenach ograniczonych. Celem pracy jest analiza toku postępowania przy przeprowadzaniu identyfikacji zagrożeń wpływających na bezpieczeństwo eksploatacji statku oraz analizy źródła i skutków wypadków i incydentów, jakie miały miejsce na śródlądowej drodze wodnej w delcie Wisły w ostatnich latach. Tok postępowania w rozwiązaniu postawionego problemu badawczego obejmuje trzy etapy: analizę stanu aktualnego, identyfikację zagrożeń i weryfikację modelu. Znajomość przyczyn i skutków zaistniałych wypadków w żegludze śródlądowej, może być użyta do tworzenia norm i procedur bezpieczeństwa, a także usprawniania ich funkcjonowania. Jest to bardzo pożądane, celem eliminacji podobnych niepożądanych zdarzeń w przyszłości. Jedną z metod pozwalającą na wykrycie i właściwą weryfikację źródeł, przebiegu i skutków zdarzeń zaistniałych w żegludze śródlądowej, jest analiza źródła przyczyn oraz skutków. Pozwala ona na wyodrębnienie czynników inicjujących oraz dalszą sekwencję zdarzeń, co w efekcie przyczynia się do poprawy poziomu bezpieczeństwa żeglugi.
EN
Every year in Poland, on the inland waterways, accidents and incidents are registered by the Offshore Shipping Offices, the State Fire Service and the Police. Improving the level of security requires indepth analysis and drawing conclusions from emerging emergency situations. It is important to identify and systematize the threats occurring in inland waterway, which will allow for the selection of effective methods of counteracting them and increasing the level of safety on restricted waters. The aim of the work is to analyze the course of proceedings when conducting the analysis of identification of threats affecting the safety of ship operation and analysis of the source and consequences of accidents and incidents that took place on the inland waterway in the Vistula delta in recent years. The course of action in solving the research problem posed involves three stages: an analysis of the current state, hazard identification and model verification. Knowledge of the causes and consequences of accidents in inland navigation may be used to create safety standards and procedures, as well as to improve their functioning. It is very desirable to eliminate similar adverse events in the future. One of the methods al-lowing for the detection and proper verification of sources, course and consequences of events occurring in inland navigation is the analysis of sources of causes and consequences. It allows the identification of initiating agents and a further sequence of events, which in turn contributes to the improvement of the level of navigational safety.
PL
W artykule omówiony został problem bezpieczeństwa żeglugi gazowców LNG zawijających do portu w Świnoujściu. Skupiono się na obliczeniach składowej dynamicznej zależnej od prędkości statku. Obliczenia prowadzono z wykorzystaniem danych zapisanych w trakcie pierwszej podróży statku Al Nuaman do Terminalu LNG w Świnoujściu.
EN
The article discussed was the problem the safety of gas carriers LNG calling at the port of Świnoujście. The focus is on the problem of dynamic components based on the speed of the vessel (influence of squat effect). The calculation was carried out using data recorded during the first trip of the vessel Al Nuaman to LNG terminal in Świnoujście.
PL
W artykule omówiony został wielokryterialny wektor czynnika ludzkiego w aspekcie bezpiecznej eksploatacji statku i przetrwania na morzu. Dokonano próby oceny, które elementy czynnika ludzkiego mają największy wpływ na zachowanie marynarzy w sytuacji kryzysowej.
EN
The article discusses the multi-criteria vector of the human factor in the aspect of safe ship operation and survival at sea. An attempt was made to assess which elements of the human factor have the greatest impact on the behavior of seafarers in a crisis situation.
EN
Guarantee of the ship safety is the primary task posed for modern navigation systems. This concerns monitoring the proper ship position as well as providing accurate information about the collision threat. The proper interpretation of this information belongs to the navigator. He must take into account many variables affecting the assessment of the situation and then make the right decision regarding anti-collision manoeuvres. This assessment could be made easier for him with use some form of graphic target data presentation methods other than currently required and described in IMO performance standards. Other possible graphic presentation methods of collision information are described in the article along with the concept of their usage.
PL
Podstawowym zadaniem stawianym przed nowoczesnymi systemami nawigacyjnymi jest zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa statku. Dotyczy to zarówno konieczności właściwej kontroli pozycji statku jak i dostarczenia rzetelnej informacji o zagrożeniu kolizyjnym. Właściwa interpretacja tej informacji należy do nawigatora. Musi on uwzględnić wiele zmiennych czynników mających wpływ na ocenę sytuacji, a następnie podjąć właściwą decyzję odnośnie podejmowanych manewrów antykolizyjnych. Możliwość zastosowania innej formy graficznej prezentacji informacji niż wymagana obecnie przez przepisy może ułatwić mu taka ocenę. W artykule przedstawione zostały inne sposoby graficznej prezentacji informacji kolizyjnej wraz z koncepcją ich wykorzystania.
EN
The paper presents the use of the Fast-Time navigational simulator to verify the location of designed elements of navigational infrastructure in vicinity of a high traffic fairway. The aim of the study is to perform the analysis of navigational safety in vicinity of newly constructed quay placed to the east of the island Ostrow Brdowski. The Quay is intended handling of large steel structures. The Fast-Time simulation is performed to evaluate the safety of the navigation passage through the fairway along the quay for the future use of vessels which length may exceed 260 m. This kind of simulation method has been implemented to make a statistical analysis based on a large amount of data, the collection of which would be very expensive and time consuming using a Real-Time simulator.
PL
W artykule przedstawione zostanie wykorzystanie symulatora nawigacyjnego typu Fast-Time w celu weryfikacji lokalizacji projektowanego nabrzeża w pobliżu uczęszczanego toru wodnego. Celem opracowania jest wykonanie analizy nawigacyjnej dla nowobudowanego nabrzeża na wschodniej części wyspy Ostrów Brdowski przeznaczonego do załadunku wielkogabarytowych konstrukcji stalowych. Zaprezentowano ocenę bezpieczeństwa nawigacyjnego przejścia przez tor wodny prowadzący wzdłuż nabrzeża, dla przyszłościowych jednostek o długości 260 m, wykonana metodą symulacyjną Fast-Time. W badaniu wykorzystano model czasu przyspieszonego ze względu na dużą ilość danych (przejazdów) potrzebnych do wykonania analizy statystycznej, użycie symulatora czasu rzeczywistego do uzyskania wystarczającej ilości danych byłoby zbyt drogie i zbyt kosztowne w czasie.
EN
As maritime tourism has been developing dynamically in recent years, including cruises into polar areas, the author attempts to identify factors essential for the safety of navigation in those sea areas, with a specific focus on the waters of the Antarctica. The presented methods of navigation take account of hazards that are typical in polar waters. All the considerations are based on the guidelines of the Polar Code.
EN
When a transport vehicle is put into service on a new route, all safety aspects of its movement should be comprehensively examined. In maritime transport, such situations arise especially when new sea ports are built, intended to handle selected types of vessels with specific characteristics. The construction of the LNG terminal in Świnoujście made it necessary to carry out an extensive analysis of the safety of LNG tanker passage. This was related to the shipping route from the Danish Straits to the berth. This article compares the routes planned at the design stage with the actual track of the tanker Al Nuaman during its first voyage. The tanker speeds on key route sections have been examined, i.e. in the approach channel from Cape Arkona to Świnoujście.
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