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EN
This paper presents a numerical study of heat transfer through a downstream annulus using water as the working fluid within the laminar flow region. The annulus consisted of an outer twisted square duct and an inner circular pipe. A three-dimensional formulation was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations numerically for the laminar flow system with a low Reynolds number. Three parameters were used in the numerical simulation: the length of the twisted square [...] the inner diameter of the inner circular pipe [...] and 25 mm and the twist angle [...]. Numerical calculations were conducted on sixteen twisted square duct heat exchangers, with water flowing within a Reynolds number range of .220 1100− The results were illustrated as a profile of the thermal enhancement factor, the friction factor and the Nusselt number. The results show that the twisted outer duct of the heat exchanger can create a swirl flow along the length of the heat exchanger. It also caused a boundary layer separation-reattachment on the wall of the inner pipe. Moreover, an increase in the twist angle increased the Nusselt number by %,20 and the friction factor was also increased as the annular gap of the heat exchanger decreased.
EN
This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of the in-situ surface modifications performed on “H” type microfluidic systems obtained via additive manufacturing. The microsystem was printed using a polylactic acid filament on an Ender-5 Pro printer. The surface modification of the main channel was done using chloroform by two different methods: vapor smoothing and flushing. The obtained surface roughness was studied using an optical microscope and the ImageJ software, as well as scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the channel surface treatment upon the characteristics of the fluid flow was assessed. The microfluidic systems were used for the dynamic study of biofilm growth of Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). The influence of the surface roughness of the main channel on the formation and growth of the biofilm was studied using quantitative methods, scanning electron microscopy imaging as well as optical coherence tomography.
EN
The energetic efficiency of mixing is studied numerically in a continuous flow mixer constructed from a sequence of alternately twisted pipe bends. Counter-rotating vortices present in the curved channels and known as Dean vortices narrow the distribution of the residence time of fluid elements and accelerate the generation of a new material surface without obstructing the main flow and increasing the risk of fouling or flow stoppage. Cyclic twisting of the pipe curvature allows for quick reorientation of Dean vortices. The reorientation induces chaotic advection in a stable three-dimensional flow and speeds up mixing. The effect of computational domain discretisation for the low and medium Reynolds numbers (20 < Re < 2000º on the head loss, primary and secondary flow, residence time distribution, and the energetic efficiency of generation of the inter material surface is determined. The energetic efficiency is calculated in the time space, a standard approach in modelling reactive micromixing, and at the reactor exit. The maximum energetic efficiency is determined for Re = 600 : 700. It is also found that the initial orientation of the material surface to the pipe curvature has a significant impact on the energetic efficiency of mixing.
EN
This study presents the behavior of a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/water nanofluid for convective laminar flow inside a straight circular pipe heated by a constant heat flux. Five volume fractions of SWCNT were used to investigate their effect on the heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, temperature distribution and velocity field in comparison with pure water flow. One model for each property was tested to calculate the effective thermal conductivity, effective dynamic viscosity, and effective specific heat of the SWCNT/water mixture. The models were extracted from experimental data of a previous work. The outcomes indicate that the rheological behavior of SWCNT introduces a special effect on the SWCNT/water properties, which vary with SWCNT volume fraction. The results show an improvement in the heat transfer coefficient with increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles. The velocity of SWCNT/water nanofluid increased by adding SWCNT nanoparticles, and the maximum increase was registered at 0.05% SWCNT volume fraction. The mixture temperature is increased with the axial distance of the pipe but a reduction in temperature distribution is observed with the increasing SWCNT volume fraction, which reflects the effect of thermophysical properties of the mixture.
EN
The paper is a thermodynamics analysis of the removal of any inert gas from the tank using the vapors of any liquefied petroleum gas cargo (called cargo tank gassing-up operation). For this purpose, a thermodynamic model was created which considers two boundary cases of this process. The first is a ‘piston pushing’ of inert gas using liquefied petroleum gas vapour. The second case is complete mixing of both gases and removal the mixture from the tank to the atmosphere until desired concentration or amount of liquefied petroleum gas cargo in the tank is reached. Calculations make it possible to determine the amount of a gas used to complete the operation and its loss incurred as a result of total mixing of both gases.
EN
The present work is a numerical modeling of the flow of a viscous fluid provided with convective heat transfer in a rectangular channel. We focus on the influence of the shape of corrugations which are present on the channel walls. Three shapes of corrugations are studied and which are: the rectangular, triangular and semi-circular shape. Also, effects of the height and number of corrugations on the fluid dynamics and thermal characteristics of the exchanger are highlighted. The working fluid is non-Newtonian (having a shear thinning behavior modeled by the Otswald law). The obtained results reveal that the presence of corrugations yields a major change in the heat exchange execution. In terms of superiority of heat transfer ratio, the cases under investigation can be classified as follows: rectangular > triangular > semi-circular. However and in terms of low pressure drop, this ranking is reversed. Furthermore, the triangular and semicircular shapes were found to have almost similar effects.
EN
In this paper, the characteristics of the flow and forced heat transfer of power law non-Newtonian fluids that flow around a quadrilateral and rectangular cylinder that are located in a 2D channel are investigated by use of the finite volume method (FVM) in a steady state flow regime. To this accomplishment, in the constant temperature, the effects of a different obstruction ratio, aspect ratio and Reynolds number are investigated. The Reynolds number in the range 5 ≤ Re ≤ 40, the power index in the range 0.5 ≤ n ≤ 1.4, the aspect ratio in the range 0.5 ≤ a ≤ 2, and the obstruction ratio in the range 0.125 ≤ b ≤ 0.5 were selected. By surveying the drag coefficient profiles, it’s concluded that as the obstruction ratio increases, the drag coefficient is increased, while an increase in the Reynolds number causes the lower drag coefficient. In addition, the drag coefficient is strongly increased by aspect ratio enhancements.
EN
Helical coil heat exchangers are widely used in a variety of industry applications such as refrigerationsystems, process plants and heat recovery. In this study, the effect of Reynolds number and theoperating temperature on heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop for laminar flow conditions wasinvestigated. Experiments were carried out in a shell and tube heat exchanger with a copper coiledpipe (4 mm ID, length of 1.7 m and coil pitch of 7.5 mm) in the temperature range from 243 to 273 K.Air – propan-2-ol vapor mixture and coolant (methylsilicone oil) flowed inside and around the coil,respectively. The fluid flow in the shell-side was kept constant, while in the coil it was varied from 6.6to 26.6 m/s (the Reynolds number below the critical value of 7600). Results showed that the helicalpipe provided higher heat transfer performance than a straight pipe with the same dimensions. Theconvective coefficients were determined using the Wilson method. The values for the coiled pipe werein the range of 3–40 W/m2·K. They increased with increasing the gas flow rate and decreasing thecoolant temperature.
9
Content available remote Ice slurry flow in ball valves
EN
This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the flow resistance of slurry ice flowing through ball valves. Loss coefficients in ball valves were determined from experimental investigations. The study focused on 1/2”, 3/4” and 1” ball valves at two valve positions (20˚ and 30˚). The ice mass fraction in the studied ice slurry ranged between 5% and 30%.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych oporów przepływu zawiesiny lodowej w zaworach kulowych. Na podstawie wyników badań doświadczalnych wyznaczono wartości współczynników strat miejscowych w badanych zaworach. W badaniach wykorzystano przelotowe zawory kulowe o średnicach 1/2”, 3/4” oraz 1” przy dwóch pozycjach zamknięcia (20˚ i 30˚). Udziały masowe drobinek lodu w zawiesinie w badaniach wynosiły od 5 do 30%.
PL
W modelu kapilarnym losowo upakowane wypełnienie złoża modelowane jest jako zbiór równoległych, prostych rurek o wymiarach w zakresie milimetrów. Dla takiej geometrii złoża wyprowadzono bilanse pędu faz płynnych (gaz, ciecz) uzyskując w wyniku ich rozwiązania profile prędkości, a na ich podstawie zależność określającą grubość filmu grawitacyjnie spływającej cieczy jako funkcję zmiennych procesu i w konsekwencji efektywną porowatość i specyficzną powierzchnię właściwą złoża. Wielkości te są nieodzowne w bilansach masy reagentów. Zbiór cząstkowych równań różniczkowych stanowiący bilanse reagentów w fazach określa stężenia tych składników i w rezultacie efektywność biodegradacji zanieczyszczenia gazu. W równaniach tych transport masy reagentów między fazami realizowany jest jedynie na drodze dyfuzji, co jest uzasadnione założonym laminarnym przepływem faz.
EN
In the capillary model randomly packed bed of the reactor is modeled as a set of parallel, straight capillary tubes, with dimensions in the range of millimeters. For such a geometry of the bed momentum balances of the fluid phases (gas and liquid) have been derived forming the basis for the estimation of velocity profiles and in consequence to determine the relationship between the film thickness of the gravitationally drained downward liquid and the process variables. This quantity was subsequently used in the evaluation of the effective porosity and specific surface area of the packing, parameters necessary in the balances of reagents. The set of partial differential equations constituting the mass balances of reagents in the phases determines the concentration profiles of these components and as a final result the biodegradation efficiency of the pollutant. The mass transport between the phases is realized only as a diffusional flux which is justified by the assumption of a laminar flow of the phases.
EN
The main aim of this research was to determine in three ways, i.e. experimentally, analytically and by means of numerical modelling, the resistances of the flow of a natural liquid in a helical pipe and in curved pipes. The analyses were carried out for three pipes: one helical pipe and two curved pipes. Each of the pipes was 2 m long and its inside diameter was 4 mm. The experiment was carried out on a test stand making it possible to measure the rate of the flow of the liquid, the temperature at the pipe’s inlet and outlet and the pressure at the pipe’s inlet and outlet. The resistances of the flow of the liquid were calculated from analytical or empirical formulas found in the literature on the subject. Moreover, numerical modelling was performed using the finite volume element method.
PL
Transport hydrauliczny rurociągami należy do najbardziej niezawodnych i ekonomicznie uzasadnionych rodzajów transportu. Z uwagi na jego walory ekologiczne i estetyczne, jest także preferowanym rozwiązaniem w inżynierii środowiska. Przesyłanie rurociągami mieszanin zawierających znaczne ilości zawiesin wymaga określenia ich właściwości reologicznych, na podstawie których można przyjąć odpowiedni model reologiczny. Wyznaczony na podstawie badań model reologiczny pozwala z kolei na poprawne obliczenie strat hydraulicznych podczas przepływu danej mieszaniny w instalacji przemysłowej. Jednym z istotnych problemów występujących podczas przepływu mieszanin w rurociągach jest ustalenie momentu przejścia ruchu laminarnego w turbulentny, bowiem transport odbywający się w zakresie tego ruchu charakteryzuje się znacząco większym zapotrzebowaniem na energię. W pracy przedstawiono rezultaty badań przepływu mieszaniny węglowo-wodnej (pył węgla kamiennego z wodą) o stężeniu objętościowym 43÷53% i gęstości 1 176÷1 217 kg/m3 w rurociągach o średnicy 21÷47 mm. Badana mieszanina miała cechy reologiczne, które opisuje dwuparametrowy model Binghama. Rezultaty badań eksperymentalnych były następnie podstawą do analizy zachowania się mieszaniny w czasie przejścia z ruchu laminarnego do turbulentnego w rurociągach o średnicach 21 mm i 29 mm podczas przepływu mieszaniny węglowo-wodnej o stężeniu objętościowym wynoszącym 43%. W tym celu przeprowadzono analizę porównawcza kilku metod określenia prędkości krytycznej przejścia ruchu laminarnego w turbulentny, przy czym do określenia wartości prędkości krytycznej zaproponowano wykorzystanie różnych definicji liczby Reynolsdsa. Na tej podstawie obliczono wartości prędkości krytycznej ze wzorów różnych autorów oraz przy założeniu, że strefa przejściowa pomiędzy przepływem laminarnym i turbulentnym zawarta jest w przedziale wartości liczby Reynoldsa od 2000 do 4000.
EN
Pipeline hydrotransport belongs to the most reliable and economically justified modes of transport. Due to its ecological and aesthetic values, it is also the preferred solution in environmental engineering. Transport of mixtures with significant amounts of suspensions requires determination of their rheological properties to adopt an appropriate rheological model. The rheological model determined on the basis of research allows then for the correct calculation of hydraulic losses during the flow of a given mixture through industrial installation. One of the major challenges regarding the flow of mixtures through pipelines is determination of transition point at which laminar traffic changes into turbulent, because transport under turbulent flow is characterized by significantly higher energy demand. The flow study results for the coal-water mixture (bituminous coal dust) with volume concentration of 43–53% and 1 176–1 217 kg/m3 density in the pipelines of 21–47 mm diameter were presented. The rheological features of the mixture under testing were described by the Bingham two-parameter model. Results of the experiments were the basis for analyzing the behavior of the coal-water mixture with 43% volume concentration in 21 and 29 mm pipelines during transition from laminar to turbulent flow. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of several methods for determining critical velocity of the laminar-turbulent transition was carried out. In order to determine the critical velocity value, application of various definitions of Reynolds number was proposed. On this basis, the critical velocity value was calculated from the formulas by different authors and with the assumption that transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow was in the range of Reynolds number from Re = 2000 to Re = 4000.
EN
The paper presents the results of experimental study of reactive laminar mixing in a tubular reactor made up of a succession of pipe bends, alternately rotated by 90° with respect to the preceding bend. A system of competitive parallel reactions: acid-base neutralization and ester hydrolysis were used in the experiments. It was found that selectivity of test reactions depends strongly on the Reynolds number in a range of 80 < Re < 1200. The Dean roll-cells, formed in consecutive pipe bends, periodically change their orientation resulting in chaotic advection and faster mixing. A material processed in this mixer is not exposed to high shear rate or fouling, and pressure drop is low. Such features of an on-line mixer are desirable in the polymer, cosmetic and food industry.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych mieszania laminarnego z reakcją chemiczną w reaktorze rurowym w formie giętych kolan, przekręconych naprzemiennie względem siebie o kąt 90°. W eksperymentach użyto reakcji konkurencyjnych i równoległych: neutralizacji kwasu zasadą i hydrolizy alkalicznej estru. Wykazano, że selektywność reakcji testowych silnie zależy od liczby Reynoldsa w przedziale 80 < Re <1200. Komórki Deana, powstałe w kolejnych wygiętych odcinkach rur, periodycznie zmieniają swoją orientację, co prowadzi do powstania chaotycznej adwekcji i przyspiesza mieszanie. Materiał nie podlega dużym szybkościom ścinania, nie osadza się na ściankach, a spadek ciśnienia jest niewielki. Takie cechy mieszalnika przepływowego są pożądane w przetwórstwie polimerów, przemyśle kosmetycznym i spożywczym.
EN
In this paper, a porous medium is modelled by a network of converging-diverging capillaries which may be considered as fissures or tubes. This model makes it necessary to consider flows through capillary fissures or tubes. Therefore an analytical method for deriving the relationships between pressure drops, volumetric flow rates and velocities for the following fluids: Newtonian, polar, power-law, pseudoplastic (DeHaven and Sisko types) and Shulmanian, was developed. Next, considerations on the models of pore network for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were presented. The models, similar to the schemes of central finite differences may provide a good basis for transforming the governing equations of a flow through the porous medium into a set of linear or quasi-linear algebraic equations. It was shown that the some coefficients in these algebraic equations depend on the kind of the capillary convergence.
EN
In this paper, an analytical method for deriving the relationships between the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in laminar flow regimes of Newtonian and power-law fluids through symmetrically corrugated capillary fissures and tubes is presented. This method, which is general with regard to fluid and capillary shape, can also be used as a foundation for different fluids, fissures and tubes. It can also be a good base for numerical integration when analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical complexities. Five converging-diverging or diverging-converging geometrics, viz. wedge and cone, parabolic, hyperbolic, hyperbolic cosine and cosine curve, are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method. For the wedge and cone geometry the present results for the power-law fluid were compared with the results obtained by another method; this comparison indicates a good compatibility between both the results.
EN
In this paper, an analytical method for deriving the relationships between the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in laminar flow regimes of DeHaven type fluids through symmetrically corrugated capillary fissures and tubes is presented. This method, which is general with regard to fluid and capillary shape, can also be used as a foundation for different fluids, fissures and tubes. It can also be a good base for numerical integration when analytical expressions are hard to obtain due to mathematical complexities. Five converging-diverging or diverging-converging geometrics, viz. variable cross-section, parabolic, hyperbolic, hyperbolic cosine and cosine curve, are used as examples to illustrate the application of this method. Each example is concluded with a presentation of the formulae for the velocity flow on the outer surface of a thin porous layer. Upon introduction of hindrance factors, these formulae may be presented in the most general forms.
EN
The paper considers stationary magnetohydrodynamic flow of viscous fluid in the slot between fixed curvilinear surfaces of revolution exposed to azimuthal magnetic field. To solve the problem, the equations of boundary layer in the curvilinear coordinate system. x,θ,y , were applied. The equations of the boundary layer were solved analytically with the use of the small-parameter method. The formulas determine the field of velocity and pressure.
PL
Artykuł zawiera krótką charakterystykę zawiesiny lodowej, na którą składają się właściwości fizyczne, sposób określania właściwości reologicznych oraz zastosowanie. Ponadto scharakteryzowano fragment stanowiska badawczego, który zawierał elementy niezbędne do przeprowadzenia badań przepływu zawiesiny lodowej przez zawór kulowy. Pomiary wykonano dla trzech różnych zaworów przy dwóch ustawieniach trzpienia i przy sześciu różnych temperaturach. Na podstawie wyników dokonano krótkiej analizy możliwości zastosowania różnych zaworów dla małych wielkości przepływu zawiesiny lodowej. Określono też wpływ temperatury oraz wartości przepływu na różnicą ciśnień.
EN
The article contains a short description of an ice slurry, which consists of physical qualities, the method used to assess rheological qualities and application. Moreover, a part of a research post, holding the essential elements used to research the ice slurry flowing through ball valve, has been characterized. The measurements hove been taken from three different valves with two rotation settings and six various temperatures. On the basis of the results, a short analysis of the possible uses of different valves for small flows of ice slurry has been carried out The influence of temperature and the flow value on the pressure difference has been determined as well.
EN
The combined effect of conjugation, external magnetic field and oscillation on the enhancement of heat transfer in the laminar flow of liquid metals between parallel plate channels is analyzed. In order to make our results useful to the design engineers, we have considered here only the wall materials that are widely employed in liquid metal heat exchangers. Indeed, all the results obtained through this mathematical investigation are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. The effective thermal diffusivity κe is increased by 3 · 106 times due to oscillation and that the heat flux as high as 1.5 · 1010 (W/m2) can be achieved. Based on our investigation, we have recommended the best choice of liquid metal heat carrier, wall material and its optimum thickness along with the optimum value of the frequency to maximize the heat transfer rate. At the optimum frequency, by choosing a wall of high thermal conductivity and optimum thickness, an increase of 19.98% in κe can be achieved. Our results are directly relevant to the design of a heat transfer device known as electromagnetic dream pipe which is a very recent development.
EN
In this paper the steady laminar flow of viscous incompressible ferromagnetic fluid is considered in a slot between fixed surfaces of revolution having a common axis of symmetry. The boundary layer ferromagnetic equations for axial symmetry are expressed in terms of the intrinsic curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system x, θ ,y.The method of perturbation is used to solve the boundary layer equations. As a result, the formulae defining such parameters of the flow as the velocity components vx, vy, and the pressure , were obtained.
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